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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 6 - Dec 1997
Volume 42, Issue 5 - Oct 1997
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Aug 1997
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Jun 1997
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Apr 1997
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Feb 1997
Selecting the target year
Growth and Seed Composition of Protein, Oil and Fatty Acid as Affected by Polyethylene Film Mulching in Peanut
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 647~651
Flowering date of peanut variety, Daekwangtangkong and Daepungtangkong in non-mulching culture was delayed each 9 and 6 days. Seedling ratio was decreased each 3.7%, 16% and branch length was decreased each 24%, 17% more than polyethylene film mulching culture. But the number of branch in non-mulching culture was not reduced. No. of mature pods, kernel/pod ratio, 100-seed weight and kernel weight per plant was reduced extremely in non-mulching culture, nevertheless the kernel yield per 1 ha of Daekwangtangkong in non-mulching culture was similar to that of polyethylene film mulching culture but yield of Daepungtangkong was 26% higher than that of polyethylene film mulching culture owing to planting density. Protein content of Daekwangtangkong in non-mulching culture was increased 4% but that of Daepungtangkong was decreased 3% and oil content of both variety was decreased 7%, 9% respectively comparing to polyethylene film mulching culture. Oleic acid was increased but linoleic acid was decreased and O/L ratio was decreased in non-mulching culture.
In Vitro Test on Allelopathic Effects of Leaf Extracts from Phytolacca americana and Armoracia rusticana
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 652~665
Allelopathic effects on some crops(rice, barley, wheat, Chinese cabbage, leaf mustard, onion, welsh onion, tobacco, red pepper) for extracts of Phytolacca americana and Armoracia rusticana were investigated in MS solid medium. Germination percentage, radicle length, hypocotyl length, plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and seedling vigor were rapidly inhibited by methanol extract from Phytolacca americana according to increase of the concentration in test plants. Autotoxicity of Phytolacca americana began to appear at concentrations greater than 50
l methanol extracts per 20ml medium. The fresh weight and dry weight of Phytolacca americana were also decreased by its own methanol extract according to increase of the concentration. Initial amounts of growth of all crops were also inhibited by methanol extracts from Armoracia rusticana, but the inhibitory effects were lowered than those of methanol extracts of Phytolacca americana. Of four fractions, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether,
, reextracted from methanol extracts of Phytolacca americana, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest allelopathic effects on germination percentage and initial amounts of growth. Chlorophyll contents of rice, barley and Chinese cabbage were more inhibited in the ethyl acetate fraction than in the other fractions. Free proline content of Chinese cabbage was increased 31.2 times in the 100
ethyl acetate fraction, and the contents of rice and barley were also increased according to concentration levels in the ethyl acetate fraction.
Using Effective Temperatures to Determine Safety Cultivation Season in Direct Seeding Rice on Dry Paddy
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 666~672
Twenty years' daily mean air temperature data was used to calculate the critical early seeding date(CESD), the optimum heading date(OHD), the critical late heading date for stable ripening(CHDR) and the critical late ripening date(CLRD) for rice seeded on dry paddy in different agroclimatic zones in Korea. The CESD was defined as the first day with mean air temperature of 13
, and the OHD as the first day of the 40 consecutive days with mean air temperature of 22
or above after heading. The CHDR was defined as the date after which the cumulative daily mean air temperature would be at least 76
. Lastly, the CLRD was defined as the last day when daily mean air temperature remains above 15
. This information was used for the estimation of periods from the earliest date of seeding to optimum heading date, the latest possible date of heading and the latest possible date of ripening in respective regions. For instance, in Suwon, those respective periods mentioned were found to be 104days, 124days, and 165days.
Characteristics of Embryo Growth and Dehiscence during the After-ripening Period in Eleutherococcus senticosus
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 673~677
It has been reported that E. senticosus is effective for strengthening the liver, reduction of blood sugar levels, antistress and rainforcement of stamina. However, most of the extraction from this medicinal plant is imported from foreign countries. Therefore, farmers have tried to grow it in this country even though it is difficult to propagate by seeding method. This study was carried out to improve seeding propagation using seeds in National Honam Agricultural Experinment Station from '92 to '93. The seeds of E. senticosus were immature embryo at the time of gathering seeds in autumn, and needed wet stratification treatment for after-ripening. Embryo elongated slowly for a few days after stratification treatment, and cotyledon started to develop from 40 days after treatment. There were significantly positive correlation between after-ripening period and the ratio of embryo length. Dehiscence was the highest in the ratio of embryo length of 60∼70％, and percentage of dehiscent seed after treatment for 150 days was 76.5％.
