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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
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Effect of Male-Sterile Cytoplasm on the Genetic Performance of Agronomic Traits in
Lin, Wen-Xiong ; Kim, Kil-Ung ; Shin, Dong-Hyun ; Lee, In-Jung ; He, Shui-Lin ; Moon, Huhn-Pal ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 2, 1998, Pages 59~63
Three different male-sterile cytoplasmic lines and their common maintainer 'Zhenshan 97B' and two elite restorer lines were used to study cytoplasmic effects on agronomic trait manifestation per se under different nitrogen supply levels. The result showed that cytoplasmic effects could be modified by nitrogen environments. The cytoplasmic effect on grain yield under 150 kg N/ha varied depending on crosses, while it was significantly negative in most crosses under both 60 and 330 kg N/ha. The correlation and path-coefficient analyses suggested that it was expected to improve cytoplasmic effects through reducing maximum tillers and increasing the percentage of productive tillers, leading to increased productive tillers and higher yield in hybrid rice by the aid of cultural practice and genetic transformation. This study also revealed that the same cytoplasm in different combinations had differential effect under the same nitrogen environment, indicating that cytoplasmic effect was produced by interaction of nuclear genes with cytoplasm rather than cytoplasm per se. These results indicated the usefulness of evaluating diverse cytoplasmic sources in various nuclear genotypes bred for hybrid rice breeding program. The finding also suggested that negative cytoplasmic effect could be effectively overcome by elite restorer lines through the interaction of nuclear genes with female cytoplasm.
Inheritance of Resistance to Bacterial Blight in Tongil Type Rice Cultivar 'Changseongbyeo'
Shin, Mun-Sik ; Noh, Tae-Hwan ; Lee, Jae-Kil ; Shin, Hyun-Tak ; Cho, Soo-Yeon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 2, 1998, Pages 64~65
The inheritance of resistance to bacterial blight in a Tongil-type rice cultivar 'Changseongbyeo' was studied using a Korean isolate HB9101. which belongs to race
. The resistance of Changseongbyeo to the HB9101 was controlled by a single dominant gene. This gene was allelic with Xa-1 gene and linked to Ig gene on chromosome 4 with the recombination value of 7.5%.
Effect of Nitrogen Rate on Growth, Yield, and Chemical Composition of Forage Rape Cultivars
Cho, Nam-Ki ; Jin, Woo-Jong ; Kang, Young-Kil ; Ko, Mi-Ra ; Park, Yang-Mun ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 2, 1998, Pages 66~70
Four introduced forage rape (Brassica napus) cultivars, 'Akela', 'Ramon', 'Sparta', and 'Velox' and a leading rapeseed cultivar, 'Hallayuchae' were grown at nitrogen (N) rates of 0, 100, 250, 300, 350, and 400 kg/ha to (i) select forage rape cultivars adapted best to Cheju area, and (ii) determine the optimum N rate for the best cultivars. Days from seeding to flowering across the cultivars increased 190 to 195 days as N rate increased from 0 to 400 kg/ha. Average days to flowering of six cultivars ranged from 182 to 198 days. Plant height increased as N rate increased up to 300 kg/ha and then decreased with a further increase in N rate and ranged from 159 to 174 cm among the cultivars. The optimum N rate for the greatest dry matter yield of five cultivars ranged from 222 to 258 kg/ha. Sparta showed the greatest dry matter yield (35.79 Mg/ha), followed by Akela, Hallayuchae, Velox, and Ramon. As N rate increased, crude protein content linearly increased but crude fiber content declined curvilinearly. Akela and Sparta had higher protein content than the other cultivars did. The forage cultivars had lower crude fiber content than the oilseed cultivar Hallayuchae did. Our results demonstrated that Sparta was best adapted to Cheju area and the optimum N rate for Sparta was about 220kg/ha.
Effect of Growth Retardant BX-112 on Growth, Floral Initiation, and Endogenous GA Levels in Sorghum
Lee, In-Jung ; Kim, Kil-Ung ; Page W. Morgan ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 2, 1998, Pages 71~76
To define the relations between endogenous GA levels and growth and flowering in short-day plant sorghum, growth retardant BX-112 was applied to two sorghum genotypes, wild-type and phytochrome B mutant (phyB-1), which grows faster and flowers earlier than the wild-type. BX-112 and
were applied as a soil drench, and plant height, culm length, and date to floral initiation were investigated. Endogenous GAs contents were measured with GC-MS-SIM. BX-112 treatments inhibited shoot growth in both genotypes and drastically reduced
levels. With increasing BX-112 concentrations,
concentrations declined linearly, but caused the accumulation of intermediates from
. This result implies that
is the major active endogenous GA in shoot elongation in a short day plant sorghum. The inhibition of plant growth in both of wild type and phyB-1 by BX-112 was very similar, while BX-112 effects on floral initiation in two types of plants differed significantly. Floral initiation of phyB-1 was not affected by BX-1l2, but that of wild-type was delayed as BX-1l2 concentration increased. Because BX-112 treatment causes accumulation of biosynthetic intermediates between synthetic pathway from
and because phyB-1 is altered in GA metabolism in this same region of the early C13-hydroxylation pathway, BX-112 may fail to block flowering of phyB-1.
