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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Dec 1999
Volume 44, Issue 3 - Sep 1999
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Jun 1999
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Mar 1999
Selecting the target year
Growth of Rice Plant and Chemical Properties of Soil as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization Level in Milk Vetch(Astragalus sinicus L.) Cultivation in Paddy Field
Lee, Yeen ; Shin, Hae-Ryong ; Kim, Suk-Wean ; Kwon, Oh-Do ; Park, Heung-Gyu ; Kim, Yong-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 1~3
This study was carried out to determine the effects on rice growth, yields and soil improvement under the different nitrogen levels in machine-transplanted rice after plowing at the fruiting stage of milk vetch. The fresh weight of milk vetch at plowing time was 20.95 ton/ha. In dry weight, T-N and C/N were 1.58%, 21.8%, respectively. Organic matter, total nitrogen and exchangeable calcium of soil after the experiment in the plot of milk vetch were higher than those before the experiment. Leaf area and dry weight of rice plants at heading date increased as nitrogen level increased. The number of panicle and spikelets per
were not different except for the 110 kg/ha nitrogen level plot with milk vetch. Brown rice yield ranged from 5.45 to 6.08 ton/ha, in creasing with increased nitrogen level. So the yield increased by 1% at 77 kg/ha nitrogen level, 7% at 110 kg/ha nitrogen level plot with milk vetch compared with conventional level (rice straw 5.4 ton/ha and nitrogen 110 kg/ha).
Effect of NaCl on Nitrogen Content of Barley Seedlings
Kim, Choong-Soo ; Cho, Jin-Woong ; Lee, Sok-Young ; Park, Kwan-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 4~10
This study was conducted to determine the effects of NaCl stress on nitrogen,
content of 4 barley cultivar seedlings that were cultured for 10 and 30 days with different NaCl levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM) contain-ing 1/4 Hoagland solutions. The sodium ion content in the shoot of barley seedlings sharply increased with an increase of NaCl concentration. After 30 days of NaCl treatment, the sodium content of the shoot at 150 mM NaCl was 27 times higher than in non-saline conditions. The sodium content in the root linearly increased with increasing NaCl concentration. Nitrogen content in the shoot linearly increased with increasing NaCl concentration, but nitrogen content in the root declined above the point where the
content was 3.0 mM/g
in the barley seedling.
content also decreased with increasing NaCl concentration.
content in the shoot decreased with NaCl condition, but its content in the root increased with NaCl condition. A positive correlation between
content was found in the shoot, but their relationship was negative in the root.
Effect of Nitrogen Rate and Planting Density on Early Growth in Wheat
Song, Chang-Khil ; Richard A, Richards ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 11~19
This experiment was conducted with nine wheat geno-types to choose the wheat which has excellent early vigour. 'Vigour 18' and 'ZL 59A' are excellent in the long coleoptile genotype, while 'Amery' and 'Janz' are excellent in the short coleoptile genotype. Responding to the growth stage and nitrogen level, Vigour 18 is predominant in the long coleoptile genogype, while Janz in the short coleoptile genotype. Responding to sowing density and nitrogen level, the higher the sowing density was, the shorter the leaf area of Vigour 18 and Janz. Also the leaf area turned out to larger in the plot fertilized with high nitrogen than in the plot fertilized with low nitrogen. This is true of leaf weight and root weight. Concerning specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area ratio (LAR), the higher the sowing density was, the SLA tended to grow larger, while the SLA grew larger in the plot fertilized with low nitrogen, as were found in Vigour 18 and Janz. The roots of long coleoptile genotype, Vigour 18, turned out to grow longest on the plot sown with 3 seeds. While the roots of short coleoptile genotype, Janz, grew longest on the plot sown with 2 seeds. The relative growth rate (RGR) was the same at low N rates and high N rates. The RGR was 0.071 and 0.072 g
at low N rates and high N rates. The partitioning of RGR into net assimilation rate (NAR) and LAR showed that the average LAR at low N rates was similar to the LAR at high N rates. Variation within each cultivar in the LAR and NAR was small relative to the difference between them at low N rates and high N rates. Above ground mass was 8.2 mg greater at high N rates than low N rates, whereas leaf area was 0.05
greater at high N rates than low N rates. The NAR was similar at low N rates and high N rates, whereas LAR was greater at high N rates (0.05
); variation in SLA was responsible for the variation in NAR and LAR both at low N rates and high N rates. NAR was more closely associated with the reciprocal of SLA.
