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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
Selecting the target year
Optimum Water Potential, Temperature, and Duration for Priming of Rice Seeds
Lee, Suk-Soon ; Kim, Jae-Hyeun ; Hong, Seung-Beom ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Park, Eui-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1~5
Experiments were carried out to find out the optimum water potential, temperature, and duration for the priming of rice seeds, Oryza sativa L. (cv. Ilpumbyeo) for better germination at sub-optimal temperatures. Seeds were primed in 0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8, and -1.0 MPa PEG (polyethylene glycol) solutions at
. The optimum water potential for seed priming, the highest water potential at which rice seeds did not germinate, was -0.6 MPa. To find out optimum priming temperature and duration rice seeds were primed in -0.6 MPa PEG solution and 0 MPa (water as a control) for various durations at 15 and
and the seeds were germinated at 17, 20, and
. Considering germination rate and speed, the optimum priming time in water (0 MPa) was 4 days at 15
and 1 day at
, while 4 days was the optimum priming time in a -0.6 MPa PEG solution, regardless of the priming temperature. Priming reduced the actual time of germination, especially at sub-optimal temperatures. Priming did not affect germination rate in -0.6 MPa PEG solution at 15
, but overpriming reduced the final germination rate in water at 15
and in -0.6 PEG solution at
. Total sugars and
-amylase activity induced during the seed priming were negatively correlated with the final germination rate and there was no noted relationship with the speed or uniformity of germination.
Agronomic Characteristics of Introduced Triticales
Cho, Chang-Hwan ; Yun, Seung-Gil ; Kazuo, Ataku ; Taiki, Yoshihira ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 1, 1998, Pages 6~10
This study was conducted to obtain basic information on the development of new triticale cultivars with good quality and high productivity for soiling feed. Twelve cultivars introduced from Poland, Canada and two cultivars developed in Korea were planted in the experimental field at Ansong National University in 1995. Major growth traits and nutrient components for feed were measured and analyzed using principal component analysis and average linkage cluster analysis. 'Prego', 'Prag 46/3', and 'Clercal' were relatively high in forage yield. Most of forage nutrient contents except cellulose were higher in Prego, Clercal, and 'Cumulus' than other cultivars. Results of principal component analysis on 11 traits including forage yield and nutrient contents showed that 72.59% of total variation were explained by the first and second principal components. The Z
had high correlation with the contents of forage nutrient components and Z
with plant height, fresh, and dry weight. Fourteen cultivars were classified into 7 groups by multivariate analysis. Clercal and Prego in Group I could be useful source for the improvement of triticale as an important forage crop because they exhibited high productivity as well as high contents of nutrient components for feed.
Varietal Difference in Salinity Tolerance during Germination Stage of Rice
Lee, Kang-Soo ; Choi, Sun-Young ; Choi, Won-Yul ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 1, 1998, Pages 11~14
This study was conducted to find out a desirable screening condition for the salinity tolerance in germination of rice. Seeds of 33 rice varieties were tested in NaCl solutions with various concentration levels. The germination percentage had a decreasing tendency with increasing NaCl concentration and inhibition concentration of 50% germination was 320mM. Standard deviation of germination percentage was highest (28.6) under 300mM NaCl. There was a highly significant correlation between the 50% germination concentration and the germination percentage at 20th day after seeding in 300mM NaCl. Also in 300mM NaCl, the germination percentage at 20th day after seeding was significantly correlated with the germination percentage at the 6th day after seeding. The salinity tolerance on the basis of germination percentage at 6th day after seeding in 300mM NaCl, was strong in 'Hyangnambyeo', 'Ilmibyeo', 'Kancheogbyeo', and 'Namwonbyeo', while weak in 'Ansanbyeo', 'Odaebyeo', 'Nonganbyeo', 'Dasanbyeo', and 'Namcheonbyeo'.
