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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Dec 1999
Volume 44, Issue 3 - Sep 1999
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Jun 1999
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Mar 1999
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Root Characters Associated with Lodging Tolerance by Seedling Test in Rice
Si-Yong, Kang ; Won-Ha, Yang ; Hyun-Tak, Shin ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 4, 1999, Pages 309~315
Rice seedling test was conducted to check the loging tolerance at ripening stage through evaluating the root characters. Thirteen Korean and foreign rice cultivars with direct seeding adaptable or high quality characteristics were grown in a cell pot and under submerged paddy. The root characters and pushing resistance of rice hill were determined at seedling and ripening stage, respectively. The diameter of crown root at the 7th and 8th leaf stages was thicker in lodging tolerance cultivars than those of others and showed significant-positive correlation with both pushing resistance and crown root diameter of mature plants. Also, the tensile strength of crown root at the 7th and 8th leaf stage showed highly positive correlation with the tensile strength of crown root of mature plants. The number of crown root at 7th leaf stage was significant-positively correlated with that of mature plant. The diameter of seminal root was not significantly correlated with the diameter of crown root throughout the whole growth stage. These results indicate that the diameter, tensile strength and number of crown root associated with root lodging tolerance can be detected with the seedling at about 7th or 8th leaf stage, and the seedling test using the cell pot is an useful and practical method to select lodging tolerant cultivars or lines of rice based on root characters, especially diameter of crown root.
Germination Characteristics of Some Red Rice Accessions
Kyoung, Eun-Seon ; Kim, Jin-Key ; Kim, Jong-Seok ; Ma, Sang-Yong ; Ryang, Whan-Seong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 4, 1999, Pages 316~320
Nine accessions of red rices collected from different regions were tested for germination characteristics in relation to seed maturity and several storage conditions after harvest. No red rice seeds germinated at five days after anthesis (DAA). Wanjuaengmi (long-grain red rice) seeds at 10DAA germinated up to 30% of total samples, producing only abnormal seedlings, whereas 10D-AA-seeds of normal cultivar showed only 3.3% germinability. Some red rice seeds absorbed more water than cultivated varieties, and showed less decrease in germination rate than cultivated varieties when seeds were exposed at -1, -5 or -1
for up to 60 hours after soaking. Red rice accessions maintained more than 95% germination when stored. indoor for 120 days. Two short-grain red rices showed about 50% germination when overwintered in the field, while other long-grain red rices and cultivated rices germinated less than 10%. Germination of seeds overwintered in clay loam soil was lower than that in loam soil, and seeds on surface germinated less than those in 1~7cm depth.
Yield and Seed Quality as Affected by Water Deficit at Different Reproductive Growth Stages in Soybean
Kim, Wook-Han ; Hong, Byung-Hee ; Kim, Seok-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 4, 1999, Pages 321~329
The effect of water deficits on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] could appear on seed quality through changes of morphological plant characteristics. Two Korean genotypes, Hwangkeum (determinate growth habit) and Muhan (indeterminate growth habit), were used to examine the influences of treatment stage and method of water deficit during reproductive growth period on yield and seed quality of soybean. Water deficit at R5 or R6 stages was as damaging to seed quality as double water-deficit treatments at R2+R5 or R2+R6. However, seed from double water-deficit treatment tended to have lower oxidation-reduction potential compare to the corresponding single water-deficit treatment. In comparison with Muhan, Hwangkeum had significantly greater oxidation-reduction potential value. Seed yield per plant in both genotypes depended greatly on seed yield of branches. However, the proportion of number of branch seed to total seed umber in Hwangkeum was increased as the water deficit was applied during later reproductive stage, whereas, in Muhan the proportion was lower. Water-deficit treatments including the single and double water-deficit treatments and non-stressed treatment were able to be classified into five groups for Hwangkeum and four groups for Muhan based on the influences on yield components, number of pod, number of seed, and single seed weight, using principal component analysis. In both genotypes, R2+R5 water-deficit treatment decreased number of pod and seed, but increased single seed weight. On the contrary, R6 or R2+R6 stress increased the pod and seed number, but decreased single seed weight.
Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency as Affected by Irrigation at Different Growth Stages
Kim, Wook-Han ; Hong, Byung-Hee ; Ryu, Yong-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 4, 1999, Pages 330~338
Extensive research has been conducted on effects of drought stress on growth and development of soybean but information is rather restricted on the limited-irrigation system by way of precaution against a long-term drought condition in the future. The experiment for limited-irrigation was conducted in transparent vinyl shelter at Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC), Taiwan in 1997. Two soybean varieties, Hwangkeum and AGS292, improved in Korea and AVRDC, respectively were used for this experiment. The relationships between normalized transpiration rate (NTR) and fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) in both varieties were similar that the NTR was unchanged until FTSW dropped to about 0.5 or 0.6. At FTSW less than those values, NTR declined rapidly. Days required to harvest in both varieties were significantly prolonged at IR6 treatment compared to any other treatments. Daily mean transpiration rate was significantly higher at IR5 treatment, as averaged over varieties. Similarly, water use efficiency was also high at 1R5 treatment. In both varieties, seed yield was the greatest at the IR5 treatment, as compared to any other limited-irrigation treatments, due to the increased seed number and high transpirational water use efficiency. The indices of input water and seed yield for the different limited-irrigation treatments against control indicated that Hwangkeum produced 59.6% or 60.7% of seed yield using 36.1% or 44.9% of input water, as compared to control, by irrigation at only R5 or R6 stages, respectively. The AGS292 produced 56.1% of seed yield with 35.4% of input water of control, when irrigated at R5 stage. The results of this study have elucidated that the limited irrigation at R5 stage in soybean can be minimized yield loss with such small quantity of water under the environment of long-term drought stress and the expected shortage of agricultural water in the future.
Development and Characterization of Anti-gliadin Polyclonal Antibody in Wheat
Chang, Suk Joo ; Hong, Byung Hee ; Seo, Yang Weon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 4, 1999, Pages 339~344
Immunological method has been applied in biochemical genetic analysis of seed storage proteins. We developed and characterized anti-gliadin polyclonal antibody (AGPab) specific to gliadin fractions whose quality and quantity were known to be associated with wheat end-use quality. Reactions of anti-gliadin polyclonal antibody (AGPab) to gliadin were linearly decreased as AGPab and antigen were diluted. Dot-blot and immunoblot assay showed that produced AGPab specifically reacted to gliadin and mainly
-gliadin subunits. Enzyme-linked immuno- sorbent assay (ELISA) was applied for quantifi-cation of gliadins in Korean wheat cultivars and breeding lines by using AGPab. High reactions between AGPab and gliadins were found in wheat cultivars Olmil and Olgeurumil. Significant difference of optical densities for alcohol soluble proteins among crop species was found, as wheat showed the highest value (0.697) followed by rye (0.295), and barley (0.066).
Molecular Mapping of Resistant Genes to Brown Planthopper, Bphl and bph2, in Rice
Cha, Young-Soon ; Cho, Yong-Gu ; Shin, Kyeong-Og ; Yeo, Un-Sang ; Choi, Jae-Eul ; Eun, Moo-Young ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 4, 1999, Pages 345~349
This study was carried out to map Bphl and bph2 gene in Mudgo and Sangju13 (Oryza sativa L.) respectively conferring resistance to brown plan-thopper (BPH) and to establish the marker-assisted selection (MAS) system. Bulked seedling (grown for 20 days) test was conducted with the 73 F4 lines derived from a cross between Nagdongbyeo and Mudgo for Bphl and with 53 BC3F5 lines derived from the Milyang95/Sangju13 cross for bph2. Bph1 was mapped between RG413 and RG901 on chromo-some 12 at a distance of 7.5 cM from RG413 and 8.4 cM from RG90l. A recessive gene bph2 was located near RZ76 on chromosome 12 at a distance of 14.4 cM. Bphl and bph2 were linked to each other with a distance of about 30 cM. An RFLP marker, RG413 linked to Bphl, was converted to an STS marker to facilitate the marker-assisted selection. BPH resistant genotypes could be selected with 92% accuracy in a population derived from a line of NM47-B-B.
Variation of 7S and 11S Seed Protein Concentrations in Different Food Types of Soybean Seed
So, Eun-Heui ; Chae, Young-am ; Kim, Yong-Ho ; Yang, Moo-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 4, 1999, Pages 350~354
Soybean varieties derived from Korea are classified into four groups on the basis of their food types such as soybeans for vegetable, sprout, sauce and paste and soybeans with colored seed coat. This study was carried out to know the differences in storage protein concentrations among these four groups. There were differences in storage protein concentrations among four groups. In 7S protein, the
-subunit concentrations did not vary among four groups, while a
-subunit concentration greatly varied. 7S protein concentration was the highest(40.6%) in soybean for sauce and paste and the lowest(37.7%) in soybean for vegetable, while 11S protein concentration was the highest (62.3%) in soybean for vegetable and the lowest (59.4%) in soybean for sauce and paste. In view of the fact that 11S protein has much higher sulfur containing amino acids than 7S protein, it was shown the soybeans for vegetable may have higher nutrition value than other groups.