Production of Plug Plantlets for Mass Propagation Using Stem Cuttings of Virus Free Microtubers in Potato
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 678~686
This experiment was carried out to develop the mass propagation system for producing plug plantlets using stem cuttings of virus-tree microtubers in potato. Cocopeat, vermiculite, perlite and peatmoss were combined and used as plug nursery media to find out the best combination suitable for the growth of seedlings derived from microtubers. Seedling growth was favored in high temperature (above 2
) and a long-day photoperiod(above 16 hours) condition, while stolons and microtubers formed in outdoor condition. Shoot and root multiplication was not affected by NAA 10mg /1 or IAA 10mg /1 treatment. At the early growth stage of plug plantlets, the number of leaves and roots and the length of root increased significantly when nodes from the upper (near to apex) part of shoots rather than from basal part were taken. But after transplanting, these differences among these characters were not observed. At ninety days after transplanting the plug plantlets in spring time, plant was around 70 to 80cm in height, and the number of stolons and tubers were ten and seven, respectively.
Physiological Response of Barley to Salt Stress at Reproductive Stage
Yong-Woong Kwon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 687~692
The barley grown in pot-soil was treated with the NaCl solution of -20 bar in osmotic potential for 10 days, varying the time of treatment: from 20th day before heading; from 10th day before heading and the time of heading. The greatest injury was observed in the case of salt stress at heading or at 10th day before heading: Culm length decreased by 87% : the number of spikes per plant by 82% ; the number of grain per spike by 92% : 1, 000-grain weight by 94% ; yield per pot by 75%. The results also greatly varied depending upon the cultivars and the time of salt stress. Salt stress at the time of heading or at 10th day before heading remarkably decreased yield and yield components. And in terms of grain yield the salt resistance was high in the order of Baegdong, Albori, Hyangmaeg, Olbori and Durubori.
Physiological Response of Barley to Water Stress and Salt Stress at Seedling Stage
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 693~698
Drought resistance and salt resistance of seedlings were compared with the polyethylene glycol(P.E.G) and NaCl solutions of the same osmotic potential(
=-10 bar). Plant height, seedling dry weight, chlorophyll content and leaf water potential decreased while the free proline content increased more in the P.E.G. than in the NaCl solution. Free amino acids increased 2.6 times in the P.E.G. solution and 3.6 times in the NaCl solution more than in the untreated(Hoagland's solution). Free proline occupied 66% and 61% of the content of total amino acids under water stress and salt stress, respectively. Besides free proline, phenylalanine in the P.E.G. solution and phenylalanine, alanine and asparagine in the NaCl solution increased distinctly. In short, it was shown that water and salt stress responses in seedling stage were relatively similar.
Effects of Seeding Dates on Growth and Grain Yield of Direct Seeding Rice on Flooded Paddy Surface in Southern Alpine Area
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 699~705
This experiment was conducted to find out an optimum direct seeding date for rice in the southern alpine area of Korea as direct seeding method being considered as the most labor-saving method. A cultivar which was sprouted, Keumobyeo, was sown on the surface of flooded paddy from April 25 to May 15 with 5-day interval. The growth characters such plant height, tiller numbers, yield and its components as well as air temperatures were observed. Earlier sowing showed longer plant height and greater tillers than later sowing. Accumulated temperatures in the different growth stages varied from 1,010 to 1,052
during the period from seeding date to maximum tillering stage, and from 1,785 to 1,846
during the period from seeding to heading dates. The growth of rice sown up to May 5 showed comparatively good when compared to that of machine-transplanted rice, even though the grain yield was not competitive to that of machine-transplanted rice. Highly negative correlation coefficients were found between accumulated temperature during the period of first 30 days after seeding dates and the number of panicles, the number of spikelets per square meter, and grain yield. Regression equation between direct seeding date(X) and yield(Y;MT /ha) was
=0.704), from which optimum seeding date for direct seeding method in alpine area was estimated to be on April 25 to May 1.