Effects of Delayed Pollination on Kernel Development in Corn
Lee, Myoung-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 1, 1998, Pages 15~18
Receptivity of corn silk to pollen decreases with time. For effective pollination, it is important to study the receptivity of corn silks in relation to time elapsed after their emergence. Two commercial corn hybrids, 'Kwanganog' and 'Suwon 19', were tested for their silk growth and effects of delayed pollination on kernel development for 1 to 13 days after emergence of the first silk. Silks elongated rapidly for the first 3 days and then gradually decreased. Silks grew more than 30mm per day for the first 3 days and stopped growing on the 11 or 12th day after emergence of the first silk. Filled ear length decreased slowly for the first 8 days, and then decreased rapidly. Similar trends were observed for number of kernel rows and number of kernels per row or ear. The highest numbers of kernels per row or ear were observed when plants were pollinated 2-4 days after silking. These numbers decreased gradually up to 8 days, and then decreased sharply. This result indicates that 8 day-delayed pollination has no influence on kernel development. There were negative correlations between silk length and ear characteristics except kernel weight. Silk growth rate was positively correlated with filled ear length, row number, and kernel number. It might be assumed that delayed pollination by one week after the first silk emerged would not affect on kernel set.
Effect of Anaerobic Treatment on Carbohydrate-Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities and Free Amino Acid Contents in Barley Malt
Yun, Song-Joong ; Choi, Kyeong-Gu ; Kim, Jin-Key ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 1, 1998, Pages 19~22
Effects of acute anoxia on carbohydrate hydrolytic enzyme activities and free amino acid contents in malt were examined. Malts were prepared with barley grains germinated for 7 days which contained the highest levels of amylolytic and(1-3,1-4)-
-amylase activities in malts were not significantly affected by anoxia for 5 or 10 h.(1-3,1-4)-
-Glucanase activity, however, decreased about 7 to 10% by anoxia for 5 or 10 h. Alanine and
-aminobutyric acid content changed drastically. Alanine contents in malts increased by 2.2- and 2-fold, and
-aminobutyric acid contents by 1.4- and 1.9-fold under anoxia for 5 and 10 h, respectively.
Introduction, Development, and Characterization of Supernodulating Soybean Mutant -Nitrate Inhibition of Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation in Supernodulating Soybean Mutant-
Lee, Hong-Suk ; Lee, Suk-Ha ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 1, 1998, Pages 23~27
Inhibition of nodule formation and nitrogen fixation by soil nitrogen, primarily nitrate, is well known in legume plants. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of
on the nodulation, nitrogenase activity, and growth of supernodulating soybean mutant and its wild type. A greenhouse study was conducted to compare two of supernodulating mutants, 'SS2-2' and 'nts 382', with the normal nodulating cultivar 'Sinpaldalkong 2' when grown in a 1-l styroform cup filled with sand, and fertilized with five levels of
(0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 mM). During the growth period, each plant was supplied two or three times a week with 50 mL of nutrient solution. Supernodulating soybean mutants, SS2-2 and nts 382, showed more nodules and nodule mass, and greater
activity than the wild type, Sinpaldalkong 2, regardless of the level of exogeneous nitrogen supply. On the other hand, total dry weight of SS2-2 mutant, which was smaller than Sinpaldalkong 2, did not respond to the various
-N levels. This suggested that supernodulating SS2-2 mutant could maintain fairly high total dry weight at the low
-N level, even in the absence of exogeneous
-N in the nutrient solution. From the reduced top growth and high nitrogen fixing ability of supernodulating mutants, it was surmised that supernodulating mutant could potentially protect agricultural environments from pollution through the reduction in nitrogen fertilization as well as maintain fairly high yield with increasing planting density.
Introduction, Development, and Characterization of Supernodulating Soybean Mutant -Shoot Factor Regulation of Nodule Development in Supernodulating Soybean Mutant-
Lee, Hong-Suk ; Kim, Yong-Wook ; Park, Eui-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 1, 1998, Pages 28~31
Nodule development was regulated partially by host plant factors originating in the shoots and roots. This study was performed to identify the origin of the factors regulating nodulation in supernodulating soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) mutant 'SS2-2' which was isolated recently from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis of 'Sinpaldalkong 2'. Self- and reciprocal-grafts were made among three soybean genotypes which consisted of two supernodulating mutants, SS2-2 and 'nts 382', and a normal nodulating Sinpaldalkong 2. Self-grafted supernodulating mutants were characterized by greater nodule number, nodule dry weight, and
reduction activity than self-grafted wild types. They were also characterized by relatively higher nodule to root dry weight. Significant shoot genotypic effects were observed on nodule number, nodule dry weight, and
reduction activity per plant, whereas varying root genotypes had no effects. From this result, it is surmised that supernodulating characters are controlled by a graft-transmissible shoot factor, and mutant SS2-2 may have similar nodulation mechanism to the former supernodulating nts 382. In all grafts, both supernodulating mutants and Sinpaldalkong 2 maintained the similar balance between above ground and below ground parts regardless of significant differences in partitioning of dry matter into root and nodule between supernodulating mutants and Sinpaldalkong 2.
