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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Lee, Sang Chul
Volume & Issues
Volume 45, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 45, Issue 5 - Dec 2000
Volume 45, Issue 4 - Sep 2000
Volume 45, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 45, Issue 2 - Jun 2000
Volume 45, Issue 1 - Mar 2000
Selecting the target year
Comparison of Superoxide Dismutase and Peroxidase Activities in Rice Varieties
Chung, Ill-Min ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Ahn, Joung-Kuk ; Lee, Jin-Ohk ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 45, issue 5, 2000, Pages 277~281
Fifty-four Korean native and 28 foreign varieties harvested in 1998 and 1999 were examined for superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities. The SOD and POD activities of leaves extracts in Korean native and foreign rice varieties showed variation at the heading stage. The activities of SOD and POD changed with growth stage. In comparison of storage duration, the SOD and POD activities of the extract from three months stored seeds in Korean native (CV=53.3%) and foreign rice (CV=57.9%) varieties were higher than that of stored rices for a year in seed extracts although the activities among varieties did not show significant variation. Also, the averaged activity of foreign rice varieties (SOD=12.9%) was relatively higher than that of korean native rice varieties (SOD=10.7%). The test of activity at the enzymatic level related to antioxidative activity suggests that the rice varieties with higher antioxidative potentials can be developed and also may provide information with rice breeder to breed rice variety with a high antioxidative activity.
Responses of Soybean Cultivars to Excessive Soil Moisture Imposed at Different Growth Stages
Seong, Rak-Chun ; Sohn, Joo-Yong ; Shim, Sang-In ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 45, issue 5, 2000, Pages 282~287
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] crops, grown in a rice soybean rotation, can suffer when grown in soil with excessive moisture. The objective of this work were to determine the reduction in growth and yield, responses of vegetative and reproductive growth of soybean to excessive soil moisture achieved by prolonged irrigation. Responses of different cultivars were determined at growth stages from V6 to R8 to clarify the sensitive growth stages or characteristics to excessive soil moisture. Cultivar differences in response to excessive soil moisture condition were conspicuous in seed dry weight and harvest index (HI) but not in the response of seed number or pod number per plant. The timing of irrigation causing the condition of excessive soil moisture influenced the vegetative or reproductive traits. Soybean plants were more affected by irrigation commencing at the pre-flowering than at the post-flowering stage. Post-flowering irrigation did not reduce growth of vegetative organs significantly; in fact the growth of stems and leaves was facilitated by the prolonged irrigation commencing at flowering. Differences between cultivar response to prolonged irrigation were assumed to relate to the reduced amount of assimilates translocated to the reproductive organ.
Nitrogen Effects on Growth Responses and Carbohydrate Concentrations in Source and Sink Tissues of Two Rice Cultivars
Song, Beom-Heon ; Lee, Chul-Won ; Ryu, Shi-Hwan ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 45, issue 5, 2000, Pages 288~293
Two rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.), Hwa-seongbyeo of Japonica type and Taebackbyeo of Indica/Japonica type, were cultivated with hydroponic culture to examine nitrogen effects on the growth responses, contents and utilizations of carbohydrates, and the ripening velocity of grains with three different N levels. Plant height and tiller number were clearly increased to 80 ppm N level compared to 40 ppm N level and then they were slightly decreased in N level of 120 ppm. Higher dry weights were appeared with 80 ppm N level than did with other N levels, showing statistically differences in both cultivars and N levels, while dry weight of roots was heavier with decreasing the N levels. Therefore, T/R ratios were not significantly different among N levels, although there was statistically differences between rice cultivars. After the flowering stage, higher water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and water-insoluble carbohydrate (WISC) were contained in stem compared with other parts, showing that WISC of sheath and stem, unlike WSC, was significantly different among N levels. Starch of grain, WISC, was remarkedly increased from 3.0% at just after the flowering to 52.0% and 75.0% at 15 and 30 day after the flowering, respectively, showing that lower N application had faster accumulation of starch in rice grains. N would affect the contents of carbohydrates of each tissue, and starch accumulation in rice grains.
