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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 41, Issue 6 - Dec 1996
Volume 41, Issue 5 - Oct 1996
Volume 41, Issue 4 - Aug 1996
Volume 41, Issue 3 - Jun 1996
Volume 41, Issue 2 - Apr 1996
Volume 41, Issue spc1 - Mar 1996
Volume 41, Issue 1 - Feb 1996
Selecting the target year
Effects of Soil Crusting and Hardening during Drying after Artificial Rainfall on Seedling Emergence of Rice and Barnyardgrass
Yong-Woong Kwon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 131~138
Soil crusting and hardening as a result of drying after rainfall were examined in relation to seedling emergence by employing five rice varieties (Italiconaverneco, Dadazo, and Galsaekggarakshare, Dongjinbyeo and Sumjinbyeo) and two barnyardgrass species (E. crus-gallj var. oryzjcola and E. crus-galli var. praticola). Sandy loam, loam, and silty loam soils were used. The artificial rainfall of 0, 20 and 40mm were applied after sowing and covering with 4cm soil. Air temperature and solar radiation averaged over 9 days after seeding was 31.3
and 16.9MJ /m
, respectively. Soil strength increased rapidly by drying after artificial rainfall, being greater in soils with greater amount of clay and artificial rainfall. Soil crust was formed on the surface with artificial rainfall in all soils tested. However, soil crust was exfoliated in silty loam and loam soil, and lifted as seedlings emerge. Seedling emergence of rice varieties was decreased by rainfall treatments. Sumjinbyeo and Dongjinbyeo showed much poorer seedling emergence especially in sandy loam soil than the other varieties. Poor seedling emergence of these varieties might have been caused by delayed seedling emergence which had made them expose to greater soil strength. Seedling emergence of barnyardgrasses showed no differences among soil textures and rainfall treatments, because they emerged rapidly before soil crusting and hardening were proceeded enough to hamper seedling emergence. Seedling emergence of Sumjinbyeo and Dongjinbyeo decreased with increasing soil strength averaged over 3 days to 5 days after seeding, being lowered to 80% at soil strength of 1.0kg/cm
and to 50% at 1.7kg/cm
. Emergence speed of barnyardgrasses was faster than rice varieties, and E. crus-galli var. oryzjcola than E. crus-galli var. praticola. Italiconaverneco and Dadazo showed faster emergence in rice varieties. Galsaekggarakshare showed slower emergence speed than these two varieties with similar seedling emergence percentage. The greater and faster elongations of mesocotyl and incomplete leaf in rice, and of mesocotyl in barnyardgrass were the characteristics responsible for higher seedling emergence rate in the environment examined.
Changes of Free Amino Acid and Free Sugar Contents in Barley Seedlings in Response to Anaerobic or Cold Treatment
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 139~144
Effects of anaerobic, mechenical wounding and cold treatments on free amino acid and free sugar contents were examined in 7 day-old barley seedlings. In barley shoots under anaerobic condition, drastic changes in free amino acid content were observed. Alanine,
-aminobutyric aicd(GABA) and glutamic acid contents changed most prominantly. Alanine and GABA contents increased rapidly with incubation time up to 10 hr. Glutamic acid content, however, decreased drastically during the first 5 hr of incubation, then increased thereafter. Barley shoots showed similar but smaller changes in amino aicd contents in response to mechanical wounding. GABA content increased in shoots and roots in response to the cold treatment. But increase in GABA content was greater in anaerobic than cold treatment. In anaerobically treated shoots, changes in free sugar content were less prominant than those in amino acid content. Sucrose content changed relatively larger than glucose and fructose contents in excised shoots.