Relationship between Vertical Root Distribution and Yield Traits in IRRI's New Plant Type Rice
Kim, Bo-Kyeong ; Kang, Si-Yong ; Shin, Hyun-tak ; Yang, Sae-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 20~25
This experiment was conducted to elucidate the relation-ship between vertical distribution of rice roots and yield traits under field conditions. Eight IRRI's new plant type rices (NPTRs) were tested in a volcanic ash soil paddy field under dense (IO 10 cm) and common (20 20 cm) planting densities. These lines were evaluated to have more spikelet numbers per panicle (SNP), lower filled grain rate (FGR), and lower rough grain weight per hill (RGWH). In dense planting, rough grain weight per stem (RGWS) was increased due to heavier culm and leaf dry weight (CLDW), and both RGWS and CLDW were related with the percentage of root distribution (%RWI) in the 10~30 cm soil layer, while in common planting, RGWS was not closely related with CLDW. SNP was highly related with root dry weight (RDW) in the 0~10cm soil layer. FGR was mainly affected by ROW in the 10~30 cm soil layer under both planting densities. RGWS was positively correlated with top dry weight (TDW) and harvest index (HI), and TDW was positively correlated with RWI under common planting or %RWI under dense planting, and HI was positively correlated with RWI in the 10~30 cm soil layer only under dense planting. RGWS was closely related with root weight index by dry weight (RWI) in the 10~30 cm soil layer and %RWI in the 0~30 cm or 10~30 cm soil layer under dense planting, and with only RWI in the 10~30 cm soil layer under common planting. But RGWH showed the close positive relationship with RDW and RWI in the 10~30 cm soil layer under dense planting, while under common planting, it showed the close positive relationship with RWI and %RWI in the 10~30 cm soil layer or %RWI in the 0~30 cm soil layer. The deeper root system in rice, especially under dense planting, is important for high yield of NPTRs focusing on the increment of top mass production and harvest index.
DNA Fingerprinting of Rice Cultivars using AFLP and RAPD Markers
Cho, Young-Chan ; Shin, Young-Seop ; Ahn, Sang-Nag ; Gleen B. Gregorio ; Kang, Kyong-Ho ; Darshan Brar ; Moon, Huhn-Pal ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 26~31
This experiment was conducted to evaluate genetic variation in 48 rice accessions (Oryza sativa L.) using AFLP and RAPD markers. For AFLP, a total of 928 bands were generated with 11 primer combinations and 327 bands (35.2%) of them were polymorphic among 48 accessions. In RAPD analyses using 22 random primers 145 bands were produced, and 121 (83.4%) were polymorphic among 48 accessions. Each accession revealed a distinct fingerprint by two DNA marker systems. Cluster analysis using AFLP-based genetic similarity tended to classify rice cultivars into different groups corresponding to their varietal types and breeding pedigrees, but not using RAPD-based genetic similarity. The AFLP marker system was more sensitive than RAPD in fingerprinting of rice cultivars with narrow genetic diversity.
