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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Dec 1999
Volume 44, Issue 3 - Sep 1999
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Jun 1999
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Mar 1999
Selecting the target year
Effects of Straw Mulching and Nitrogen Fertilization on the Growth of Direct Seeded Rice in No-tillage Rice / Vetch Cropping System
Young-Son, Cho ; Zhin-Ryong, Choe ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 97~101
No-till direct seeding cultivation of rice has major advantages such as saving of labor and cost by eliminating tillage, preparation of seed bed and trans-planting procedure compared to the conventional transplanting cultivation. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of straw treatment and nitrogen levels on the rice growth in no-till direct-seeding cultivation. Rice straw, vetch straw, and the mixture of both of the straws were mulched on the surface of soil before seeding while 4 levels of nitrogen fertilizer, 0, 7, 9, and 11 kkg/10a respectively, were applied at 3 split times, 3-weeks after sowing, 5-weeks after sowing and the panicle initiation stage. Mulching of vetch straw significantly reduced seedling establishment of rice which may be attributed to low oxidation-reduction potential of soil by vetch mulching treatment. Vetch straw increased the concentration of soil ammonium leading to an extension of the greenish leaf to panicle initiation stage. Agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (AD
) in heavy-mixed straw mulching plots was lower than other treatments. Grain yield and AU
in the vetch treatment were less affected by fertilized N levels. Conclusively, it is suggested that heavy straw mulching was not efficient for rice seedling establishment and nitrogen usage.e.
Nitrogen Mineralization of Cereal Straws and Vetch in Paddy Soil by Test Tube Analysis
Cho, Young-Son ; Lee, Byong-Zhin ; Choe, Zhin-Ryong ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 102~105
Mineralization of organic N is an important factor in determining the appropriate rate of organic matter application to paddy fields. A kinetic analysis was conducted for nitrogen mineralization of rice, barley, Chinese milk Ovetch (Astragalus sinicus L.; MV) and narrow leaf vetch straw in paddy soil. Nitrogen immobilization occurred rapidly and its rate increased in straw with high C/N ratio. The amount of nitrogen mineralization was rapid in the first year of rice-vetch cropping system. The rate constant (K) depended on the C/N ratio of organic matter. Mineralization of straw increased at high temperature. The amount of available N increment resulted in fast mineralization of straw, especially in rice and barley straw. Chinese milk vetch had the greatest mineralization rate at all temperatures and fertilization levels followed by narrow-leaf vetch. However, rice and barley straws with high C/N ratio immobilized the soil N at the initial incubation duration. Chinese milk vetch or narrow leaf vetch was not effectively mineralized in mixed treatments with rice or barley straw. The mineralization rate of organic matter was mostly affected by the C/N ratio of straw and temperature of incubation. Organic matter with low C/N ratio should be recommended to avoid the immobilization of soil N and the increasing mineralization rate of straw.
Effect of Planting Density and Nitrogen Level on Growth and Yield in Heavy Panicle Weight Type of Japonica Rice
Kim, Bo-Kyeong ; Kim, Hyun-Ho ; Ko, Jae-Kwon ; Shin, Hyun-Tak ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 106~111
To investigate the effects of planting density and nitrogen level on growth and yield potential of newly bred heavy panicle japonica rice with large grain (Iksan 435 and Iksan 438) or many spikelets per panicle(HR14022-21-8-4 and HR14022-21-8-6), four heavy panicle type rices and two many panicle type rices(Dongjinbyeo and Donganbyeo) as the checks were planted under standard planting density (30
15 cm) and dense planting density (15
15 cm) with two nitrogen levels of standard nitrogen level(110 kg h
) and heavy nitrogen level(165 kg h
). Effective tiller rate decreased in dense planting or heavy nitrogen, when compared to standard nitrogen and planting, while leaf area index and to dry weight increased in dense planting or heavy nitrogen. Tiller numbers and panicle numbers were more increased by dense planting than heavy nitrogen, whereas spikelet numbers were more increased by heavy nitrogen than dense planting. Ripened grain ratio was slightly lower only in dense planting. 1,000 grain weight in brown rice was not significantly different in dense planting or heavy nitrogen. Milled rice yield was highest in heavy nitrogen with standard planting for heavy panicle type rice, while yield for many panicle type rice was highest in heavy nitrogen with dense planting, suggesting that many panicle type rice possesses higher adapt-ability for dense planting than heavy panicle type rice. Path coefficient analysis revealed that top dry weight, spikelet number and grain weight were the greatest positive contributors to yield, whereas tiller number was negative to yield.d.