Development of Schizogenous and Lysigenous Aerenchyma in Rice Root
Kang, Si-Yong ; Wada, Tomikichi ; Choi, Kwan-Sam ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 2, 1998, Pages 77~82
Aerenchyma development in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots is quite important for adaptation to waterlogged or reduced soil conditions. Anatomical observations were carried out to clarify the development of schizogenous and lysigenous aerenchyma in elongating crown roots of rice. The crown roots of 3rd and 4th phytomer were taken from rice plants of the 8th leaf stage grown by hydroponic culture. The schizogenous intercellular spaces in the cortex of crown root tip were observed using a light microscope with semi ultra-thin sections and the lysigenous aerenchyma in mature tissue of crown root were observed using a cryo scanning electron microscope (cryo-SEM) with freezing fracture method. The schizogenous intercellular spaces in the root tip exist obviously in the middle portion of cortical cell layers close to the root-root cap junction, but not in root cap, stele and outer cell layers of cortex. The air spaces were formed at the junction of four neighbouring cells of inner cortex in the transverse sections, and between longitudinal cell layer connected along the root axis. Although many of those spaces were filled with liquid, some spaces seem to exist as air spaces. The lysigenous aerenchyma in the cortex, which hardly filled with liquid, emerged at 3-4 cm segment from the root tip and increased toward the basal region of root axis. The developing process of lysigenous aerenchyma was primarily separation of a radial row of cells caused by the shrinking and collapsing of cortical cells and then formation of septa along the radial cell rows by the fusion of cell wall with each other. These results suggest that the schizogenous and lysigenous aerenchyma playa role as a passage for the movement of oxygen into the root tip region where oxygen is required for respiration.
Quality Evaluation for Vegetable Use in Local Soybean Cultivars with Various Seed Coat Color
Lee, J. D. ; Hwang, Y. H. ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 2, 1998, Pages 83~88
From the evaluation of physical properties such as springiness, gumminess, adhesiveness, chewiness and hardness by the texture analyzer, vegetable soybean lines with green seed-coat were best as compared with those with black, brown, mixed, and yellow seed-coats. A panel test evaluated on the basis of taste, sweetness, chewiness, and total scores also indicated that soybean lines with green seed-coat were the best. The total scores of panel test was decreased in the order of green > yellow> black> brown seed-coat colored soybean. The mean value of sucrose content obtained by HPLC analysis was highest in black seed-coat colored soybean, and followed by green, yellow, and brown soybeans. The highest sucrose content (8.22%) was observed in 180362, a soybean line with green seed-coat. The full-season type soybeans showed much higher sucrose content than summer types which are mainly cultivated on farmer's fields for vegetable purposes. The final 13 lines selected from 300 colored soybeans showed nearly the same panel scores as Miwongreen. However, these lines had a great deal of variation in sucrose content, and much higher readings in texture analysis than Miwongreen, especially in chewiness and hardness which were the most important properties in vegetable soybeans.
Identification of Granule Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS) Isoforms in Wheat
Seo, Yong-Weon ; Hong, Byung-Hee ; Ha, Yong-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 2, 1998, Pages 89~94
Granule bound starch synthase (GBSS), also known as the '"waxy protein'", is responsible for the synthesis of amylose in the amyloplasts of cereal crops. In hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), GBSS is involved in amylose synthesis and rolls as an important factor to determine flour quality and end-use quality in food products. Genes on three Wx loci have been found to encode GBSS in common wheats. We developed techniques for the purification and separation of GBSS in wheat. Three major GBSS isoforms, which were encoded by the genes on three loci, Wx-A1, Wx-B1, and Wx-D1 migrating differently by one dimensional SDS-po-lyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D SDS-PAGE), were identified. GBSS from 66 Korean hard and soft winter wheats were purified and determined for their Wx loci and four of them were identified possessing a null allele either at the Wx-A1 and Wx-B1 loci. With help of identification of three GBSS isoforms using 1D SDS-PAGE system, we are able to identify and monitor Wx gene expressions in breeding materials for developing waxy or partial waxy wheats without experiencing consecutive selecting generations.cting generations.