Use of Hairy Vetch Green Manure as Nitrogen Fertilizer for Corn Production
Seo, Jong-ho ; Lee, Ho-jin ; Hur, Il-bong ; Kim, Si-ju ; Kim, Chung-kuk ; Jo, Hyeon-suk ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 45, issue 5, 2000, Pages 294~299
Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) winter annual is very effective on reducing chemical nitrogen fertilizer for subsequent com by fixed organic green manure nitrogen fixed during hairy vetch growth. In this experiment, hairy vetch produced above-ground dry matter of 5 ton/ha, nitrogen yield 200 kgN/ha, at com planting on the average during 1997 and 1998. Changes in com yield and nitrogen uptake for two years were investigated after application of nitrogen fertilizer 0, 60, 120, 180, 240 kgN/ha on plot of winter fallow and hairy vetch green manure, respectively. Nitrogen status such as ear-leaf N%, SPAD value at silk and dough stage, and com yield decreased in proportion to reduction of nitrogen fertilizer at winter fallow, but nitrogen status and yield of com were not different among nitrogen fertilizer rate at hairy vetch green manure. Com yield (total dry matter) at 0 kgN/ha plot of hairy vetch was 22, 20 ton/ha in 1997, 1998, respectively and com could produce more dry matter 9, 13 ton/ha by hairy vetch green manure compared with winter fallow under the condition of no nitrogen fertilizer in 1997, 1998, respectively. Com yield (total dry matter) at 60kgN/ha of hairy vetch green manure was higher than that of high N fertilizer rate such as 180, 240 kgN/ha of winter fallow. Nitrogen uptake of com at plot of hairy vetch-no nitrogen fertilizer slightly decreased than at plot of hairy vetch - nitrogen fertilizer, but com absorbed more nitrogen of 141, 159 kgN/ha by hairy vetch green manure compared with winter fallow under no nitrogen fertilizer condition in 1997, 1998, respectively. Nitrogen fertilizer reduction for com by hairy vetch green manure was 149, 161kgN/ha in 1997, 1998, respectively. Still more, com could absorb more soil nitrogen by nitrogen fertilizer 60kgN/ha of hairy vetch green manure than by high nitrogen fertilizer such as 180, 240 kgN/ha at winter fallow. It is concluded that nitrogen fertilizer for corn could be reduced by winter cultivation and soil incorporation of hairy vetch at com planting.
Changes in Sugar Contents and Storability of Yacon under Different Storage Conditions
Doo, Hong-Soo ; Li, Hu-Lin ; Kwon, Tae-Oh ; Ryu, Jeom-Ho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 45, issue 5, 2000, Pages 300~304
Tuberous roots of yacon (Polymnia sonchifolia Poeppig ＆ Endlicher) were stored in different temperature and relative humidity conditions after curing for 30 days. Non-decadent percentage, moisture contents, brix degree and sugars were investigated. Whether temperature and relative humidity were high or not, most of the tuberous root decayed during storage, and the decayed percentage was increased as long as the storage period. In final, only 13% of tuberous roots remain intact at 4
, 85% relative humidity condition to be appeared best storage condition in this experiment and all of the tuberous root decayed in other storage conditions after 6 months. Moisture contents decreased a little in the high relative humidity. Even though tuberous roots decayed when stored at 1
, most of brix degree reached about 17.0. Fructose, glucose and sucrose contents were 1.65, 1.15 and 0.35% at early storage period, and 1.6, 1.1 and 0.5% after 6 months at 4
, 85% relative humidity, respectively. In 3 temperature conditions, fructose and glucose increased for a month and then decreased successively afterwards, but sucrose increased gradually during 6 months. Also in 4 relative humidity conditions, fructose, glucose and sucrose contents were changed with similar to that of in temperature. Changes of fructose and glucose were the same except on 4
, 85% relative humidity, that was lower level than moisture of tuberous root.