Evaluation of Genetic Relationship and Fingerprinting of Rice Varieties using Microsatellite and RAPD Markers
Soo- Jin, Kwon ; Sang-Nag, Ahn ; Hae-Chune, Choi ; Huhn-Pal, Moon ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 112~116
Genetic diversity of 31 rice varieties including 25 japonica and 6 indica varieties was evaluated using a combination of 19 microsatellite or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 28 random decamer oligonucle-otide primers. All 19 microsatellite primer sets representing 19 loci in the rice genome showed polymorphisms among the 31 varieties and revealed 91 alleles with an average of 4.80 bands per primer. Also all 28 random decamer primers used were informative and generated 114 non-redundant bands with a mean of 4.07 bands. Microsatellite markers detected higher number of alleles than random primers .although the mean difference was not statistically significant. A cluster analysis based on Nei＇s genetic distances calculated from the 205 bands resolved the 31 varieties into two major groups that correspond to indica and japonica subspecies, which is consistent with the genealogical information. As few as six random decamer primers or a combination of one microsatellite and four random decamer primers were sufficient to uniquely differentiate all 31 varieties. These combinations would be potentially useful in rice variety protection and identification considering that 25 out of 31 varieties used in this study are japonica rices with high grain quality and have close make up.
Characteristics of Spikelets and Vascular Bundles in Panicle of Japonica Rice Cultivar, 'Iksan 435'
Park, Hong-Kyu ; Kang, Si-Yong ; Choi, Weon-Young ; Kim, Sang-Su ; Cho, Soo-Yeon ; Choi, Won-Yul ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 117~121
Spikelet and vascular bundle development in rice panicles is considered to be the important elements in determining the genotype's yield capacity and translocation ability of assimilates into grains, respectively. This study was conducted to clarify the varietal differences of the spikelet and vascular bundle formations among three rice cultivars; Iksan 435 (japonica), Dongjinbyeo (japonica) and Namcheonbyeo (Tongl-type). Iksan 435 had more primary rachis branches (PRBs), secondary rachis branches (SRBs) and spikelets per panicle than Dongjinbyeo, but less than Namcheonbyeo. Among three cultivars, Namcheonbyeo showed the highest spikelet number per panicle which were differentiated SRBs mainly on PRBs of lower rachis nodes. And Namchenbyeo showed the highest number of large vascular bundle (LVB) as well as small vascular bundle (SVB) and it displayed the largest diameter of LVB. Between the two japonica cultivars, the numbers of LVBs end SVBs were significantly higher in Iksan 435 than those in Dongjinbyeo. The PRBs to LVBs ratio of Namcheonbyeo was twice as large as those of Dongjinbyeo and Iksan 435. These results indicate that the newly bred cultivar, Iksan 435, has improved yield capacity by increasing the number of especially rachis branches and spikelets formation as well as 1,000 grain weight, compared to other former japonicas.