Effects of PEG Treatment on Seed Viability and Seedling Emergence in Rice, Barley and Wheat
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 145~156
The effects of priming with different polyethylene glycol (PEG 6, 000) solutions on the germination, emergence characteristics and early plant growth in rice, barley and wheat were investigated. Rice, barley and wheat seeds were subjected to various priming conditions of osmotic potentials (-0. 75, -1.00 and -1.50 MPa) of PEG, and incubation period were 5 days at 25, 20, 2
, respectively. The percentage of water absorption was highest in barely, and lowest in rice, and all the treatments enhanced water absorption in barley, but showed no significant effects in rice and wheat. Respiration quotient was lower than none PEG treatment seeds, and those of barley and wheat were higher than rice regardless of PEG concentration, and that of rice increased with high PEG concentration. Total germination percentage of osmoconditioning seeds with PEG was higher than that of none treatment seed, and those of barley and wheat were significant. The artificially deteriorated seeds with PEG treatment seeds after ageing treatment could recover to nearly the same germination level as that of the control seeds. The effects of coating polymer were higher than osmoconditioning with PEG, and germination characteristics in rice showed varietal difference at PVP and waterlock at recoated seeds after PEG treatment. Osmoconditioning with PEG reduced mean germination and emergence time, but there was no difference among PEG concentrations. The plant height of PEG treaed seed in rice was taller and those of barely and wheat showed varietal difference, and those of polymer-coated seed after PEG treatment were different among the polymers. The dry weight of PEG treatment were different among the crops, and those were increased with the high PEG concentration. The emergence percentage of PEG-treated seed were higher than none-treated seed, and those were decreased with the increased PEG concentration, and the highest emergence percentage of rice, barley and wheat were 90, 50 and 50% soil moisture content, respectively. The time to emergence in rice was longer than barley and wheat, and those in rice was shortened in high soil moisture content, and barley and wheat were shortened in low soil moisture content.
Effects of Seeding Dates on Lodging in Water Seeding of Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 157~167
The method of direct seeding on flooded paddy surface in rice is known to be the most labor saving cultural practice in rice. However, this method has a problem in practical use such as severe lodging occurring at the reproductive growth stage. The objectives of this study were observated degree of field lodging and variation of lodging-related characteristics with different seeding dates. The number of seedlings per m
were from 91 to 144 plants, and seedling ratios were from ranged from 61.7% to 91.8%. Days from seeding to flowering were shortened from 5 to 15 days by the later seeding dates. Heading dates of Ilpumbyeo, Seoanbyeo, Daecheongbyeo and Donjinbyeo on June 9 showed slightly elapsed on the critical stable heading time from, August 28 to 29. The culm length was effective in longer clum varieties than semidwarf varieties. The degree field lodging (degree of lodging: 0~9< 9 : complete lodging) in Obongbyeo and S101 with semidwarf varieties were 0.17, whereas 1.25 in Dongjinbyeo with long culm. The lodging resistant varieties and later seeding dates shortened the length of fibrous in the clum, and thickened fibrous in the clum, respectively. Obongbyeo and Sl0l showed stronger resistance to field lodging. The lodging resistant varieties, Obongbyeo and Sl0l, showed lower values of lodging index from 1.03 to 1.15 than those of lodging susceptible varieties, Daecheongbyeo and Palgongbyeo ranged from 1.42 to 1.70. Bending moment with leaf sheath were greater in lodging resistant varieties (Obongbyeo and Sl0l),1510.0~1930.4g.cm, than those in the lodging susceptible varieties (Daecheongbyeo and Palgongbyeo), 1127.2~1287.6g.cm.
Effects of Soil Moisture Content on Leaf Water Potential and Photosynthesis in Soybean Plants
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 168~172
The soil moisture content and its relation to plants may be important in determining the crop growth and yield. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the leaf water potential and photosynthetic activity in soybean plants as affected by the timing of soil water stress. The soybean variety, 'Tachinagaha', was grown in a pot. The 15 day-old seedlings were subject to the three levels of soil moisture content(25, 40 and 55%) for 25 days. Then the treated soybean plants were placed again at the level of 25% soil moisture content for 25 days, and were compared with the control which was well-watered at 40% level for whole growth period. Soybean plants grown under continuous drought showed higher apparent photosynthetic rate(AP) than those under well-watering /drought in the first /second water treatment, suggesting that AP was adjusted after previous acclimation to drought. Over a wide range of photosynthetic photon flux densities(PPFD), drought or excessive water stress resulted in the decrease in AP when compared with the control. AP and stomatal conductance were decreased in soybean plants subject to water deficit stress, suggesting that AP and stomatal conductance were more sensitive to drought than excessive water stress.