Water-Saving Culture under Ridge Direct Seeding on Dry Paddy of Rice
Soo-Yeon Cho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 706~711
Low supply of water is generally the most serious factor limiting rice production. The experiment was conducted to identify the reasonable method for minimum irrigation under ridge direct seeding on dry paddy, at National Honam Agricultural Experiment Station, RDA in 1996. The results showed that the reduction ratio of irrigation water was high in order of furrow irrigation at 15-day>furrow irrigation at 10-day>flooding irrigation at 10-day>, and furrow irrigation at 5-day intervals. However, milled rice yield was high in the furrow irrigation at 5-day intervals and in flooding irrigation at 10-day intervals due to high ripened grain as compared with other treatments indicating two treatments were the most reasonable irrigation methods in terms of saving the labor cost and water supply as well as the admittable yield performance.
Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode Race 5
Choi, In-Soo ; Kim, Yong-Chul ; Kim, Sung-Man ; Lee, Chung-Yeol ; Park, Hyean-Cheal ; Halina T. Skorupska ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 712~721
The objectives of this study were; (1) to identify and localize QTLs for resistance to soybean cyst nematode(SCN) race 5 on RAPD map, (2) to idntify the magnitude and mode of inheritance for each QTL, and (3) to identify the best combinations of QTLs for resistance to SCN race 5. Based on the univariate regression analysis, we detected 26 markers(22 RAPD and 4 RFLP) which showed significant association(P<0.05) with resistance to SCN race 5. From MAPMAKER /QTL analysis, we identified two regions (LGC-20 and Group 2) for resistance to SCN race 5. The QTL that was localized at 8.0 cM from pK418C on LGC-20 showed a recessive mode of inheritance and the QTL that was localized between W03 and E02
on Group 2 showed a dominant mode of inheritance. Two pairs of flanking markers (E02
and W03, pK418C and pK418E
) and one unlinked RAPD marker, G10
were used for multiple regression analysis. Marker combination which was composed of 4 markers, E02
, W03, and pK418E
, explained the highest amount of phenotypic variation by SCN (35.2％). Further research for the identification of QTLs for resistance to SCN race 5 to explain larger portion of phenotypic variation is needed.
Influence of Midsummer Drainage Times on Growth and Lodging of Rice Plant in Direct Seeding on Flooded Paddy Surface
Soo-Yeon Cho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 722~728
This experiment was conducted to establish the cultural practice for reduction of lodging by the effective water management under direct seeding on flooded paddy surface as treated by the drainage times using Dongjinbyeo at National Honam Agricultural Experiment Station during 1994-1995. As the increased midsummer drainage times, the field lodging were reduced by reduction of culm length and large amounts of root with favorable distribution in deep soil, indicating low canopy architecture could promote the light transmission in the plants and favorable root growth. The yield performance was high by increased drainage times which contributed to mainly percentage of ripened grain and 1, 000-grain weight. As a result, two to three times midsummer drainage as effective water management during plant growth was desirable.
Change in Potential Productivity of Rice around Lake Juam Due to Construction of Dam by SIMRIW
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 729~738
To estimate the change in rice productivity around lake Juam due to construction of artificial lake, growth, yield components and yield of rice were measured at different locations around lake Juam for three years from 1994 to 1996. Automated weather stations(AWS) were installed nearby the experimental paddy fields, and daily maximum, average and minimum temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and precipitation were measured for the whole growing period of rice. Plant height, number of tillers, leaf area and shoot dry weight per hill were observed from 8 to 10 times in the interval of 7 days after transplanting. Yield and yield components of rice were observed at the harvest time. Simulation model of rice productivity used in the study was SIMRIW developed by Horie. The observed data of rice at 5 locations in 1994, 3 locations in 1995 and 4 locations in 1996 were inputted in the model to estimate the unknown parameters. Comparisons between observed and predicted values of shoot dry weights, leaf area indices, and rough rice yield were fairly well, so that SIMRIW appeared to predict relatively well the variations in productivity due to variations of climatic factors in the habitat. Climatic elements prior to as well as posterior to dam construction were generated at six locatons around lake Juam for thirty years by the method of Pickering et al. Climatic elements simulated in the study were daily maximum and minimum temperature, and amount of daily solar radiation. The change in rice productivity around lake Juam due to dam construction were estimated by inputting the generated climatic elements into SIMRIW. Average daily maximum temperature after dam construction appeared to be more or less lower than that before dam construction, while average daily minimum temperature became higher after dam construction. Average amount of daily solar radiation became lower with 0.9 MJ
after dam construction. As a result of simulation, the average productivity of habitats around lake Juam decreased about 5.6% by the construction of dam.