Effects of Seedling Age on Growth and Yield of Machine Transplanted Rice in Southern Plain Region
Kim, Sang-Su ; Kim, Bo-Kyeong ; Choi, Min-Gyu ; Back, Nam-Hyun ; Choi, Weon-Young ; Lee, Sean-Yong ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 122~128
Three rice cultivars, Namweonbyeo (early maturing), Hwaseongbyeo (medium maturing) and Dongjinbyeo (medium-late maturing) were trans-planted with 3 different seedling ages to investigate their growth habits and to improve the cultural method in paddy fields in the southern plain area of the Honam region in 1993. The 10-day old seedlings had more vigorous elongation of plant height and higher tillering ability but lower effective tiller rate, when compared with 35-day or 40-day old seedlings. Leaf area index and top dry weight were lower in 10-day old seedlings up to 40 days after transplanting but thereafter, were not different among seedlings ages. CGR was later in 10-day old seedlings, up to 30 days after transplanting, but in 30 to 40 days after transplanting, it was reversed. RGR was the highest in infant seedlings to 40 days after trans-planting, while in 50 days after transplanting, it was reversed. Panicle number and spikelet number per square meter were the highest in 40-day old seedlings, next highest in 35-day old seedlings and the lowest and in adult seedlings up to 40 days after transplanting, while spikelet number per panicle was vice versa. Milled rice yield did not vary significantly by seedling ages, but among the varieties, it was less in Hwaseongbyeo compared with Naweonbyeo and Dongjnbyeo.
Dry Matter Accumulation and Leaf Mineral Contents as Affected by Excessive Soil Water in Soybean
Seong, Rak-Chun ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ; Nelson, C. Jeny ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 129~133
Excessive soil water at vegetative growth stages during the rainy season induces yield losses in soybeans. Our objectives were to obtain basic information about the cultivar differences and to understand the stress-tolerance process for due to excessive soil water. Previous experiments revealed soybean genotypic differences in tolerance to excessive soil water. A field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Korea University near Seoul on 21 May 1998. Soybean[Glycine max (L.) Merrill] cultivars, 'Hannamkong' (sensitive) and 'Taekwan-gkong'(tolerant) were planted in vinyl-lined plots(1.2 x 4.2 x 0.3 m deep) and control plots. Drip irrigation began at VI growth stage to submerge the soil surface. Three weeks of excessive soil water treatment reduced all growth parameters measured to soybean plants. Excessive soil water stress resulted in decreases of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Cu, and increases of Fe and Mn contents in soybean leaves. The stress index of tolerant cultivars under excessive soil water showed no large difference in soybean growth characteristics measured at three growth stages. However, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn contents in soybean leaves appeared to differ between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. From the above results, stress and tolerance indices are proposed for a method to test cultivar differences in plant responses within a species under adverse growth environments.
Effects of Priming and Growth Regulator Treatment of Seed on Emergence and Seedling Growth of Rice
Lee, Suk-Soon ; Kim, Jae-Hyeun ; Hong, Seung-Beom ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 134~137
An experiment was carried out to determine the effects of priming and growth regulator treatment of seeds on the emergence and seedling growth of rice, Oryza sativa L. (cv. 'Ilpumbyeo'). Normal seeds were primed in a -0.6 MPa polyethylene glycol solution at 15
for four days with air-bubbling. Then both primed and non-primed seeds were soaked in water, 100 ppm GA
, 2 ppm ABA, and 10 ppm kinetin solutions for 24 hours. The seeds were planted in soil at 3 and 5 cm depths and allowed to germinate in a growth cabinet at 2
. Generally, the emergence rate at the 3 cm seeding depth was higher and emerged faster compared with the 5 cm seeding depth. The emergence rate of primed seeds was higher and emerged faster compared to non-primed seeds. GA
and kinetin treatments were the most effective to improve the emergence rate of non-primed seeds. Coleoptile length at the 5 cm seeding depth was longer than that at the 3 cm seeding depth. Leaf number, plant height, and root length of primed seedlings were higher compared with non-primed seeds. GA
promoted the elongation of plant height and mesocotyle length.