Ecological Characteristics of Color - Soybean Collections
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 173~177
This study was carried out to improve utility value as soybean genetic resources and to obtain basic information for color-soybean breeding. The 146 local color soybean lines collected in Kyongbuk province were investigated major agronomic characteristics. Seed coat-color showed seven different types which were black, white mottled on black, white mottled on brown, black saddle on green, green, raddish brown and brown. Major color types were black and green colors. The 90 percent of collected lines were purple in flower color. The 86 lines were green in color of cotyledonary part and 64 lines yellow. Great variations were observed in days to flowering and days from flowering to maturity, 51 to 81 days and 75 to 103 days, respectively. But days to maturity was 150 to 159 days and had smaller variation than days to flowering and days from flowering to maturity in all lines except those with white mottled on black (123 days). The 100 seed weight ranged below 10g to over 36g. Black seed color with green embryo seed was heavier seed weight than black seed color with yellow embryo seed. Seed shape of all collected lines was ellipsodial and average ratio of length: width: thickness of seed was 1:0.87:0.69. Positive correlation coeffieients were obtained among seed length, width, thickness and 100 seed weight.
Effects of Locations and Planting dates on Disease Occurrence and Germination Rate of Seeds in Vegetable Soybean
Eun-Hui Hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 178~187
This study was conducted to obtain the basic informations for producing high quality seeds of vegetable soybeans. Four vegetable soybean cultivars, 'Okharawase', 'Mikawashima', 'Hwaeomputkong', and 'Seokryangputkong' were planted at four locations, Chulwon(altitude, 192m) and Pyeongchang(altitude, 370m) in highland, and Suwon(altitude, 37m)and Daegu(altitude, 55m) in lowland of Korea with two planting dates, May 15 and June 15. Seed infection rates were attributed by in order of phomopsis seed decay caused by Phomopsis spp., seed mottling caused by soybean mosaic virus (SMV), purple seed stain caused by Cercospora kikuchii. Seed infectron rate was the lowest at Pyeongchang and lower on June 15 than on May 15 planting. Phomopsis seed decay by Phomopsis spp. was lower in highland of Korea, Pyeongchang and Chulwon, than in lowland of Korea, Suwon and Daegu. Seed infection rate was also lower on June 15 planting than on May 15, and in seeds harvested at maturity than at ten days after maturity. Germination rate of seeds harvested in highland, Pyeongchang and Chulwon, after six to seven month storage at 5
was more than 90% and higher than that of the seeds in lowland, Suwon and Daegu. Germination rate was also higher on June 15 than on May 15 planting.
Agronomic Characteristics and Aromatic Compositions of Korean Wild Codonopsis lanceolata Collections Cultivated in Field
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 188~199
The native ecological environment and aromatic constituents of Korean wild Codonopsis lanceolata and one Japanese strain were investigated to find Codonopsis lanceolata strains showing high aromatics, and to know regional differences among these strains. The results were as follows : There were no remarkable differences among the Korean wild C. lanceolata strains in ecological environments. Recovery yield of essential oils was highest in Togyusan strain with 0.009%. Difference in protein band patterns among these strains was not recognized, and peroxidase and esterase pattern changes were appeared in different collected regions at the leaf and root tissues. Major aromatic constituents were 11 kinds of aliphatic alcohols such as trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, cis-3-hexanol, and trans-2-hexanol. And Togyusan strain, Sobaeksan strain, and Kayasan strain have the highest aliphatic alcohols of plant essential oils. In particular, BHT(butylated hydroxytoluene), one of the antioxidants, was detected in Chirisan strains.