Studies on Various Test Conditions and Application of Test Method for Lipoxygenase-l in Soybean
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 739~747
This study was performed to clarify various conditions on the test of lipoxygenase-l and to establish the application of new test method for varietal improvement of soybeans in order to decrease beany flavors. Potassium borate and Tris were used as buffer and O.1M potassium borate solution showed the best result for the lipoxygenase-l test. In the range of pH 8.5~9.0 of the buffer, 2mM linoleic acid as substrate was effective. For color development, 100
l of two solutions(KI and starch) were added to the half soybean seed, successively. The substrate solution included linoleic acid was stored safely for 10 days at 4
in refrigerator and for 4 days at room temperature. The best result was as follows; the 1ml of substrate solution[0.1M potassium borate(pH 9.0), 0.1％ Tween-20, 2mM linoleic acid] was added to the chipped half soybean seed in l.5ml plastic tube, waited for 15 minutes, and 100
l of color development solutions(5％ saturated KI in 15％ acetic acid, 1％ starch) were added to the tube, successively. After 4 hours, the purple color was observed in the upper phase of the plastic tube in the presence of lipoxygenase-1 and milky color in absence of lipoxygenase-1. The purple color was stable from 4 to 24 hours. There was no interfering effect by lipoxygenase-2 and -3. The plastic tube should be placed in the tube stand without shaking during the lipoxygenase-l test.
Aromatic Compounds in Flower of Chinese Yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne)
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 748~751
The study was carried out to identify compositions and recovery yield of aromatic compounds of flower in Chinese yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne). Total 26 volatile aromatic compounds were identified and peak area percentage of aliphatic alcohol in Dan-ma was higher than in Jang-ma. Major volatile aromatic compounds analyzed by GC/MS were 1,2-butyleneglycol, phenylalcohol, caproic acid, cinnamic alcohol, and palmitic acid. Recovery yield of essential oils of Dan-ma was higher than in Jang-ma as 0.983％. As a result, it was concluded that Chinese yam was worthy of cultivating as perfume and medicinal crops.
Distribution and Leaching of Basal Nitrogen in Direct Seeding Rice on Dry Paddy
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 752~758
Urea, which is the major nitrogenous fertilizer used in Korea, has been used inefficiently in direct-seeding on dry soil by farmers. This study was conducted to investigate changes in concentrations of basal N within soil layers and its loss during early stage of rice growth. Urea fertilizer was applied in the rates of 7, 5.25, 3.5, 1.75, 0kg- N /10a under direct-seeded rice in dry paddy soil. The concentrations of ammonium and nitrate were determined in soil samples with different depths during period from seeding to the 3rd leaf stage. Futhermore, N leaching was measured in lysimeter designed with pot in greenhouse.
adsorption by soil increased with increasing concentration of added urea and decreased as deeper in soil layers.
concentration reached its peak at 7 days after urea application (DAA) and disappeared almostly at 14 DAA.
reached its peak at 10 DAA and decreased slowly until 14 DAA.
N leaching started next day after urea application and completed until 11 DAA. We concluded that most of basal N applied to direct-seeded paddy was lost by leaching and not useful for rice plant which was in stage of germination. It is urgent need to develop new nitrogen application method for direct-seeding rice on dry soil.