Varietal Difference in Retrogradation of Cooked Rice and Its Association with Physicochemical Properties of Rice Grain
Choi, Hae Chune ; Hong, Ha Cheal ; Cho, Soo Yeon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 4, 1999, Pages 355~363
The experiments were carried out to elucidate the varietal variation of retrogradation in aged cooked rice and its association with some physicochemical properties of milled rice. The fifteen rice materials were selected from forty-three low-amylose japonica and Tongil-type rice cultivars based on palatability and retrogradation of cooked rice stratified by preliminary sensory evaluation of warm and cooled cooked rice. One japonica glutinous rice variety was included for comparison of retrogradation of cooked rice. The
-amylase-iodine method was adopted for checking the varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice. The desirable checking time for evaluating the varietal difference in deterioration of aged cooked rice was four hours after storing in room temperature and two hours after preserving in refrigerator based on the largest coefficients of variations in degree of retrogradation of cooked rice. The rice cultivars revealing the relatively slow retrogradation in aged cooked rice were Ilpumbyeo, Chucheongbyeo, Sasanishiki, Jinbubyeo and Koshihikari. A Tongil-type rice, Taebaegbyeo, and a japonica cultivar, Seomjinbyeo, showed the relatively fast deterioration of cooked rice. The retrogadation index represented by the percentage of retrogradation difference between warm and cooled cooked rice to original estimates of warm cooked rice was significantly affected by the degree of retrogradation of cooled cooked rice. Generally, the better rice cultivars in eating quality of cooked rice showed less retrogradation and much sponginess in cooled cooked rice. Also, the rice varieties exhibiting less retrogradation in cooled cooked rice revealed higher hot viscosity and lower cool viscosity of rice flour in amylogram. The sponginess of cooled cooked rice was closely associated with magnesium content and volume expansion of cooked rice. The hardness-changed ratio of cooked rice by cooling was negatively correlated with solids amount extracted during boiling and volume expansion of cooked rice. The major physicochemical properties of rice grain closely related to the palatability of cooked rice may be directly or indirectly associated with the retrogradation characteristics of cooked nce. The varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice can be effectively classified by scatter diagram on the plane of upper two principal components based on some retrogradation properties of cooked rice. The deteriorated structural change in cooled cooked rice by observing through the scanning electron microscope was more conspicuous in the fastly retrograded cooked rice than in the slower one.
Effects of Seeding Date and Planting Spaces on Growth and Yield of Swordbean (Canavalia gladiata DC.)
Lee, Jae-Wung ; Kim, Ik-Je ; Ryu, In-Mo ; Park, Seong-Gyu ; Choi, Gwan-Soon ; Kwon, Yong-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 4, 1999, Pages 364~367
Swordbean was recently introduced to Korea, and cultural technique for stable production, e.g. optimum seeding date and planting space, has not been established. This experiment was conducted to elucidate the changes of growth characteristics, yield components, and yield as affected by different seeding dates and planting spaces. Days to flowering was shortened by 4∼28 days as seeding was delayed. Stem diameter, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, 100-seed weight, and seed yield tended to increase with delaying seeding up to 5 April and then to decrease with further delaying seeding. These results indicate that optimum seeding date of swordbean in unheated polyvinyl house would be early April. Although, the swordbean exhibited large increases in plant height, number of branches per plant, and stem diameter at the wider spacings, planting space could be decreased to the 60 cm plant-spacing and 30 cm row-spacing with no deleterious effect on yield.
Effects of Chitosan on Production and Rot Control of Soybean Sprouts
Lee, Young-Sang ; Kang, Chang-Sung ; Lee, Yong-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 4, 1999, Pages 368~372
The practicality of utilizing chitosan as a natural antimicrobial compound to reduce soybean sprout rot was tested. Domestic and imported soybean seeds were soaked for 6 hours in solutions containing different levels of chitosan and acetic acid (glacial), and cultured at
for 6 days. In case of domestic seeds, soaking with 1,000ppm chitosan increased germination percentage, hypocotyl thickness, total length, and fresh weight of sprouts by 4%, 5%, 2%, and 1%, respectively. The total sprout yield was increased by chitosan in a concentration-dependent manner in that 1,000ppm chitosan resulted in 8% increment of total yield (7.47kg sprouts/kg seed). Chitosan significantly reduced sprout rot percentage to 7.0% compared to control (13.8%), and consequently enhanced marketable sprout yield by 39%. Compared to domestic seeds, the imported soybean seeds exhibited very low germination percentage regardless of chitosan treatments. Chitosan, nevertheless, consistently induced yield increment and rot decrement in imported soybean sprouts. Although 100ppm acetic acid was effective in reducing sprout rot percentage down to 11.8%, its yield-increasing effects were not as prominent as chitosan. In conclusion, soaking soybean seeds with chitosan seems to be a practical method to enhance the efficiency of soybean sprout production.