Weed Emergence as Affected by Burying Depth and Water Management
Moon, Byeong-Cheul ; Park, Sung-Tae ; Kim, Soon-Chul ; Kwon, Suk-Ju ; Mortimer, Andrew-Martin ; Collin Piggin ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 32~37
The experiment was conducted to investigate emergence response of lowland weeds at different soil moisture contents, burying depths and upon changes in soil moisture. Rice germination was over 50% at all burying depths under aerobic condition, but the emergence rate of the soil surface placed seeds in saturated and flooded conditions decreased by 19% and 29%, respectively, as compared with that of aerobic condition. Rice seeds at burying depth of over 3 cm did not emerge at all. The emergence rate of Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. in aerobic condition was lower than 30%, but the emergence pattern of E. crus galli (L.) Beauv. at different soil moisture contents and seeding depths was similar to that of rice. Emergence behavior of lschaemum rugosum Salisb., Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven and Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn. which are dominant lowland weed species in the Philippines also differed depending on soil moisture conditions and burying depths. lschaemum rugosum Salisb. emerged at all burying depths under aerobic condition, whereasLudwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven emerged only at 0 cm deep under saturated and aerobic condition and Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn. at 0 cm deep under flooding condition. Weed seeds planted at 1, 3, and 5 cm deep in continuous flooded and saturated condition did not emerge at all, but upon a change of soil moisture condition from saturated to drainage (S
D) and flooded to drainage (F
D), grass weeds began to germinate again and the average emergence rate in S
D and F
D were 26% and 5% forE. crusgalIi (L.) Beauv., 9% and 8% forI. rugosum SaIisb., respectively. Weed seeds buried in soil in the pot showed great emergence at S
D but did not emerge under continuous flooded condition. The diversity index accounting for dominance degree and occurrence aspect of weed, was the lowest at F
Effects of Desalinization Management on Rice Yield in Sea Water Flooded Field
Kim, Sang-Su ; Yang, Won-Ha ; Choi, Weon-Young ; Park, Hong-Kyu ; Choi, Min-Gyu ; Back, Nam-Hyun ; Kang, Si-Yong ; Shin, Hyun-Tak ; Cho, Soo-Yeon ; Kwon, Seog-Ju ; Ko, Bok-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 38~43
Over 2,000 ha of rice fields in the western and southern coastal region of Korea were flooded with sea water during the spring tide, on August 19-21, 1997, and the rice plant at heading stage was injured. The field surveys were undertaken at the sea water flooded paddy fields in Chonbuk Province, to identify the injury symptoms and rice yield damage subjected to different flooding condition and desalinization methods. Five days after sea water flooding at heading stage, the flag leaves of rice plants flooded with 30 ㎝ deep sea water withered from the tip, the withering progressed to the lower leaves in deeper flooding. The spikelets were spotted black and discolored from the tip at 50 ㎝ deep flooded rice, and some panicles changed to white at 80 ㎝ deep flooded rice. Most of the rice leaves submerged completely for an hour were withered and most of panicles changed to white. The milled rice yield, percentage of ripened grain, and 1000 grain weight of flooded rice decreased with deeper flooding water, higher water salinity and longer flooding time. Even under the same flooding conditions, the damage of rice yield varied with the growth stage: heading stage>dough stage>booting stage. Rice yield damage was less in the fields on the upper riverside than those of the fields on the estuary and seaside, because of lower water salinity. In a flooded field, the rice yield damages were reduced as the distance increased from the levees where the sea water inflowed and increased as the distance increased from the fresh water irrigation gate. The desalinization treatments consisting of frequent exchange of irrigation water and spraying with fresh water soon after flooding effectively reduced the rice yield damage.
Nitrogen Translocation and Dry Matter Accumulation of Direct Seeded Rice in No Tillage Rice-Vetch Cropping
Cho, Young-Son ; Lee, Byung-Jin ; Choe, Zhin-Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 44~48
Uptake, assimilation and translocation of nitrogen and dry matter assimilation and translocation in ten rice cultivars were observed in no-till direct-sown rice-vetch cropping system. There was a large degree of variation in N-uptake, grain yield, nitrogen translocation efficiency and dry matter assimilation and translocation in tested rice cultivars. Forty kg N/ha base, as compound fertilizer (21-17-21% of N-P-K) three weeks after sowing and 30 kg N/ha top-dressed at panicle initiation stage as in the form of (NH
was applied. ‘Newbounet’, ‘Daesanbyeo’, and ‘Hwayeongbyeo’ showed higher translocation efficiency. The contribution of pre-heading dry matter assimilates to grain ranged from 33% to 99% of dry grain weight. Dry matter of ‘Calrose 76’ was lower than Newbounet but N content was higher in Calrose 76 than Newbonnet. By maturity, N content in vegetative parts declined considerably more than dry matter, vegetative and reproductive parts, N translocation efficiency, and N harvest index. Nitrogen translocation efficiency was greater in ‘Nonganbyeo’, Daesanbyeo, and Newbounet. Grain N concentration was positively correlated with N concentration or N content of the vegetative parts at heading in Nonganbyeo, ‘Dasanbyeo’, ‘Dongjinbyeo’, and Newbonnet. These results indicated that the greater amount of dry matter and N accumulated before heading stage, the higher translocation rates of dry matter to grain and the greater net losses at maturity.