Morphological Change, Sugar Content, and
-amylase Activity of Rice Seeds under Various Priming Conditions
Lee, Suk-Soon ; Kim, Jae-Hyeun ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 138~142
An experiment was carried out to find out the changes in morphology, sugars, and
-amylase activity during the priming of rice seeds (Oryza sativa L. cv. ＇Ilpumbyeo＇). For priming, seeds were soaked in -0.6 MPa PEG solution at 15
for 4 days (properly primed) and at
for 4 and 10 days (over-primed) and dried at room temperature. The size of coleoptile and differentiated leaves of properly primed seeds were bigger and coleoptile was separated from the other part of embryo compared with non-primed and over-primed seeds. As priming of seeds advanced, compound starch grains in the endosperm disintegrated into tiny starch granules, and small holes were found in the tiny starch granules and a cavities developed between embryo and endosperm. The radicle and plumule of properly primed germinating seeds developed faster than non-primed and overprimed germinating seeds. Sucrose, maltose, and raffinose contents of properly primed seeds decreased, while content of glucose and fructose and
-amylase activity increased. However, sugar content and
-amylase activity of over-primed seeds were lower compared with non-primed seeds or properly primed seeds.
Effects of Soil Moisture Stress at Different Growth Stage on Growth, Yield and Quality in Rice
Park, Hong-Kyu ; Choi, Weon-Young ; Kang, Si-Yong ; Kim, Young-Doo ; Choi, Won-Yul ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 143~148
Soil moisture condition is an important limiting factor in growth and yield in rice culture. The purpose of this study was to compare the influence on the growth, yield and Quality of rice subjected to soil moisture stress (SMS) at different growth stages. Ajaponica rice cultivar, Dongjinbyeo, was cultured under flooded conditions in a plastic container filled with silty loam soil. The container was subjected to SMS until the initial wilting point (IWP) coincided with about 10% in soil moisture content and about-200 kPa in soil matric potential, and was then irrigated again, at 6 and 5 of main growth stage in 1996 and 1997, respectively. At maturity, the plant height, tiller number, leaf area and top dry weight were decreased more in SMS treatments at the early stage than the late stage. The averaged yield index of SMS to control in both years was lowest at meiosis (62.5%), which primarily resulted from lower percent ripened grain and 1,000 grain weight, and second＇ reduced the spikelet number per panicle and panicle number per hill, and followed at tillering stage (68.5%) which resulted from the lower production in tiller number and top dry matter during and after SMS treatment. The percent-age of read rice in SMS plants varied with the treatment stage as order of lower at meiosis (44.0%), heading (53.9%), panicle initiation (70.1%), tillering (72.1%), ripening (75.8%) and 5 days after transplanting (DAT) (79.0%). Protein content in brown rice was slightly larger in SMS at late growth stage than the control, while the contents of fat and ash differed very little between SMS and control. Contents of Mg and K and Mg/K in brown rice with SMS were lower at some treatment stages such as at ripening or panicle initiation.
Relationship between Plastochrone and Development Indices Estimated by a Nonparametric Rice Phenology Model
Lee, Byun-Woo ; Nam, Taeg-Su ; Yim, Young-Seon ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 149~153
Prediction of rice developmental stage is necessary for proper crop management and a prerequisite for growth simulation as well. The objectives of the present study were to find out the relationship between the plastochrone index(PI) and the developmental index(DVI) estimated by non-parametric phenology model which simulates the duration from seedling emergence(DVI=0) to heading(DVI=l) by employing daily mean air temperature and daylength as predictor variables, and to confirm the correspondency of developmental indice to panicle developmental stages based on this relationship. Four japonica rice cultivars, Kwanakbyeo, Sangpungbyeo, Dongjinbyeo, and Palgumbyeo which range from very early to very late in maturity, were grown by sowing directly in dry paddy field five times at an interval of two weeks. Data for seedling emergence, leaf appearance, differentiation stage of primary rachis branch and heading were collected. The non-parametric phenology model predicted well the duration from seedling emergence to heading with errors of less than three days in all sowings and cultivars. PI was calculated for every leaf appearance and related to the developmental index estimated for corresponding PI. The stepwise polynomial analysis produced highly significant square-rooted cubic or biquadratic equations depending on cultivars, and highly significant square-rooted biquadratic equation for pooled data across cultivars without any considerable reduction in accuracy compared to that for each cultivar. To confirm the applicability of this equation in predicting the panicle developmental stage, DVI at differentiation stage of primary rachis branch primordium was calculated by substituting PI with 82 corresponding to this stage, and the duration reaching this DVI from seedling emergence was estimated. The estimated duration revealed a good agreement with that observed in all sowings and cultivars. The deviations between the estimated and the observed were not greater than three days, and significant difference in accuracy was not found for predicting this developmental stage between those equations derived for each cultivar and for pooled data across all cultivars tested.