Physiological Responses of Soybean Cultivars to Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines Causing Sudden Death Syndrome
Joon Hyeong, Cho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 4, 1999, Pages 373~381
Six soybean cultivars having different SDS susceptibility were planted with sorghum seedinoculum infested with F. solani isolate 171 in the greenhouse. First leaf symptoms appeared on unifoliar leaves at 9 days after inoculation and all cultivars showed the typical leaf symptoms at 13 days after inoculation, when trifoliar leaves emerged. Leaf symptoms development in susceptible cultivars was faster than in resistant cultivars. Leaf symptom severities during the period of 25 to 29 days after inoculation showed a significant difference between cultivars which had SDS resistance and sus ceptibility. In this period, area under the diseaseprogress curve (AUDPC) of Hartz 6686 was the highest and that of PI 520733 was the lowest. SDS caused serious damage to the growth of soybean in all cultivars. Average reductions of growth rate of root fresh weight and dry weight were greater than those of plant tops. Duyu-kong showed less severe leaf symptoms than that of SDS suscetible cultivars; however, average growth rate of plants top and roots of this cultivar was less but not significantly different than those of SDS susceptible cultivars. In all cultivars, as severity of leaf symptoms increased, plant top weight decreased. Root rot symptoms were observed in all cultivars before leaf symptoms appeared. Average proportions of tap root reddish-brown discoloration of all cultivars was up to 75 % at 15 days after inoculati on; however there was no significant differenc between cultivars at each rating date. Appearances of leaf symptoms on leaves varied in each cultivar. SDS resistant cultivars had a significantly higher level of crinkling than susceptible cultivars and SDS susceptible cultivars had a significantly higher level of necrosis than resistant cultivars. Further study will be needed to identify the relationships between the physiological growth rate and SDS severities in soybeans.
Comparison of Sudden Death Syndrome in Responses to Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines between Korea and U.S. Soybean Lines
Cho, Joon-Hyeong ; Kim, Yong-Wook ; Rupe, J.C. ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 4, 1999, Pages 382~390
In order to identify the responses of Korean soybean cultivars to sudden death syndrome (SDS), forty-two Korean cultivars and three check cultivars (Hartwig and PI 520733 are resistant; Hartz 6686 is susceptible) were tested with sorghum seed inoculum infested with Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines isolate 171 in the greenhouse. This isolate has blue pigment cultural shape on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. All Korean cultivars inoculated with F. solani isolate 171 showed the typical SDS symptoms and disease severity on soybean leaves in each cultivar varied at 4 weeks after inoculation. Nine cultivars were included in the most SDS susceptible group and six cultivars were included in the most susceptible group based on Duncan＇s multiple range tests (P
0.05). In results of the LSD analysis for SDS the resistant group, a total of twenty-five Korean cultivars were included in the same SDS resistant group as PI 520733 or Hartwig and fourteen Korean cultivars were included in the same SDS susceptible group as Hartz 6686. In the second experiment, ten Korean cultivars, ten U.S. cultivars, and one introduced line were compared in the same way as the first experiment Disease severity ranking of check cultivars, Hartwig, PI 520733, and Hartz 6686, were the same as in the first experiment. Within Korean cultivars, seven cultivars showed the consistent severity proportions of leaf symptoms. Disease rankings of these cultivars in this experiment were the same as those in the first experiment. Three US cultivars: Hartwig, Hartz 5454, and Forrest, three Korean cultivars： Keunolkong, Myeongjunamulkong, and Jinpumkong 2, and one introduced line, PI 520733, were included in the highest SDS resistant group. Shinphaldalkong 2, Milyang 87, and Samnamkong consistently showed the highest SDS susceptibility in both experiments. Average disease severity in the first and the second experiment were 49.56% and 45.39%, respectively.
Competitive Performance of Hybrid Rice with Barnyardgrass
Lin, Wenxiong ; Kim, Hak-Yoon ; Shin, Dong-Hyun ; Lee, In-Jung ; Kim, Kil-Ung ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 44, issue 4, 1999, Pages 391~395
Barnyardgrass had relatively higher growth vigor at the earlier growth stage than inbred rice did, showing the 2 fold higher
-amylase activity during the periods of germination and large leaf area Expansion with high net photosynthetic rate at the earlier autotrophic stage, but it performed weak growth at the late growth stage. However, the hlybrid rice Shanyou 63 had significantly higher
-amylase activity and net photosynthetic rate than that of barnyardgrass, exhibiting heterosis for two physiologica1 traits during the germination (6~12 days) and autotrophic phase, respectively. Accordingly, hybrid rice, Shanyou 63, exhibited heterotic effect at the early growing stage when were presented with barnyardgrass. Shanyou 63 exhibited stronger tillering ability, faster leaf area expansion and higher net photosynthetic rate than those of barnyardgrass.