Effect of Chinese Milk Vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) Cultivation dring Winter on Rice Yield and Soil Properties
Cho, Young Son ; Choe, Zhin Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 49~54
An experiment was carried out using pots to investigate the effects of Chinese milk vetch on the seedling establishment and growth in rice. Four irrigations with five-day intervals and three different levels of vetch straw were investigated. Significantly higher panicle numbers were obtained in vetch-treated pots. Vetch levels were non-treatment as checks, vetch with top removed, root plus shoot 7.5 ton/ha, and root plus shoot 3.0 ton/ha. The time for complete degradation of vetch straws was reduced from 10 days to 5 days as submerged time was delayed, and was affected by the amount of mulched vetch straws. As the mulched vetch amount increased, the time for a complete degradation was extended from 4 days to 12 days. Grain yield and its components were significantly affected by irrigation time and mulched vetch amount. Effectively controlled, lowered reduction damage from the degrading vetch straw, irrigation date and vetch amount were the most important factors for the improving of seedling establishment in direct-sown rice.
Genotypic Variation in Leaf Water Status of Soybean
Jin, Yong-Moon ; Lee, Hong-Suk ; Lee, Suk-Ha ; Kwon, Yong-Woong ; Im, Jeong-Nam ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 55~58
Plant water status during growth is directly and indirectly associated with seed yield. The objective of the present study was to determine the genotypic differences in leaf water characteristics at an early growth stage of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] plants through the pressure-bomb technique. Measurements of water potential as well as relative water content (RWC) were made at the third leaf from the fully-expanded top leaf of eight different soybean genotypes grown for 31 to 35 days after field emergence. On the basis of the modified exponential model, pressure-volume (PV) curves were fitted well (
=0.92＊＊ to 0.99＊＊ for the curvi-linear region and R=0.67＊＊ to 0.96＊＊ for the linear region), indicating that a segmented model using PROC NLIN of SAS could be used effectively to estimate the leaf water characteristics. The regression analysis for the pressure-volume (PV) curve revealed genotypic variation in the solute potential at saturation (Ψ
:-10.7 to -14.8 bar), solute potential at incipient plasmolysis (Ψ
: -14.3 to -18.3 bar), RWC at incipient plasmolysis (RW
: 83.3 to 91.7%), high integrated turgor pressure from saturation to plasmolysis (
: 0.39 to 0.81), and maximum volumetric modulus of elasticity (
: 150 to 445 bar).).
Comparison of Yield and Growth Characteristics of Korean High Yielding Cultivars and IRRI's New Plant Type Rice Line
Lee, Byun-Woo ; Ha, Jong-Ryuk ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 59~63
Yield and growth characteristics were compared for five rice cultivars; a new Tongil-type, so called '
Gelatinization Characteristics of Glutinous Rice Varieties
Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Park, Hong-Sook ; Kim, Jae-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 64~69
Gelatinization characteristics of 111 glutinous rice varieties were evaluated by Rapid Visco Analyzer. Gelatinization viscosity of glutinous rice tested varied with ecotypes or varietal groups: indica, japonica, and Tongil type. Indica rice showed the highest average value of initial pasting temperature. The average values for peak, hot, and cool viscosities were highest in Tongil-type rice, and lowest in japonica rice. Japonica showed the lowest breakdown and consistency, but the highest setback value. Indica was lower in alkali digestion value (ADV), and shorter in gel length after gelatinization thanjaponica and Tongil-type. Glutinous rices tested could be divided into six groups by cluster analysis based on their gelatinization characteristics. Group I-A was mostly early maturing japonica varieties while I-B was mostly indica and Tongil-type rices. Groups II-A and II-B were consisted of very early maturingjaponica, and III-A and III-B included medium or medium late maturingjaponica varieties. Group III-A showed the lowest average values of peak, hot, cool, and consistency viscosities, and also in breakdown and setback ratios. Group I-B revealed the highest values in peak, hot, cool, breakdown, and consistency viscosities. ADV was low in groups I-A, I-B, and II-B, and gel consistency was not different among the six varietal groups. Principal component analysis using seven traits related with gelatinization produced four effective components, and the first and second components were highly correlated with all the gelatinization characters evaluated.
