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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 41, Issue 6 - Dec 1996
Volume 41, Issue 5 - Oct 1996
Volume 41, Issue 4 - Aug 1996
Volume 41, Issue 3 - Jun 1996
Volume 41, Issue 2 - Apr 1996
Volume 41, Issue spc1 - Mar 1996
Volume 41, Issue 1 - Feb 1996
Selecting the target year
Changes in Chemical Components of Stagnant Water, Germination Rate and Seedling Elongation of Rice Varieties under Different Amount of Barley Straw Mulching
Jae Kil Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 505~513
This study was conducted to investigate the variation of chemical components in stagnant water under different mulching amount of barley straw after combine harvesting and the effect of stagnent water on the germinatidn and seedling elongation at early growth stage in rice. pH was lower in barley straw mulching than non-mulching and decreased with increasing of mulched barley straw but was not different among treatments in stagnant water at 15 days after flooding. Dissolved oxygen decreased with the increasing of mulched barley straw and increased with the passing of time, while saline content increased with the increasing of mulched barley straw, showing significant difference among treatments, was peaked at 15 days after flooding and thereafter, decreased. NH4-N was higher 5 days after flooding with thicker barley straw mulching but was not different at 10 days. N
-N increased up to 10 to 15 days after flooding and increased with thicker barley straw mulching. Water soluble phosphorus and cation content (
)were higher in thicker barley straw mulching and peaked at 10 and 15 days after flooding. Germination rate was decreased by thicker straw mulching and was high in order of medium late, medium and early maturing rice variety. Keumobyeo, Gancheokbyeo, Ilpumbyeo, Dongjinbyeo and Gyehwabyeo showed higher germination rate. Seedling elongation at early growth stage was poorer with increasing of barley. straw mulching. Ilpumbyeo had good seedling elongation in one time amount of barley straw mulching and Shinunbongbyeo, Unjangbyeo, Nonganbyeo and Dongjinbyeo had poorer, in two times.mes.
Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization Rate at Different Nursery Soils on Seedling Characters and Endosperm Consumption in Rice Seedling
Soo-Yeon Cho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 514~520
To clarify the proper nitrogen application level for rasing rice infant seedling under different nursery soil, Dongjinbyeo was raised at seedling box with different basal nitrogen level. The results are as follows. The higher the nitrogen level was, the lower emergence rate and the lower establishment rate. The establishment rate was less than 90%, when the nitrogen was more than 2g/box in hill soil and more than 1g/box in paddy soil. The more the nitrogen level was, the higher the seedling height in hill soil, but was higher in the order of N-2, 3, 1 and 0g /box. Leaf number wasn't significantly different between nusery soils and among nitrogen levels when seedling was raised more than 6 days. The endosperm survival rate was decreased as the increased nitrogen level, but wasn't different between the nursery soils. Amount of root was decreased as the increased nitrogen level in paddy soil, but was heavier in the order of N-1, 0, 2 and 3g /box in hill soil. Mat formation was better as the nitrogen level was decreased in all nursery soils. Considering the emergence rate, seedling charactors and mat formation, the proper nitrogen levels seemed to be 2g /box for hill soil and 1g /box for paddy soil.
Composition of Free Amino Acids and Essential Oils in Root of Anthriscus sylvestylis
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 521~525
The study was carried out to find compositions of proximate components, free amino acid, and essential oils from root of Anthriscus sylvestylis. Proximate component contents were 7.69% for protein, 1.74% for fat, 2.44% for fiber, and 3.76% for ash. Extract content was 27.68% in fresh root. The compositions of free amino acids consisted 16 kinds. Phenylalanine content was the highest in composition of free amino acids. The essential oils of the root of Anthriscus sylvestylis was examined.
-pinene, campreol, ,
-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, phellandrene,
-terpinolene, carboxaldehyde, 3-cyc1ohexen-l-carboxaldehyde, 2-nonenal, isobornyl acetate, 4-terpineol,
-bisabolene, cis-piperitol, p-cymen-8-ol, BHT, methyl eugenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl-phenol were identified from the diethylether layers. Recovery yield of essential oils of Anthriscus sylvestylis of root was 0.58%. As a result, it was considered that the plant is worthy of cultivating as spice and medicinal crops.