Changes in SPAD Value and Phothosynthetic Rate during Grain Filling of Oryza glaberrima Strains and Oryza sativa Cultivars
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 759~765
The process of the senescence in Oryza glaberrima Steud. strains and Oryza sativa L. cultivars were examined in terms of SPAD value(chlorophyll content) and photosynthetic rate. SPAD values and photosynthetic rates of flag leaves for 10 genotypes of each species was measured at the 1, 3 and 5 weeks after heading. SPAD values and photosynthetic rates of O. glaberrima strains tended to decrease rapidly after heading. O. sativa cultivars showed slower decrease as compared to O. glaberrima strains, in particular during the period from 1 to 3 weeks after heading. Although there was no significant difference between the two species in the mean value of photosynthetic rate and SPAD value at 1 weeks after heading, O. glaberrima had lower values after 3 weeks after heading. There were significant positive correlation coefficients between the photosynthetic rate and the SPAD value at 1 and 3 weeks after heading for O. glaberrima strains, and at 1 and 5 weeks after heading for O. sativa cultivars. There were significant positive correlation between the decreasing rates of the photosynthetic rates and the decreasing rates of the SPAD values at the period from the 1 to 3 weeks after heading for both species. At the period from 3 to 5 weeks after heading, only O. glaberrima showed a significant correlation between two traits, indicating that rapid decrease in chlorophyll content would affect the photosynthesis in O. glaberrima.
Genetic Analysis of Low Temperature Germinability of Rice
Soon-Chul Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 766~777
The purpose of this study was to investigate inheritance modes of low temperature germinability(LTG) on rice. Two experiments were carried out: In experiment I, the seeds of 10 rice varieties yielded at the different cultivation conditions which were transplanted in a paddy field from May 20 to July 5 with 15-day interval, were tested at fixed temperature (13
) in-door and at field with natural conditions to find out the change of LTG according to different cultivating condition among the each variety, In experiment II, F
seeds of full diallal cross from six parents, were analyzed for combining ability and reciprocal differences of low temperature germinability. The results are summarized as follows. The seeds of 10 varieties showed significant differences of LTG at the different cultivation conditions, varieties and their interaction. And the relationship between LTG coefficient at 13
and low temperature emergence(LTE) coefficient at field was highly significantly positive(r=0.511). From the analysis of the diallel cross, high significance was found at reciprocal difference and alpha inheritance. The mean squares of general combining ability(GCA) and specific combining ability of LTG were highly significant with higher mean squares of GCA. Seventeen out of 30 cross combinations showed transgressive segregation,
Effects of Water Potential on Plant Growth and Aerenchyma Development in Adlay(Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. mayuen)
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 778~782
Effects of different water potential on the growth and aerenchyma development of Adlay(Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. mayuen) were studied under every 3 days intermittent irrigation as a control at different growth stages, flooded pot condition and drought. Adlay could not germinate in the anaerobic soil conditions with excessive moisture while it wasn't inflicted with moisture damage after sprouting. Sprouted adlay can grow under flooded soil moisture condition because it's root has orthostichy cell, ventilating structure and cortex. Proping or ventilating roots were generated from adlay grown under flooded pots. Drought damage inflicted at the heading stage was the most severe.
Sorting of Aged Seeds Using Leakage Substances of Crop Seeds
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 783~789
This study was conducted to identify leakage of fluorescent substances out of 56 crops and to develop sorting methods of nonviable seeds of Chinese cabbage. Fluorescent substances were detected from 36 species, Chinese cabbage, radish, broccoli, cauliflower, egg plant and rape seed etc. In Chinese cabbage, the germination rate of non-sorted seeds decreased rapidly with ageing of seeds at 45
and 100％. After Chinese cabbage seeds soaked for 4hrs and coated with cellulose, the sorting ratio of non fluorescent seeds were decreased 91.3％ to 1.7％ by increasing ageing periods from control to 8 days, while fluorescent seeds were increased drastically from 8.7％ to 98.3％. Also, incubation of water soaked dead seeds of Chinese cabbage treated with 0.5-1.0％ ninhydrin and 0.01N sodium thiosulfate for 30~60 minutes at 35
developed purple color.
Application of AFLPs to Phylogenetic Analysis of Aegilops
Jai-Wook Shim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 790~799
Aegilops genus is known to include the donor species of the Band D genome of the bread wheat(ABD). An effort to establish a better strategy for phylogenetic relationships about Aegilops polyploids by AFLPs(Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms) was conducted using the 19 Aegilops sPP. and T. aestivum. The 207 polymorphic bands from the amplified products on the 6% acrylamide denaturing sequencing gels were obtained with the 7 AFLP primer combinations, and used to account for the genetic similarities and cluster analysis using NTSYS program. According to the genome analysis, the
-genome of Ae. heldreichii was estimated as an intermediate genome between the M-genome of Ae. comosa and N-genome of Ae. uniaristata and supposed to be incorporated in the establishing process of UM-genome as a possible diploid donor. And Ae. ventricosa(DN) was more close to Ae. umbellulata(U) than Ae. squarrosa(D). The close relationship between Ae. squarrosa and T. aestivum was perceived as a diploid donor of D-genome. As for the polyploid species, hexaploid Ae. triaristata was more closely related to Ae. columnaris rather than tetraploid Ae. triaristata. The clustered groups were, basically same to the previous Gihara's sections based on phenotypes and pairing analysis of interspecific hybrids. AFLP was evaluated as an efficient and powerful method in the genome evaluation of closely related species.