Effects of Seed Size and Several Factors on Ultra-drying and Germination of Ultra-dried Seeds in Soybean
Lee, Yeong-Ho ; Chang, Ching-huan ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 45, issue 5, 2000, Pages 305~309
Ultra-drying [＜5.0% seed moisture content (SMC)] storage technique is a cost-effective storage method for oily seeds. To decide proper ultra-drying condition for soybean seeds, drying rate was compared three silica gel to seed ratios, two seed sizes with varietal difference, two kinds of container, and three seed amounts per container under :t 23
. When the relative humidity (RH) was reduced at the rate of less than 0.1 % a day, silica gel was replaced with dry one by 47 days. Higher silica gel to seed ratios (3:1 and 2:1) dried faster than lower ratio (1:1) until 28 days, but not after 43 days of drying. Also, large seeded variety was dried faster than small seeded variety. Kinds of container and seed amounts per container didn't show differences in drying of soybean seeds. After completion of ultra-drying, percentage germination by standard germination test (SGT) was not different among silica gel to seed ratios, kinds of container, and seed amounts per container, except among seed sizes (varieties). Before SGT, soybean seeds were premoistened using saturated
for 48 hours and
Cl for 24 hours in desiccators. To compare germinability between ordinary-dried seeds and ultra-dried seeds, the seeds of seven soybean varieties, which were varying in size from 8.1 to 34.9 g per 100 seeds, were dried using same amount of silica gel under 23
. After completion of 76 days of drying, SMCs were reduced to 3.13-3.45% from 7.86-8.82%. SMC after completion of drying was not correlated with 100-seed weight (r=0.556). Before germination tests, soybean seeds were premoistened using saturated salt solutions. Percentage germination was higher with ultra-dried seeds than ordinary-dried seeds in SGT and higher with ordinary-dried seeds than ultra-dried seeds in AAT at the beginning of storage and after 6 months storage, but general trend of percentage germination was not observed among varieties classified by 100-seed weight. From these results, we concluded that further studies are needed to improve ultra-drying storage method for soybean seeds.
Effect of Alfalfa Plant Extracts on Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Forages
Chon, Sang-Uk ; Choi, Seong-Kyu ; Park, Sang-Won ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 45, issue 5, 2000, Pages 310~315
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants have been reported to contain water-soluble substances that are autotoxic as well as allelopathic. Laboratory experiment through a petri-dish assay with imbibed seeds was conducted to evaluate both autotoxic and allelopathic effects of alfalfa leaf extracts on the germination and early seedling growth of alfalfa, red clover, crested wheatgrass, and Russian wildrye. Alfalfa seed germination was delayed dependent on extract concentration, with no difference in final germination at 72 hours. Root growth of alfalfa was stimulated up to 14% above control at very low concentrations of both leaf and stem extracts of alfalfa and was significantly reduced at extract concentration of more than 0.5g dry tissue/L (
). Leaf extracts were generally more autotoxic for root growth than were stem extracts. Hypocotyl growth was not affected by all the concentrations of both leaf and stem extracts. Root length of legumes was more sensitive to the autotoxic chemicals from leaf extracts than was germination or shoot length. Hypocotyl growth of two legume plants and plant height of two grasses were not influenced by extracts. Seed germination and root growth of legumes were more inhibited by aqueous extracts of alfalfa leaf than were those of grasses. This result indicates autotoxic effect of alfalfa leaf extracts seems to be greater than allelopathic effect.