Identification of QTLs Affecting Physical Traits of Cooked Rice
Kang, Hyeon-Jung ; Cho, Yong-Gu ; Lee, Young-Tae ; Kim, Young-Doo ; Eun, Moo-Young ; Shim, Jae-Uk ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 70~73
This study was conducted to ascertain the chromosomal locations and effect of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the physical traits of rice (Oryza sativa L.) eating quality. One hundred sixty four recombinant inbred lines (MGRILs) of F
were derived from the cross between Milyang 23 (Tongil type) and Gihobyeo (japonica type). They were evaluated for six physical traits of cooked rice. Transgressive segregation was observed for all examined traits. Significant QTL were detected (LOD
2.0) in three traits, including single QTL for adhesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness of cooked rice, respectively. Phenotypic variation explained by each QTL ranged from 6.3% to 14.6%. However, no significant QTL was detected for hardness, cohesiveness, and elasticity of cooked rice. Pleiotropic effects of single QTL on different traits are observed.d.
Effect of Priming on Germination of Aged Soybean Seeds
Park, E. ; Choi, Y.S. ; Jeong, J.Y. ; Lee, S.S. ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 74~77
The object of this study is to determine the effect of priming on the germination ability and seedling emergence of aged soybean seeds in lab and field conditions. Artificial or natural procedure for seed aging was applied in this study. One seed lot was artificially aged for 3 to 5 days at 42
with high relative humidity (nearly RH 100%), and the other one was stored at room temperature for 17 months. Aged seeds were osmoconditioned in -1.1 MPa polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG) solution for 3 days at
and air-dried. When Danyeobkong was aged for 4 days average germination was 61.5%, however, this improved to 98.5% after the priming treatment. Improvement of seed germination by priming the aged seed was consistent with large seed sized Jangyeobkong cultivar, indicating that the priming was effective in enhancing seed germinability regardless of seed size. Priming aged seeds also resulted in good stand establishment in the field trials. Germination of aged seeds of Danyeobkong without priming was 17.0%, whereas that of primed ones was 66.4%.
Analysis of Kernel Hardness of Korean Wheat Cultivars
Hong, Byung-Hee ; Park, Chul-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 78~85
To investigate kernel hardness, a compression test which is widely used to measure the hardness of individual kernels as a physical testing method was made simultaneously with the measurement of friabilin (15KDa) which is strongly associated with kernel hardness and was recently developed as a biochemical marker for evaluating kernel hardness in 79 Korean wheat varieties and experimental lines. With the scattered diagram based on the principal component analysis from the parameters of the compression test, 79 Korean wheat varieties were classified into three groups based on the principal component analysis. Since conventional methods required large amount of flour samples for analysis of friabilin due to the relatively small amount of friabilin in wheat kernels, those methods had limitations for quality prediction in wheat breeding programs. An extraction of friabilin from the starch of a single kernel through cesium chloride gradient centrifugation was successful in this experiment. Among 79 Korean wheat varieties and experimental lines 50 lines (63.3%) exhibited a friabilin band and 29 lines (36.7%) did not show a friabilin band. In this study, lines that contained high maximum force and the lower ratio of minimum force to maximum force showed the absence of the friabilin band. Identification of friabilin, which is the product of a major gene, could be applied in the screening procedures of kernel hardness. The single kernel analysis system for friabilin was found to be an easy, simple and effective screening method for early generation materials in a wheat breeding program for quality improvement.
Agronomic Characteristics of Rice Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) Developed from a Cross of Nonganbyeo and BG 279
Lee, Jeom-Ho ; Kim, Nam-Soo ; Cho, Youn-Sang ; Song, Moon-Tae ; Hwang, Hung-Goo ; Moon, Huhn-Pal ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 1, 1999, Pages 86~94
A set of rice recombinant inbred lines was developed from a cross between a Tongil type variety, Nonganbyeo, and an indica variety, BG276, by the single seed descent method. The number of the lines in the population was 272. All the agronomic characters studied except ADV (alkali-digestion value) showed continuous variation among the RILs, implying that their inheritance mode should be quantitative. The patterns of the variation in the RILs were either normal or skewed distribution. ADVs of RILs were segregated into two groups with 1:1 ratio, indicating that ADVs in this KIL population might be controlled by one major gene. Transgressive variations were also observed in all characters. Heritability values of the characters varied from 0.488 in brown/rough rice ratio to 0.895 in alkali-digestion value. In the analysis of genotypic and phenotypic correlations, the character of yield was positively correlated with 8 different agronomic characters. The number of panicles per hill was negatively correlated with culm length, panicle length, and number of spikelets per panicle. Grain length was positively correlated with grain width, grain thickness, grain length/width ratio, white belly, ADV, and amylose. However, grain length/width ratio was negatively correlated with grain width. White core was also negatively correlated with white belly and ADV.