Effect of Crude Extracts from Allium spp. on Growth of Several Crop Seedling
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 526~534
This study was conducted to find out the effects of crude extracts from welsh onion, onion, chinese chives and garlic on the seedling growth of chrysanthemum, lettuce, rice, radish, chinese cabbage, cucumber and oriental melon. The crude extracts from Allium spp. inhibited the growth of chrysanthemum and lettuceseedlings at low concentration, the effect increased as the concentration grew higher, and especially in lettuce, the radicle growth was inhibited greater than the hypocotyl growth.The root extracts from welsh onion, chinese chives, and stem-leaf extracts from welsh onion, chinese chives and garlic significantly promoted the root growth of rice seedlings at 300∼700ppm and at 500∼1,000ppm, respectively, and the leaf sheath was elongated at low concentration of all extracts. The stem-leaf extracts from garlic and onion promoted the root and hypocotyl growth of chinese cabbage up to 2,000ppm or 3,000ppm. Root extracts from all Allium spp. promoted the elongation of chinese cabbage root up to 300∼700ppm, but they didn't influence its hypocotyl elongation. At low concentration of onion, garlic and chinese chives extracts, the growth of radish seedlings was highly promoted. The promotive effect, however, declined as the concentration increased. Only, extracts of chinese chives promoted the growth of radish seedling up to 5,000ppm. The stem-leaf extracts from onion and garlic promoted hypocotyl growth in pepper, up to 5,000ppm, but had little effect on other treatments. All of the extracts markedly promoted both root(main and lateral root) and hypocotyl growth in cucumber seedlings. A higher degree of promotion was made in the cucumber lateral root by onion and garlic extracts. The seedling growth of oriental melon was slightly increased by low concentration, but high concentration inhibited the root and hypocotyl growth.
Physical Characteristics and Germination of Pelleted Tobacco Seeds Depending on Moulding Materials
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 535~541
A seed pelleting technique was developed for easy handling of small tobacco seeds (variety, NC82) and for direct seeding in temperary planting bed or in field. The mixture of pelleting material, binder and seeds were moulded in cylindrical holes sized 2 mm diameter and 2 mm height in a plastic plate. Bentonite and cellulose powder were good materials to make pellets with CMC as binder, and bentonite formed the hardest pelleted seeds among the materials. The number of the pelleted seeds made with the same weight of the materials was different with materials used and the number of seeds contained in a pelleted seed could be controlled by mixture ratio of materials and seeds. The seedless pellets ranged 6.9 to 16.0% at the ratio of pelleting material and seed for 2~3 seeds in a pellet. The moisture absorption rate at 100% RH and
was greater in the order of clay < bentonite < cellulose. Germination rates of pelleted seeds with bentonite and cellulose were similar to that of usual seed, but it was significantly lower with clay pelleted seeds.
Changes in Non-Structural Carbohydrate Contents and Amylolytic Enzymes Activities during Regrowth after Cutting in Medicago sativa L.
Tae Hwan, Kim ; Byung Ho, Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 542~550
An experiment with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants was designed to investigate the changes in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) contents and the activities of amylolytic enzymes during a regrowth period following defoliation. Sampling from hydroponic grown-plants were carried out at intervals during 24 days of regrowth. Shoot regrowth was very slow during the first 10 days and root growth was depressed after defoliation. Defoliation induced a great decrease in both total sugar and starch contents in taproots during the first 10∼14 days. A major recovery of NSC occurred from day 15. Averaged over sampling dates, the activity of exo-amylase was about 400-fold higher than that of endo-amylase. Exo-amylase activity in defoliate plants slightly increased until day 6 (maximum level) and then decreased. Endo-amylase rapidly increased for the first 4 days after defoliation and slightly increased afterwards to a maximum on day 24. These results showed that increase in amylolytic enzyme activity in taproots coincided with the time of starch utilization during regrowth and that indicated it plays an important role in starch degradation.
Varietal Differences on Growth Characteristics of Direct-sown Rice under No-tillage Paddy Field
Zhin-Ryong Choe ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 551~557
In order to establish a labour-saved and environment friendly paddy rice system in southern Korea, no-tillage paddy system was proposed and investigated from 1992 to 1993. Basically this system includes a complete return of crop residules into the soil, and zero-tillage. In an effort to minimize labour requirement in rice farming, several cultivars were directly sown and grown under the system and the characteristics of the growth and yield potential of the cultivars were compared with those grown in an ordinary paddy soil. Joryeongbyeo, Dongjinbyeo, Daeyabyeo and Calose rices showed high level of seedling establishment in the no-tillage padddy system. However, the value was significantly lower than in those of the cultivars direct-sown in an ordinary tillage paddy condition. The rice direct-sown and grown under the no-tillage paddy system showed significantly decreased number of tillers per square meter and plant height, but increased ripened grains. The lodging-related characteristics of rice plant, such as band breaking weight, the length of top 3rd ∼4th internodes, the height of weight center, and lodging index, were observed positive aspects in cultivars such as Hwasungbyeo, Hwayongbyeo, Joryeongbyeo, Calose and Calose 76 and being considered adaptable to direct-sown under the no-tillage paddy system.