Analysis of Lodging-Related Traits of Direct Seeded Rice
Kim, Hyun-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 1, 1998, Pages 32~37
The objective of this study was to analyze lodging-related traits using different cultivars from Korea, Japan, and the U.S. in direct seeded rice on dry paddy field. Stem diameter and culm wall thickness were highest in 'Caloro' followed by 'Nongan', 'M202', and 'Calrose'. All the U.S. cultivars were higher than the others in stem diameter and culm wall thickness. These two traits were important with regard to lodging. The highest breaking strength (1442g) was observed in Caloro. 'Gancheoek', 'Dongjin', and transplanted 'Hatsuboshi' showed more than 1000g in breaking strength. Lodging index was lowest in Hatsuboshi followed by Nongan and Gancheok. Even though breaking strength of the U.S. cultivars was higher than others, their lodging index values were high. There were no statistically significant differences in starch content. However, Calrose, Caloro, Dongjin, and Koshihikari were relatively higher than others in starch content. Positive correlations were found between culm base weight, lignin and breaking strength. High contents of lignin and cellulose were observed in Nongan, transplanted Hatsuboshi, Calrose, and Caloro. Traits such as stem diameter, culm wall thickness, bending moment, culm length, breaking strength, cellulose, lignin, and culm base weight were closely related to a lodging index. According to path coefficient analysis, most important traits were culm length, stem diameter, thickness of clum wall, and top plant weight.
Varietal Difference in Root Distribution of Direct Seeded Rice
Kim, Hyun-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 1, 1998, Pages 38~43
This study examined root growth and distribution under the direct seeding of rice cultivars developed in Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Cultivars from the U.S., especially 'M202' and 'Caloro', had a high ratio of the dry matter partitioning for root and top plant components. Caloro had high root and top growth. 'Koshihikari' from Japan showed the lowest ratio of R/T (root/total dry matter) due to the small amount of root and top plant growth. Most Japanese cultivars except transplanted 'Hatsuboshi' showed low ratio of R/T. Patterns of root distribution for each soil block were recorded by the root box-pin board method. Roots of all cultivars were distributed in blocks A, C, and E in the middle of box, i.e., just below the plant base. Roots of 'Dongjin', M202, and Caloro were distributed deeper than the others. Roots of transplanted Hatsuboshi developed much better than direct seeded Hatsuboshi. Total root weight density was highest in Caloro followed by Dongjin, 'Gancheok', 'Calrose', and the others. The root density of Caloro was twice as much as those of the others except Dongjin. According to cumulative percentages of root distribution on each soil layer, roots of most cultivars were distributed below 20cm. The U.S. cultivars showed vertically well developed root systems as compared to others. A large amount of roots were distributed in the top 15cm of soil layer for Hatsuboshi and Koshinikari, and their root systems appeared to be shallow. In contrast, the rates of root distribution in the top 10cm of soil layer were low for Dongjin, Calrose, and Caloro. These cultivars had relatively deep root systems.
Effect of Planting Date and Planting Density on Growth and Yield of Soybean in Cheju Island
Kang, Young-Kil ; Ko, Mi-Ra ; Cho, Nam-Ki ; Park, Yang-Mun ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 1, 1998, Pages 44~48
Two determinate soybean cultivars, 'Baegunkong' and 'Namhaekong', were planted on 8 Jone, 23 June, and 8 July 1996 at Cheju at planting densities of 33, 43, 53, 63 plants per
to determine the optimum planting density of double crop soybean for recently recommended cultivars in Cheju area at various planting dates. The plant height, and the diameter and node number of main stems decreased as planting was delayed. The plant height increased but the stem diameter and node number decreased with increasing planting density. Pod number per plant was greater for Namhaekong than for Baegunkong and was not affected by planting date. Pod number per plant decreased but pod numbers per
increased with increasing planting density. The number of seeds per pod was greater at the two later plantings and fewer at the highest planting density. 100-seed weight decreased with delaying planting. The seed weight was lighter at the highest planting density for Baegunkong but there was no difference for Namhaekong among the planting densities. The seed yield of Baegunkong was greater for 23 June and 8 July plantings (2,280 and 2,420 kg/ha) than for 8 June planting (1,450 kg/ha) while that of Namhaekong was greatest at 23 June planting (2,690 kg/ha) compared with 8 June and 8 July plantings (1,890 and 2,080 kg/ha). Across the planting dates and cultivars, seed yield increased from 1,860 to 2,290kg/ha as the planting density increased from 33 to 53 plants/
and then leveled off with a further increase in planting density.