Changes of Chemical Composition during Seedling Development in Soybean
Seong, Rak-Chun ; Choi, Kyu-Hoon ; Harry C. Minor ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 2, 1998, Pages 95~100
Seedling establishment of soybean [Glycine mar (L.) Mer-rill] is an important factor for soybean production in the field. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of chemical composition in the emerging organs during seedling development in soybeans. Three soybean cultivars (Hill, Paldalkong, and Jangyeobkong) were planted at the Research Farm of College of Natural Resources, Korea University, on May 26, June 5, and June 14. Protein, oil, sugar, and starch contents were measured in each organ at each developing stage. Mean dry weight of three soybean cultivars decreased until VE stage and increased after this stage. Protein content of whole seedling did not change significantly during the seedling growth stage, but the amount in cotyledons markedly decreased with each growth stage increment. About 88% of the cotyledon protein was translocated to the other parts of the seedling at the V2 stage. Oil content of cotyledons sharply decreased until the V1 stage. Sugar content of the seedling was not detected at VE stage and starch content of seedlings increased slightly at VE and VC stages. For the changes of each metabolic component, the amount for whole plants decreased until the V1 stage and started to increase after this stage. The results of this study provide evidence for the breakdown of carbohydrates and oil at the initial stage of seedling growth.
Analysis of Protein and Moisture Contents in Pea(Pisum sativum L. Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy
Jung, Chan-Sik ; Kim, Byung-Joo ; Kwon, Yil-Chan ; Han, Won-Young ; Kwack, Yong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 2, 1998, Pages 101~104
This study was conducted to establish a rapid analysis method for determining protein and moisture contents of pea. Ninety and eighty pea (Pisum sativum L.) lines were analyzed to determine protein and moisture contents, respectively using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Simple correlations (
) of protein content in a ground sample and an intact grain sample by an automatic regression method were 0.978 and 0.910, respectively. Simple correlations by partial least square regression/principal component analysis (PLS/PCA) methods were 0.982 and 0.925, respectively. Standard error of performance (SEP) in protein content was the lowest value, 0.446 in ground sample by PLS/PCA methods. Simple correlation of moisture content was the highest at 0.871 in ground samples. when using a standard regression method. Accuracy for the moisture content was slightly lower than for protein content. It was concluded that the NIRS method would be applicable only for rapid determination of protein content in pea.
Growth Characteristics and Seed Yield of Medicinal Soybeans Collected in Korea
Seong, Rak-Chun ; Hwang, Young-Hyun ; Park, Chang-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 2, 1998, Pages 105~112
Seeds of medicinal soybean [Glycine max(L.) Merill] are characterized by a black seed coat, white stripe at hilum border, yellow cotyledon, and very small seed weight. Production of this medicinal soybean has recently increased as a consumption increased. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth characteristics and seed yield of collected medicinal soybeans and to obtain basic information on production practices and breeding materials. The collected medicinal soybean lines were cultivated at three locations for two years. Twenty-seven lines were planted at the Research Farm, Korea University, Namyangju city, on May 23, and at the Research Farm, Kyungpook National University, Taegu, on May 20, 1995. In 1996 field experiments, forty-four lines were planted on May 25, at Research Farm, Korea University, and twenty-seven lines among those were planted on June 7 at the Research Farm of National Yeongnam Agricultural Experiment Station, Milyang city. The investigated lines had purple or white flower. Flowering and maturing dates were similar or later than those of the control cultivars. Branch number was greater for the investigated lines. One hundred-seed weight of the lines ranged from 8.5 to 15.0 g. Mean seed yields ranged from 1.54 to 2.89 MT/ha. Nine lines of the investigated medicinal soybeans showed higher yield capacity than the control cultivars. Further research should be done on the improvement of the production system and breeding program of medicinal soybeans.