Effect of Leaf Maturity on Physico -chemical Properties of Leaf Tobacco
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 200~206
Experiment was conducted to get the information about physico-chemical properties of flue-cured tobacco on the degree of maturity cultivated in paddy-upland rotated field, and compared to upland ones. For the samples of this experiment, 3~4 leaves at each stalk position were harvested from the bottom of plants. Physico-chemical properties of cured leaves were determined from the samples collected at weekly intervals, and of obtained from 4 stalk positions. For the degree of maturity, harvested leaves were separated with visual characters into four classes such as immature, mature, ripe, and mellow. Regardless of stalk position, the order of shrinkage rate with length and width of leaves was mellow> immature> ripe> mature, and ripe leaves from paddy field showed higher shrinkage rate than those of upland. Nicotine and total nitrogen contents were decreased with the degree of maturity while reducing sugar content were showed a reverse tendency. Ripe leaves from paddy field had lower reducing sugar contents, comparing with upland tobacco. Filling capacity of cured leaves from paddy field was decreased with degree of maturity, but there was no difference between upland and paddy tobacco. Shatter index was increased in the oeder of immature > mellow > mature > ripe. Chemical components of cigarette smoke from paddy field tobacco were little higher in
total particulate matter and tar contents, while combustibility was little lower than that of upland tobacco. It was also evaluated that paddy field tobacco was unfavorable for the non-volatile organic and higher fatty acids contents comparing with upland tobacco.
Growth and Morphological Characteristics of Introduced Sorghum Germplasm
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 207~214
This study was conducted to obtain fundamental information on forage sorghum breeding in forage crop field of Livestock Experiment Station at Suwon from 1986 to 1991. The charcterization of sorghum germplasm was performed through 1986 to 1987, and after parental lines were selected from diverse sorghum germplasm on the basis of flowering date, plant height and several morphological characters for forage sorghum Fl hybrids. The range of variation of 50% flowering date and plant height were greater in order of forage sorghum sudangrass and male sterile line of grain sorghum. The average flowering date was earlier in sudangrass and male sterile line of grain sorghum than forage sorghum lines from the tested sorghum germplasms. And the average plant height was tall in order of forage sorghum, sudangrass and male sterile lines of grain sorghum. There were remarkable morphological variations between sudangrass lines and male sterile lines of grain sorghum such as plant color, leaf midrib color, glume color, seed coat color, head compactness and shape, awns, grain covering and 100 seed weight.
Effects of Planting Date and Density by Drill Seeder on Growth and Yield of Black Soybeans
Chang-Sik Moon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 215~222
This study was conducted to compare the growth and yield, and to determine the optimum planting date and density in two improved black soybean varieties. The two varieties were planted by driller attached a tractor on May 21 and June 19, 1993, and treated five planting densities, respectively. Yield of Gumjeongkong 1 was similer for both planting dates, but that of Suwon 157 was remarkably reduced on June 19 planting compared to May 21. There was significant differences between planting dates in stem length, number of branches, seeds per plant, seed weight and yield. Planting density, also, significantly affected on stem length, number of branches and seeds per plant. Statistically significant interactions between planting date
variety and planting date
planting density were found at almost all characteristics, except between variety
planting density. Optimum planting date and density of Gumjeongkong 1 for high yield were June 19 and 33, 000 plants per l0a, and those of Suwon 157 were May 21 and 22, 000 plants per l0a, respectively. The coefficient of variation at different planting densities was high at stem length, number of branches, seeds per plant and yield, but low at number of main stem node, seeds per pod and 100 seed weight.
Effect of Seeding Date and Rates on Rice Growth and Yield in Barley / Rice Relay Cropping System
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 223~229
To investigate the effect of seeding date, seeding rate, and sprouted seeds on seedling establishment, yield and its components of rice in barley /rice reley cropping as a minimum tillage, Gancheokbyeo rice seeds sowed by hand broadcast in various overlapped days befer barley harvest. The highest rice seedling stand was at sowed on the day just before barley harvest and l00kg per hectare of seeding rate with sprouted seeds. Also number of tiller and panicle showed the similar tendency. Delayed rice heading dates were found 2 days at l0-day overlap, 2 days at 5-day overlap, and 4 days at 0-day overlap before barley harvest compared with machine transplanting rice at just after barley harvest using l0-days old seedling. The culm length of broadcast rice shortened 2∼4cm compared with the transplanting rice. The rice plants lodged slightly at seeding rate l00kg per hectare and at sowed on the day of barley harvest. The rice panicle number increased with later date sowing and higher seeding rate. Number of spikelets per panicle and ripened grains decreased at higher seeding rates. Sprouted seeds and higher seeding rates showed higher rice yield at later sowing dates.