Influence of Silicate Application on Rice Grain Quality
Jong-Hoon Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 800~804
To evaluate the characters related to rice grain quality as affected by silicate application, the ripened color, appearence and physicochemical properties of rice grain which were produced at the silt-loam paddy field of National Yeongnam Agricultural Exeperiment Station with a little poor drainage for trials on long-term effects of continuous application of same fertilizer were analyzed comparing with the NPK fertilizer an the NPK＋compost in 1995. The whiteness value and color space value in ripened color of rice hull by silicate application were higher than those in the plots of NPK and NPK＋compost, because of low percentage of rusty grain and sooty grain, The percentage of perfect grain in brown rice and in milled rice by the silicate application increased by 6.1~7.5% and by 1.8~3.5% respectively, as compared with the NPK application and white core and white belly of milled rice were decreased, The amylose content, protein content and starch-iodine blue value of milled rice by silicate application were lower than those in the plots of NPK and NPK＋compost, while the peak point and breakdown viscosity of gelatinized rice flour on amylograph, and tastes value evaluated as a indicater of pannel test by nireco tester were higher. By silicate application these factors could be affected toward better in eating quality,
Influence of Low Temperature at Reproductive Stage on Rice Grain Quality
Huhn-Pal Moon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 805~809
The influence of cool temperature occurred during the booting stage in 1993 on quality of rice grain was compared with that in favorable weather of 1994. The mean and minimum air temperatures during the reproductive growth stage at the paddy field of Jinbu Substation, National Crop Experiment Station were 2.2~7.4
lower respectively in 1993 compared to those of 1994. Grain fertility and brown rice yield were 11.8％ and 0.4t /ha, and 84.3％ and 5.5t /ha in 1993 and 1994, respectively. There was no difference in amylose content between two years. However, protein content of brown rice in 1994 were 1.6％ lower than that of 1993. There was no difference in alkali digestion value of milled rice between two years. Gel consistency of rice flour was 45mm in 1993 and 59mm in 1994. Amylogram characteristics of rice flour produced in 1993 showed lower peak hot, cool, and breakdown viscosities, and higher consistency and setback viscosities. The palatability of cooked rice by sensory panel test was considerably better in 1994 rice than in the rice of cool year.
Use of Leaf Size for Indirect Selection of Seed Size in Soybean
Chung, Jong-Il ; Specht, James E. ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 810~813
The objective of this research was to determine if leaf size (width and length) is correlated with seed size to the extent that leaf size can be used as a predictor of seed size in a population of soybean plants or lines. Twelve soybean strains, representing three distinct seed size groups, were analyzed. Data on seed size and leaf size of the 12 strains were obtained in 1994 and 1995 field experiments. Strain seed size was positively associated with leaf width (r=0.918) and leaf length (r=0.925). The results of our study indicate that there is a significant correlation between seed size and leaf size in soybean. It is possible that selection for greater seed size either leads to, or results from, greater leaf size.
Effect of Fertilization Rates on Growth, Root Yield and Essential Oil Composition in Korean Valerian (Valeriana fauriei var. dasycarpa Hara)
Chang-Hwan Cho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 814~820
This study was conducted to establish standard fertilization rates for the cultivation of Korean valerian(Valeriana fauriei var. dasycarpa Hara) which is useful for medicinal and aromatic resources. Nitrogen, phosphate and potassium were treated with four application levels, 0, 6, 9, 12kg per 10a, and the growth characteristics, root yield and essential oil compositions of valerian were measured. The growth and root yield of valerian were the highest in the rate of 9kg per 10a for nitrogen, phosphate and potassium, respectively. Nitrogen had the most powerful effective followed by potassium and phosphate. The contents and compositions of essential oil also varied with the amount of fertilization. The contents of the essential oil was the highest in the application level of 9kg per 10a for nitrogen, phosphate and potassium, respectively. The essential oil compositions were affected by the fertilization rate.