Interpretation of Varietal Response to Rice Leaf Blast by G
E Analysis with Reduced Number of Nursery Test Sites
Yang, Chang-Ihn ; E. L. Javier ; Won, Yong-Jae ; Yang, Sae-Jun ; Park, Hae-Chune ; Shin, Young-Boum ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 45, issue 5, 2000, Pages 316~321
Blast severity data of 39 rice varieties at 11 sites in Korea from 1997 to 1999 were analyzed using AMMI model and pattern analysis. Genotype x Environment (G
E) interaction sum of squares (SS) accounted for 12 % of the total SS. Eight genotype groups and seven location groups were identified based on blast reaction pattern. The data obtained from over 21 sites with 44 test varieties from 1981 to 1996 were also considered. These were compared with the 1997-1999 data using the G
E analysis results. Majority of the variability in the Korean Rice Blast Nursery (KRBN) were attributable to variations due to genotypes. Variations of G
E interaction were maintained though test sites were reduced from 21 to 11 sites. Broadly compatible biological discriminative varieties identified were Nagdongbyeo and Akibare while broadly incompatible biological discriminative varieties identified were Hangangchalbyeo and Seogwangbyeo. Key sites for future evaluation work could be selected from location groups. Each location group should be represented by the site with the strongest interaction pattern. Blast responses in Cheolwon, Gyehwa, Suwon, Iksan, and Icheon showed different patterns from other locations.
A Simple Method for Testing Freezing Resistance Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Tea (Camellia sinensis L.)
Chun, Jong-Un ; Jeong, In-Ho ; Choi, Hyoung-Kog ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 45, issue 5, 2000, Pages 322~327
For the stable production of high quality tea, the freezing resistance is a very important character. Most of the farmers have planted out-pollinated seeds that are not genetically pure. So, with small sample, a quick and simple method is required to test freezing resistance of lots of germ-plasm and early generation of hybrids. The absorbances(A530 nm) of TTC reduction solution at -5
were positively correlated with resistance to photoinhibition of PSII in 6 hour photoinhibitory treatments, being significantly fitted by simple linear regression (
). Chlorophyll fluorescence measured by Fv/Fm was found to be very useful in evaluating the relative levels of freezing resistance in tea.
Screening for Antioxidative Activity in Soybean Local Cultivars in Korea
Chung, Ill-Min ; Ahn, Joung-Kuk ; Chi, Hee-Youn ; Lee, Jin-Ohk ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 45, issue 5, 2000, Pages 328~334
Sixty local soybean cultivars were evaluated on the antioxidative activity by superoxide dismutase (SOD), 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid(TBA), and chemiluminescence using the FI-CL system. Soybean were collected throughout the country, and were grown over two years (1997 and 1998) for measuring antioxidative activity in soybean seeds. There were differences in antioxidative activity depen-ding on the method of measurement and variation of the crop year. Soybeans from Kwangyang-shi-1 (76.78%) in 1997 and Kangjin-gun-3(79.14%) in 1998 showed the highest SOD activity, whereas those from Hwasoon-gun (80.43%) in 1997 and Kangjin-gun-2 (49.82 %) in 1998 exhibited the highest DPPH activity. Soybeans from Chongup-gun-2 (75.77%) in 1997 and from Yochon-shi-5 (69.17%) in 1998 exhibited the highest TBA activity, and those from Jinahn-gun (48.99%) in 1997 and Kohung-gun (49.73%) in 1998 exhibited the highest activity using the chemiluminescence method. These results suggest that it may be possible to develop soybean varieties with higher antioxidative activity.
Farm-level Assessment of Rice Direct-Seeding Practices in Chonbuk Province
Dong Kyun ; Song Joong ; Jung Keun ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 45, issue 5, 2000, Pages 335~338
The technology of direct-seeding in rice cultivation is an innovation mainly induced by factors in market economy and is rapidly diffused among individual farmhouses. Because the effect of technology can be affected by many factors under various farming circumstances, the impact and stability of the direct-seeding technology compared with transplanting was analyzed under various topographical regions. Yield in direct-seeding was higher in plains, although the farm size producing higher yield was quite different depending on the topographical regions. In the direct-seeding cultivation of rice, man-labor hours was reduced by about 38 percent and the reduction rate showed little difference among topographical regions. Fertilizer was used about 11 percent more but the increase rate varied from 3 to 17 percent depending on regions with higher rates in plains. Application of agricultural chemicals was also increased about 9 percent in direct-seeding, but the increase rate was as high as 12 percent in suburbs. More fertilizer and agricultural chemicals were used in direct-seeding cultivation by farmhouses implementing both direct-seeding and transplanting than by those implementing direct-seeding only. Use of more fertilizers and agricultural chemicals in direct-seeding in all regions may indicate its technical instability. Major problems causing the technical instability of direct-seeding cultivation should be solved by comprehensive research considering various farming circumstances such as topographical features rather than just a top-down style research and extension.