Modeling Soil Temperature of Sloped Surfaces by Using a GIS Technology
Yun, Jin-I. ; S. Elwynn Taylor ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 2, 1998, Pages 113~119
Spatial patterns of soil temperature on sloping lands are related to the amount of solar irradiance at the surface. Since soil temperature is a critical determinant of many biological processes occurring in the soil, an accurate prediction of soil temperature distribution could be beneficial to agricultural and environmental management. However, at least two problems are identified in soil temperature prediction over natural sloped surfaces. One is the complexity of converting solar irradiances to corresponding soil temperatures, and the other, if the first problem could be solved, is the difficulty in handling large volumes of geo-spatial data. Recent developments in geographic information systems (GIS) provide the opportunity and tools to spatially organize and effectively manage data for modeling. In this paper, a simple model for conversion of solar irradiance to soil temperature is developed within a GIS environment. The irradiance-temperature conversion model is based on a geophysical variable consisting of daily short- and long-wave radiation components calculated for any slope. The short-wave component is scaled to accommodate a simplified surface energy balance expression. Linear regression equations are derived for 10 and 50 cm soil temperatures by using this variable as a single determinant and based on a long term observation data set from a horizontal location. Extendability of these equations to sloped surfaces is tested by comparing the calculated data with the monthly mean soil temperature data observed in Iowa and at 12 locations near the Tennessee - Kentucky border with various slope and aspect factors. Calculated soil temperature variations agreed well with the observed data. Finally, this method is applied to a simulation study of daily mean soil temperatures over sloped corn fields on a 30 m by 30 m resolution. The outputs reveal potential effects of topography including shading by neighboring terrain as well as the slope and aspect of the land itself on the soil temperature.
Comparative RFLP Analysis of Chromosome 2M of Aegilops comosa Sibth et Sm. Relative to Wheat (T. aestivum L.)
Park, Y. J. ; Shim, J. W. ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 2, 1998, Pages 120~123
Based on the co-linearity in the Triticeae, comparative RFLP analysis of 2M chromosome of Ae. comosa Sibth et Sm. was performed with 2MS and 2M additional lines of Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring. Among the wheat RFLP probes conserved in the short arms of wheat chromosome 2, those above psr912 were located on the long arms of 2M in Aegilops comosa. The rest probes on the short arm and all the probe sequences on the long arm of group 2 chromosome in wheat were conserved on the equivalent chromosomal position in Aegilops comosa. So, it is apparent that some chromosomal segment from the short arm had been transferred to long arm while reconstructing 2M chromosome relative to wheat chromosomes. The break-point was located between psr912 and psr131 of the short arm. This rearrangement of chromosome 2M might be a molecular evidence of the M genome speciation from an ancestral type.
Occurrence of Weedy Rice as Affected by Cultural Practices
Kim, Sang-Yeol ; Son, Yang ; Ha, Woon-Goo ; Park, Sung-Tae ; Kim, Soon-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 2, 1998, Pages 124~127
Since weedy rice problems have emerged with the recent advent of direct seeding cultivation in Korea, the establishment of effective control strategies for weedy rice is considered to be one of the urgent issues to be solved for widely practiced direct seeding rice cultivation. A three year experiment was conducted to investigate the occurrence pattern of weedy rice in four different rice cultivation practices: high ridged dry seeding, wet drill seeding, water seeding, and machine transplanting. The highest weedy rice occurrence of 11.0% was observed in high ridged dry seeding practice followed by 9.6% in wet drill seeding, 6.4% in water seeding practice, and 0.2% in machine transplanting practice, respectively. The same trend was observed when we examine the occurrence of contamination of panicle and rice grain by weedy rice. More contamination was observed in high ridged dry seeding than any other practices. It was also found that the possible emergence depths from the soil surface was deeper in both in ridged dry seeding and wet drill seeding practice (0-5 cm from the soil surface) than those in water seeding (0-4 cm), and machine transplanting practice (0-3 cm). The highest yield reduction of 19.5% was observed in high ridged dry seeding practice followed by 13.0% in wet drill seeding, 6.3% in water seeding practice. The reduction may have occurred to the competition between weedy rice and cultivated rice, These findings suggest that among the four cultural practices examined, the machine transplanting practice is the most effective method to control and reduce the weedy rice occurrence and weedy rice seed in soil.
Variation of Univariate Flow Karyotypes and Chromosomal DNA Contents in Maize (Zea mays L.)
Lee, Jai-Heon ; Lee, Myoung-Hoon ; Kim, Kyung-Je ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 43, issue 2, 1998, Pages 128~133
Analyses of now karyotypes using different maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines have been performed. The accumulation and isolation of high quality and quantity metaphase chromosomes from root tips can be achieved from many kinds of maize lines. The chromosome suspensions were prepared by a simple slicing method from synchronized maize root tips and analyzed with a now cytometry. The variations of experimental now karyotypes were detected among inbred lines in terms of the positions and/or the numbers of chromosome peaks. The 2C DNA amount among 8 inbred lines ranged from 5.09 to 5.52 pg. The variability of DNA content in maize chromosome 1 was 9.1 % ranging from 0.685 to 0.747 pg. The selection of appropriate maize lines is critical for sorting specific single chromosome types. At least five different chromosome types can be discriminated and sorted from five maize lines.