Fiber Yield and Sex Ratio of Hemp in Different Planting Density
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 230~235
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of planting densities on sex change and fiber yield in hemp plants, local variety 'Gangweonjong' was planted with various planting densities (40
20cm), and harvesting dates (June 24, July 9 and 24). The stem length was the longest in the space of 60x20cm(8, 333 plants per l0a). The diameters of stem was the thickest in the planting space of 40
20cm(12, 500 plants per l0a) The ratio of peeled fiber yield was the highest in the planting space of 40
5cm(50, 000 plants per l0a). In general, the condition under denser planting space (40
5cm ; 50, 000 plants per l0a) led to an increase in the number of female plants.
Effect of Night-break Period on Growth and Anthesis of Orostachys japonicus
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 236~242
Orostachys japonjcus, called Wasong in herb medicine, has been artificially cultivated as an anti-tumor medicinal. The experiment was done to examine the effect of night-break periods imposed immediately before its bolting time on its morphological, flowering-related characters and fraction dry weights. After a plant was grown in a 15cm plastic pot containing a 2:1 soil:Peat moss mixture for about 3 months, three different night-break periods (0.5, 1 and 2 hours) around midnight were treated from Aug. 24. to compare with the natural daylength. The plants were sampled 6 times by 2-week interval after the treatments. Plant height and inflorescence length of all the treatments inclined with time lapse after the treatment and were shorter in 2 hour night-break due to slow increment than in the other treatments, while stem diameter showed reverse result. All the treatments except 2 hour night -break were nearly same in fraction, shoot and total dry weights per plant; two hour night-break treatment had greater leaf and bract weight from 6 weeks, greater stem, shoot and total weights from 2 weeks and greater root weight from 4 weeks but did less floret weight after the treatment. Although florets on the inflorescence were formed in 2 hour night-break treatment, flowering florets and flowering plants never occurred. In the other treatments showed the similar response, however, more florets appeared from 2 weeks, flowering florets was sharply increased from 6 weeks and flowering plants were reached up to 100% from 6 to 8 weeks after the treatment. Inflorescence length or number of total florets per plant in 2 hour night-break was positive-correlated to all the fraction dry weights except that those of natural daylength was not done, meaning that its artificial cultivation should permit bolting to secure more shoot dry matter.
Problems on Cultural Technique in Large Scale Mechanized Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 243~249
To formalize the mechanization technique so as to build up competitiveness on the international market, a detail survey of a 104ha size rice farm, was made. And calculated to find out how many machine of each calibre are needed. It was found that he needed : 3 farm tractors, 3 combines, 4 grain dryers, 1 speed sprayer, 100 man days of labor for sowing, application of fertilizer and herbicide, respectively. And also needed 150 man days for combine harvesting and 60 man days for disease and pest control. It was found also that well timed harvesting is critically needed to keep rice quality. Because, in case when harvesting machine was beakdown to make harvesting time extended, then the quality drops down very much and also the farm income fall very much. Therefore, it is recommended that the amount of machine needed should be prepared and they should be well maintained so that harvest be completed in time.
Analysis of Production Cost in Large Scale Mechanized Rice Cultivation
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 2, 1996, Pages 250~256
In order to estimate production cost of rice per ha of large farm, a detail survey of 104ha farm was made in 1994. Amount of labor input and labor cost per ha was calculated as 270, 000won and 108hours. Direct production cost of the farm was 1, 092, 000won(l00) and was lower than that of average farms 2, 067, 000won(189) in Korea. But it still was higher than that of Sac1amento farms 717, 000won(66) and that of Buter Area's, 845, 000won(77). It seems feasible to cut down the cost about 10~15% provided the labor and machinery may be used more efficiently. Some cost down may also be possible on marketing and processing sectors. Therefore it may not be pessimistic in competing with U.S. rice farms if we establish 100ha size well managed and arranged farms in Korea.