Determination of Seed Lipid and Protein Contents in Perilla and Peanut by Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy
Oh, Ki-Won ; Choung, Myoung-Gyun ; Pae, Suk-Bok ; Jung, Chan-Sik ; Kim, Byung-Joo ; Kwon, Yil-Chan ; Kim, Jung-Tae ; Kwack, Yong-Ho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 45, issue 5, 2000, Pages 339~342
Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to estimate the lipid and protein contents in ground seed samples of perilla (Perilla frutescens Brit.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). A total of 46 perilla and 80 peanut calibration samples and 23 perilla and 46 pea. nut NIRS validation samples were used for NIRS equation development and validation, respectively. Validation of these NIRS equations showed a range of very low bias (-0.05 to 0.13 %) and standard error of prediction corrected for bias (0.224 to 0.803%) and very high coefficient of determination (
) (0.962 to 0.985). It was concluded that NIRS could be adapted as a mass screening method for lipid and protein contents in perilla and peanut seed.
Genetics of Self-fertility and Selection of Self-Fertile Lines in Rye (Secale cereale L.)
Heo, Hwa-Young ; Hong, Byung-Hee ; Seong, Rak-Chun ; Ha, Yong-Woong ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 45, issue 5, 2000, Pages 343~346
Rye breeding using F
hybrid began about 30 years ago, when cytoplasmically inherited forms of male sterility (CMS) and corresponding nuclear restorers were detected. It is very important to produce inbred lines for making hybrid lines because of strong self-incompatibility in rye. Among the 456 rye germplasms used in hybrid breeding scheme, 24 lines (5.3%) had the above 60% of self-fertility, and six lines of them were selected for their good agronomic characteristics and were used for subsequent inbreeding program. The average self-fertility of selected six lines was 78.4%, ranging from 72.2 to 99.5%. Genetic analysis for the self-fertility using
populations showed that the segregation of self-fertile and sterile plants in F
populations could be fit into 3 to 1 ratio suggesting self-fertility in rye be controlled by one major gene. The four different self-fertile lines, PI237923, 5C11, 5G5 and Florida black, had the same self-fertility gene because their F
plants showed almost the same self-fertility as their parents and showed no genetic segregation.
Investigation of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Development of Maintainer and Restorer Lines in Rye (Secale cereale L.)
Heo, Hwa-Young ; Hong, Byung-Hee ; Seong, Rak-Chun ; Park, Moon-Woong ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 45, issue 5, 2000, Pages 347~351
Rye has been a major winter forage crop in Korea. Varietal improvement of rye has been practiced either by hybrid or population breeding systems. Hybrid breeding offers important advantages over population breeding since it is normally a cross-pollinated crop. The hybrid breeding in rye has been possible since cytoplasmically inherited forms of male sterility (CMS) and corresponding nuclear restorer genes were found. The objectives of this research were to develop the maintainer and restorer lines of Korean inbred lines and to estimate the effect of 'Pampa' type of CMS cytoplasm on yield and its related characteristics. For easy discrimination of male-sterile status of plants, anther scoring and the restore index system in which seed-setting and pollen quantity of viability were taken into account were established. High significant correlation between pollen quantity and pollen viability was found. For "Pampa" cytoplasm, four of 14 Korean inbred lines tested turned out to be a maintainer but no restorer was found. But for "235b" CMS cytoplasm, seven inbred lines acted as complete restorers. The Korean inbred rye lines acted mainly as maintainers in "Pampa" cytoplasm but acted mainly as restorer in "235b" cytoplasm. The 'Pampa' cytoplasm inducing male sterility reduced cohn length and plant height and increased the number of tiller, so forage yield and grain yield were enhanced. However, heading date was slightly delayed compared to the normal cytoplasm.elayed compared to the normal cytoplasm.