Growth and Yield of Job's Tears (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) at Different Planting Density and Time under Dry and Flooded Paddy Field
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 558~562
The growth and yield of Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) under the flooded paddy and upland (dry paddy) field conditions were compared at three sowing dates and two planting densities. Job's tears grown under flooded paddy field was much shorter in plant height, but greater in number of tillers than those grown under upland. Photosynthesis rate of Job's tears grown under flooded paddy field was higher and the weight of dry roots heavier but the damages of pest and leaf blight disease smaller than those grown under upland. For the above mentioned reasons, the grain yield of Job's tears grown under flooded paddy field was higher by up to 85% than that grown under upland. There was no significant difference in grain yield between the planting densities. The earlier sowing brought about the less grain yield in upland field condition, while sowing plot on the 15th of May showed the highest grain yield in the flooded paddy field condition.
Biochemical Changes of Protein during the Senescence of Tobacco Leaf
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 563~568
This experiment was conducted to obtain basic information of biochemical changes in the process of senescence by measuring the total RNA, protein, protease activity and electrophoretic pattern of protein in tobacco plant. The content of soluble protein increased by 15 days after leaf emergence and its level was not changed from 15 to 35 days after leaf emergence. The content of total RNA showed a maximum value at 15 days after leaf emergence and then decreased rapidly until 30 days after leaf emergence. The activity of protease of neutral fraction was higher than that of acidic fraction and rapidly increased up to the end of senescence after 50 days after leaf emergence. According to the analysis of electrophoresis, polypeptide band of 61kd was developed after 35 days after leaf emergence and increased by the end of senescence.
Effects of Water Potential on Germination and Chemical Composition of Soybean, Peanut and Corn Seeds
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 569~577
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of water potential by PEG treatment on germination and quantitative changes of seed storage reserves of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], peanut(Arachjs hypogaea L.) and corn(Zea may L.). Water potential of PEG(M.W. 10, 000) solution as germination media was 0.0, -0.2, and -0.5MPa. The highest moisture uptake rate was found in soybean seedlings among three crops. Moisture content of seedlings of three crops was decreased at -0.5MPa treatment and seedling length was delayed with water potential decrement. As water potential decreased, decreasing rate of protein content of the seedlings compared to seeds was declined in soybean and peanut. Decreasing rate of starch content of the seedlings was decreased in corn at -0.5MPa treatment. Increasing rate of sugar content of the seedlings was markedly decreased at -0.5MPa treatment in all crops. The results of this experiment showed that availability of moisture and synthesis of sugar for seed germination were influenced below -0.5MPa water potential in three crops.
Comparison of Yield Performance and Grain Properties of North Korean Rices between Alpine and Lowland Area in Southern Part of Korea
Tae Hwan Noh ; Jae Kil Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 578~585
This experiment was carried out to obtain the basic informations on yield performance and physicochemical quality properties of North Korean rices at southern high altitude area, Unbong and southeren plain area, Iksan. North Korean cultivars showed significant difference in number of spikelets per panicle, percentage of ripened grain and yield between two locations, but not significant in number of panicle per hill and l000-grain weight. The highest contribution to grain yield was the percentage of ripened grain and l000-grain weight at Iksan and Unbong, respectively, The protein, amylose content, alkali digestion value and Mg/K ratio showed larger variation in varieties than that in the locations cultivated. Mg and K revealed highly significant variations in locations, varieties and variety
L) interaction. The amylogram characteristics such as initial pasting temperature, peak, breakdown, setback and consistency viscosities showed highly significant variation in locations, varieties and V
L interaction. The physical characteristics of cooked rice such as adhesiveness, gumniness and chewiness also showed highly significant variations in locations, varieties and V
Growth and Yield of Wasabi Cultivated in Cold Water Drained from Trout Nursery
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 586~591
We investigated rhizome yield and growth characteristics of wasabi variety, Daioichigo and Daruma cultured by flowing water from Trout nersery in Pyong Chang. Average temp. of air and water during a year was 14.3, 12.3
, respectively in PE film house. Wasabi growth was good and healthy in May and October. Rhizome weight of main stem in Daioichigo was 78.78g per plant and 608kg per l0a, while those of the Daruma was 37.1g per plant and 287kg per l0a. Rate of marketable rhizome was 90% in Daioichigo and 37.5% in Darurna. Rhizome weight of main stem in Daioichigo was increased, up to 21% of the control by the remove of floral axis with two times a year.
Variation of Asparagine and Aspartic Acid Contents in Beansprout Soybeans
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 592~599
The variations of asparagine and aspartic acid contents among the soybean varieties and in the different parts of soybean sprout after the different durations of storage were investigated. Asparagine and aspartic acid are known to have the detoxifying effects on acetaldehyde, which is highly toxic metabolites in the process of alcohol metabolism in the human body. The contents of asparagine and aspartic acid of beansprout showed continuosuly increasing trends along with the days to cultivation with a great varietal difference, especially in the roots. The duration of seed storage did not affect contents of asparagine content; the longer storage decreased aspartic acid content remarkably.