Comparison of Analytical Methods for Volatile Flavor Compounds in Leaf of Perilla frutescens
Kim, Kwan-Su ; Ryu, Su-Noh ; Song, Ji-Sook ; Bang, Jin-Ki ; Lee, Bong-Ho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 154~158
Volatile flavor compounds from perilla leaves were extracted and analyzed with different methods, head-space analysis (HS), simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) , and solvent extraction (SE), and to compare their efficiencies for quick analysis. Over 30 volatile compounds were isolated and 28 compounds were identified by GC/MSD. Major compound was perillaketone showing the compositions of which were 92% in SDE method, 86% in headspace analysis, and 62% in solvent extraction method. For quick evaluation of leaf flavor in perilla, it was desirable because the headspace analysis method had a shorter analyzing time and smaller sample amount than the other methods.
Changes in Oil, Tannin, Total Sugar Contents and Yield after Flowering in Peanut
Lee, Sung-Woo ; Park, Chang-Hwan ; Kang, Chul-Whan ; Kim, Sok-Dong ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 159~162
This study was carried out to determine the optimum harvest date of unshelled immature peanuts and dried kernels from 60 to 120 days after flowering. Fresh pod yield of spanish-type variety, 'Shaedl-tangkong(SD)' reached a peak of 9,140kg/ ha at 70 (days after flowering(Aug. 13) while that of virginia-type variety, 'Daepoongtangkong(DP)' reached a peak of 8,820kg/ha at 90 days(Sept. 11) after flowering. SD and DP showed maximum fresh kernel yield of 6,090 and 6,470kg/ha at 90 days after flowering (Sept. 11), respectively, while dry kernel yield reached a peak of 3,300 and 3,720kg/ha at 110 days(Oct. 1), respectively. Oil content of SD and DP were the highest at 90 days and 100 days after flowering, respectively and the oil content of two varieties increased rapidly from 60 to 90 days. Tannin content of the seed hull of SD increased continuously until 110 days after flowering while that of DP maximized at 100 days. The tannin content of the two varieties increased rapidly from 60 to 100 days. Total sugar of SD and DP showed highest content at 60 days and 70 days after flowering, respectively and suger content decreased very rapidly until 80 days and after that sugar content kept nearly constant. Oil, tannin and total sugar content of spanish-type SD were higher than those of virginia-type DP.
Zinc Chloride Toxicity on Free Proline and Organic Acids in Germinating Rice Seed
Kim, Sang-Kuk ; Chung, Sang-Hwan ; Lee, Sang-Chul ; Lee, Seong-Phil ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 163~165
The study was conducted to find the critical concentrations of zinc toxicity and to determine the changes of the contents of free proline and organic acids with treatment of different zinc chloride concentrations during rice germination and seedlings grown for seven days. The concentration of zinc chloride, 140 ppm, inhibited root elongation as much as 46 times compared with the control, and the germination rate was also decreased in all treatments of zinc chloride, showing that the germination rate decreased more with increasing concentrations of zinc chloride. Its rate was only 13% with treatment of 140 ppm zinc chloride. The content of free proline with treatment of zinc chloride, 140 ppm, was highest about 4,873
M at 3 days compared with the control. Malic acid concentration with treatment of zinc chloride, 140 ppm, increased to approximately 4 times compared to the control. Citric and succinic acid content were also slightly increased in all treatments of zinc chloride.
Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Traits of Soybean for Sprout
Lee, Suk-Ha ; Park, Keum-Yong ; Lee, Hong-Suk ; H. Roger Boerma ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 166~170
The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) has the potential to enhance the efficiency of im- proving food processing traits of soybean. In this study, 92 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci and two morphological markers (W
and T) were used to identify QTL associated with food processing traits of soybean for sprout in 83 F
-derived lines from a cross of ＇Pureun＇ x ＇Jinpum 2＇. The genetic map consisted of 76 loci which covered about 760 cM and converged into 20 linkage groups. Eighteen markers remained unlinked. Phenotypic data were collected for hypocotyl length, abnormal seedling rate, and sprout yield seven days after seed germination at 2
. Based on the single-factor analysis of variance, eight independent markers were associated with hypocotyl length. Four of seven markers associated with abnormal seedling rate were identified as independent. Seven loci were associated with sprout yield. For three different traits, much of genetic variation was explained by the identified QTL in this population. Several RFLP markers in linkage group (LG) Bl were detected as being associated with three traits, providing a genetic explanation for the biological correlation of sprout yield with hypocotyl length (r=OA07＊＊＊) and with abnormal seedling rate (r=-406＊＊＊).
Morphological Alterations of Flower Induced by Chilling Stress in Rices
Hwang, Cheol Ho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 171~175
Morphological alteration of floral organ development in rice affected by chilling stress was examined. Three varieties of rice were grown under natural conditions and subjected to 12
for 3 or 6 days starting from the ineffective tillering stage, before heading stage and returned to natural condition. Headings were delayed by a 6 day chilling treatment. After heading the panicles were collected and examined for any possible alteration in floral organ development. It appears that there were some differences in sensitivity to chilling stress and degree of injury depending on treatment stages and variety. Chuchungbyeo was the most frequent in producing abnormal flowers among the three varieties examined. Meiosis stage was shown to be the most vulnerable to chilling stress in both Chuchungbyeo and Ilpumbyeo and young panicle differentiation stage was the frequent stage to alter flower development in response to chilling stress only in Chuchungbyeo. It was confirmed that abnormalities occurred in pollen due to chilling stress is a major factor leading to low yield, but to some extent the alterations in carpel development may playa certain role in determining a total yield in response to chilling stress at the reproduction stage in rice. There were abnormalities like extra stigmata, extra lemma, double ovary as well as abnormal anther formation in response to chilling stress. Further studies of the phenocopy observed in rice floral development may be useful for an understanding of the resistance against chilling injury during reproductive stages in rice.
Molecular Analysis of Freeze-Tolerance Enhanced by Treatment of Trinexapac-Ethyl in Kentucky Bluegrass
Hwang, Cheol Ho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 44, issue 2, 1999, Pages 176~179
-hydroxy-methylene)-3,5-dioxocyclohexane carboxylic acid ethylester] is a growth-retardant for plants by inhibiting a key step in biosynthesis of GA. A treatment of trinexapacethyl generally induces a reduction in vegetative growth and also inhibits heading. In addition, the trinexapacethyl was known to enhance the freeze-tolerance in annual bluegrass, however, the mechanism is not known yet. One possible reason for the enhanced freeze-tolerance may be the antifreeze protein known to be accumulated in intercellular space of the leaf during cold acclimation. In order to see the possible in-duction of the synthesis of antifreeze proteins by trinexacpacethyl, the apoplastic proteins extracted from Kentucky bluegrass treated with trinexapacethyl were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and the presence of the antifreeze protein was observed. In addition, western analysis showed the identity of the protein induced by both a cold acclimation and a trinexapacethyl treatment. It appears that an enhanced freeze-tolerance of the turf grass by trinexapacethyl is due to the synthesis and/or accumulation of the antifreeze protein similar to the enhanced freeze tolerance induced by cold acclimation.