Autotoxicity of alfalfa flower extract and its allelopathy to Echinochloa crus-galli
Ill Min, Chung ; Song Joong, Yun ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 821~832
The aim of this study was to separate or purify some bioactive compounds from flowers of alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.) and to test of the isolated compounds on alfalfa for their autotoxicity and on Echinochloa crus-galli for their allelopathy for seed germination and seedling weight. Using thin layer chromatography(TLC) of
extracts, the most inhibitory band to alfalfa seed germination was determined. Germination inhibition of this extract suggested a complex chemical interaction. Separation and purification of compounds with CHCl
extract of fresh alfalfa flowers were conducted by a silica gel TLC, and microcrystalline cellulose TLC(MCTLC), followed by droplet countercurrent chromatography(DCCC) bioassay. Preliminary identification was done by high perfomance liquid chromatography(HPLC) on the most inhibitory fractions in DCCC. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, rutin, narringin were identified in fraction 5 and ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, rutin, coumarin in fraction 6. The phytotoxicity of their individual compound was tested on alfalfa and Echinochloa crus-galli seed germination and seedling weight. Coumarin and ferulic acid showed the most inhibitory effect on alfalfa seed germination and Echinochloa crus-galli seedling fresh and dry weight. These compounds may be, at least in part, involved in autotoxicity and allelopathy.
Differences in Panicle Structure and Spikelet Degeneration in Two Different Types of Rice Cultivars; Milyang 23 and Koshihikari
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 833~840
Differentiation and degeneration of spikelets in paddy rice has been studied in high yielding Indica
Japonica hybrid cultivar, Milyang 23 and a Japonica type cultivar, Koshihikari. Germinated seeds planted in 5000
a pots filled with submerged soil and cultured under natural conditions. The young panicles of main stem were continuously dissected and observered by Cryo-SEM from the panicle initiation stage, and investigated about formation position of the differentiation and degeneration spikelet within a panicle of 7 days after heading. The degeneration of spikelet appeared simultaneously throughout panicle just after closure of spikelet by the palea and lemma. Differentiated and degenerated spikelets per panicle were about 240, 80 for Milyang 23 and 87, 6 for Koshihikari, respectively. The spikelets degeneration in Milyang 23 was mainly on the secondary and tertiary branch which were developed from primary branch of middle-basal panicle node and hardly not the spikelets of primary branch, and degeneration rate of secondary and tertiary rachis branch and spikelets for Milyang 23 were 2.5 times greater than those of Koshihikari. The proper relation equation between total differentiation or normal spikelets number per panicle(Y) and each rachis branch number were different between cultivars, Le., Y=5.5X
for Koshihikari as previously proposed, but those of Milyang 23, Y=5.7X
for total differentiation spikelets and Y=5.6X
for normally developed spikelets, where X
are number of primary, secondary, tertiary rachis branch, respectively.
Inflorescence Habits of Different Plant Types in Peanut
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 42, issue 6, 1997, Pages 841~848
This study was conducted to investigate the inflorescence habit mainly on major in farmer's peanut cultivar of the Shinpung plant type "Daekwang" of sequential branching and the Virginia plant type "Daepung" of alternate branching until maximum flowering dates. All flowers of two pairs of opposite branch in "Daekwang" showed almost symmetrical flowering order and in "Daepung" also showed similar tendency though it had somewhat irregalar alternate branching type in opposite branches. The lowest node in each branch had seven flowers while upper nodes had less flowers in this period. The first flower in "Daekwang" was born at first node of second branch of cotyledonary branches compared to those of "Daepung" at first reproductive branch of cotyledonary branches. One pair of cotyledonary branches had two-thirds of total flowers in two cultivars. Dates of average flower proceeding between nodes in each branch of "Daekwang" were appeared 4.32 days in main axil, 1st and 2nd opposite primary branches were 4.44 and 5.13 days, and 1st and 2nd secondary branches were 5.81 and 6.41 days respectively, but "Daepung" showed similar flower proceeding dates in all branches. but "Daepung" showed similar flower proceeding dates in all branches.