Varietal Variation of Pigmentation and Some Nutritive Characteristics in Colored Rices
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 600~607
Colored rices have been used for specific purposes by rice consumers due to the color and nutritive values empirically recognized. In this study, varietal variations of pigmentation and nutritive values were investigated in brown, red, purple and black rices. Pigments were localized in seed coat to pericarp region in all varieties tested. Pigments were slightly residued on the surface of milled rice. Anthocyanin content per g brown rice was 1.63~17.62
in brown and reddish-brown rices, 3.56~11.10
in red rices, 28.11~401.22
in purple rices, and 3, 665.98
in a black rice. A vatiety DZ 78 showed the highest protein content out of colored rices analyzed for protein. Normal and colored rices were found to have the similiar composition of amino acids, and so was in between brown rice without embryo and milled rice. Colored rices, L
B-4-12-1-1 and DK 1, showed higher content of vitamin
compared with Hwacheongbyeo, a check variety of no specific color, and L
B-2-1-1 and L
B-4-12-1-1 showed much higher content of vitamin B2 in brown rice without embryo. Cation contents such as
were significantly increased in most of the colored rices tested implying that the increase might be associated with color pigmentation.ation.
Variation of Cross Affinity and Reciprocal Effect in Interspecific Hybridization between Glycine max and Glycine tomentella
Kwon-Yawl Chang ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 608~618
Wild perennial types of genus Glycine, as sources of genetic diversity, have been recently employed in the soybean breeding programs. This study was carried out to introduce some useful characters of wild perennial Glycine tomentella into common cultivars, G. max. Parent materials used for interspecific hybridization were three common cultivars, Ulsankong, Baemkong and Danyeobkong, and four G. tomentella strains having different diploid(2n) of 38, 40, 78, and 80. Their cross-fertility, effect of reciprocal cross, development comparison of crossing pod and optimum timing to efficient crossing were investigated. Plant were grown in 1/2,000 Wagner pots in greenhouse and field. Crossing efficiency and pod survival rate were the highest in 2n=38 of the four G. tomentella strains when the common cultivars were fixed as female parents. In the reciprocal cross of three common cultivars and four G. tomentella strains, when the former was used as maternal sources, they showed better crossing rate and longer pod survival than the latter. In the interspecific hybridization between G. max cv. Baemkong andG. tomentella, 2n=38, the pod formed from the female G. tomentella had relatively greater size and weight than that from the female Baemkong in comparison with parents. However, the reverse result was true in a number of ovules per pod. More efficient interspecific hybridization in the field was made on August 20, when temperature and relative humidity were higher and day length was shorter, than one or two months earlier.
Influence of Water Foxtail on Growth of Rice and Weed in No-Tillage Transplanted Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 41, issue 5, 1996, Pages 619~624
An experiment was carried out to find out the effects of water foxtail on weed control and rice yield as well as on the reduction of nitrogen application in no tillage transplanted paddy field. Paddy field was dominated by water foxtail whose soil covering degree was adjusted from 8 to 6 by treatment of paraquat (70 l /10a of solution diluted by 1, 000 times). Thirty five-day old seedling was mechanically transplanted and reduced nitrogen, 80% of conventional application was applied at the paddy field. The higher failure in seedling stand was observed at higher degree of soil covering by water foxtail. The failure of seedling stand with covering degree of 8(no paraquat) was 37.4%, while that of covering degree of 6(paraquat-treated) was 12.3%. However, the seedling stand failure was completely recovered at covering degree of six at two weeks after transplanting. The mechanical transplanting made water foxtail in the paddy field fall on the ground whose panicle part was recovered from falling sometimes after transplanting and whole plant died with slow scenesence untill the late of June. But the water foxtail affected by paraquat produced the new panicle from uppernode of stem with dead leaves at early of June and it become die slowly untill the early of July. Though several rice field weeds were observed in the order of Echinochloa crusgallis, Cyperus serotinus, Lemma paucicostata during the active tillering stage of rice, the value of weed control due to the dominance of water foxtail was 77~78%. The death and subsequent decay of water foxtail during the active tillering stage of rice induced the soil reduction which again defect the growth of rice root. The more vigerous rice growth was observed in the plot dominated with water foxtails, than control plot. The yields of rice in the water foxtail (degree 6) plot was 629kg per l0a as brown rice, the same as that of control plot. In conclusion, the no-tillage transplanting with control of covering degree of water foxtail (to degree 6) was effective in reduction of input cost such as herbicide and nitrogen fertilizer, as well as weed control without reduction of rice yield.