Nitrogen Management with Split Application of Urea for Direct-Seeding Rice in Wet Paddy
Lee, Ho-Jin ; Seo, Jun-Han ; Lee, Jung-Sam ; Jung, Yong-Sang ; Fred E. Below ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 1, 1998, Pages 49~53
Direct-seeding has major advantages such as labor and cost saving by eliminating preparation of seed bed and transplanting. But, it required increased input of fertilizers and pesticides because of the extended paddy period. Direct seeding in wet paddy (DSWP) gives faster growth and more uniform seedling emergence than direct-seeding in dry paddy. This research had an objective to develop an efficient N management practices for DSWP with split application of N fertilizer. A paddy field experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of starter N and N-topdressing which was delayed N application until 5-leaf stage, with comparison to transplanting (TP). Total amount of N application were two levels; 110kg and 77kg/ha. The N applications were split four times during rice growth stages; starter, topdressing at 5-leaf stage, top dressing at tillering stage, and topdressing at panicle initiation stage. DSWP had more tillers/
than TP, but with the delayed heading. The DSWP plots which received N-topdressing at 5-leaf stage without starter N had higher leaf area index (LAI) and leaf greenness than the TP plot. Also, these DSWP plots had high leaf-N concentration at the heading stage, as calculated from leaf chlorophyll meter readings. Rice yield in DSWP with N-topdressing at 5-leaf stage was significantly higher than that in TP and in DSWP with starter N. Energy and N use efficiency were improved in DSWP with N-topdressing at 5-leaf stage. But, there were no significant differences in grain yield between the two levels of total amounts of N applications, 77kg and 110kg/ha. We concluded that starter N could not be used effectively by rice seedlings, but topdressing N at 5-leaf stage was an efficient N management for rice growth and yield in DSWP system.
Effect of Seeding Rate on Growth, Yield and Chemical Composition of Forage Rape Cultivars
Cho, Nam-Ki ; Jin, Woo-Jong ; Kang, Young-Kil ; Kang, Bong-Kyoon ; Park, Yang-Mun ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 1, 1998, Pages 54~58
Four introduced forage rape cultivars 'Akela', 'Ramon', 'Sparta', and 'Velox' and a leading rapeseed cultivar Hall-ayuchae were seeded on 1 October 1994 on 20-cm rows at seeding rates of 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, and IS kg/ha to select the best adapted forage rape cultivars and to determine the optimum seeding rate in the Cheju area. Days to flowering of each cultivar was not significantly affected by seeding rate. Average plant height increased from 151 to 164 cm as seeding rate increased from 3 to 10 kg/ha and then decreased to 156 cm at 15 kg/ha. Stem diameter linearly decreased with increasing seeding rate. The optimum seeding rate for the greatest dry matter and protein yields of five cultivars ranged from 10.7 to 11.8 and 10.8 to 14.4 kg/ha, respectively. Dry matter yields of five cultivars ranged from 7.72 and 22.01 Mg/ha. Sparta produced the greatest dry matter yield, followed by Akela, Ramon, Hallayuchae, and Velox. Crude protein yields of five cultivars ranged from 0.29 to 1.08 Mg/ha. Sparta produced the greatest crude protein yield, followed by Akela, Ramon, Velox, and Hallayuchae. As seeding rate increased, crude protein content linearly increased but crude fiber content linearly decreased. The forage cultivars had higher crude protein and lower crude fiber than the oilseed cultivar Hallayuchae. Our results demonstrate that Sparta was the best adapted cultivar to Cheju area and the optimum seeding rate for Sparta was about 10 kg/ha.