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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 46, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 46, Issue 5 - Dec 2001
Volume 46, Issue 4 - Sep 2001
Volume 46, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 46, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 46, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
Selecting the target year
Growth Characters and Sugar Content During Grain Filling in New Hybrid, Chalok 1/Cooktail 51 Corn
Hwi, Kim-Ik ; Kim, Soon-Kwon ; Lee, Sang-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 69~77
'Chalok 1/Cooktail 51' corns, supersweet corn gene controlled by either brittle-l (bt l) or shrunken-2(sh2) gene introduced into waxy corn, showed agronomic characteristics between supersweet corn and waxy corn. The ears were harvested at different development stages from 15 to 35 days after silking (DAS). Ear diameter of Cocktail 51 and 'Cocktail 51'/Chalok 1 increased from 15 DAS to 30 DAS and little increased thereafter, but that of Chalok 1/Cocktail 51 and 'Chalok l' increased until 35 DAS. Diameter of ear extension increased more in Cocktail 51 and Chalok 1/Cocktail 51 corn than Chalok 1. Ear fresh weight of Cocktail 51 decreased later 30 DAS but those of the other hybrids were vice versa. Rate of super-sweet kernels per ear of Chalok 1/Cocktail 51 corns was about 38 %. Development, and elongation of kernel were much more prominent in supersweet kernel than in waxy kernel, but fresh weight increased higher in waxy kernel than supersweet kernel. Moisture content in kernel decreased from 15 DAS to 35 DAS. Total sugar content of the kernel increased until 25 DAS, and that of Cocktail 51 kernel showed the highest among of them. After cooked by steam, flavor and mastication feeling rate cooked by steam of Cocktail 51 and Chalok 1/Cocktail 51 were increased from 15 DAS to 25 DAS and markedly decreased thereafter. But those of Chalok l/Cocktail 51 and, Chalok 1 were decreased after 30 DAS. These results suggested that the optimum harvest date for fresh supersweet corn (Cocktail 51), Cocktail 51/Chalok 1 seems to be about 20 DAS and Chalok 1/Cocktail 51 and waxy com (Chalok 1) was about 25 DAS.
Growth and Yield Responses of Two Rice Cultivars to Ozone Treatment under Different Nutrient Supply
Lee, Sang-Chul ; Hwan, Cho-Jeong ; Park, Shin-Young ; Son, Tae-Kwon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 78~83
Two rice cultivars of the japonica type, ozone-resistant Ilpumbyeo (IL) and ozone-susceptible Keu-mobyeo#l (KM) were exposed to ozone (
) at 0.15 ppm for 30 days. The available nutrient regimes were varied by doubling the supply of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) within a basic fertilizer status (N, P, K; 15, 12, 12 kg l0
). There was little difference on plant height between ozone-treated and nontreated plants. The most significant ozone stress on tiller number was shown on the 30th day of ozone exposure. Slight recovery from ozone stress was noted on the 60th day. On the 30th day, tiller number was greatly decreased by 40.8% in IL and 64.6% in KM, whereas at a high nitrogen supply regime (2N), it was decreased by 21.4% in IL and 42.7% in KM as compared to the control not treated with ozone at basic fertilizer status. The inhibition of tiller production caused by ozone exposure was alleviated on the 60th day. In both cultivars, number of spikelets per plant and weight of 100 grains were affected little by the ozone treatment irrespective of nutrient regime. However, the number of panicles per plant and yield were reduced significantly. In both cultivars, yield of ozone-treated plants with 2N status was 12.4-16.1 % higher than that of the ozone-treated plants with basic nutrient status. A significant yield decrease of 47.8% and 33.4% was observed for IL and KM, respectively, in ozone-treated plants with higher potassium (2K) status.
Comparison of Nitrogen Application Methods at the 4th Leaf Stage in Direct-Seeded Rice Field
Chun, Nam-Jin ; Kang, Yang-Soon ; Park, Jeong-Hwa ; Yoon, Yong-Hwan ; Kim, Chung-Kon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 84~88
Two methods of nitrogen application at the 4th leaf stage were evaluated in direct-seeding rice cultivation on dry paddy soil: one was the top dressing of nitrogen on dry paddy condition before irrigation (TNDP) for labor saving, and the other was the top dressing of nitrogen on dry paddy with mechanical rotavation of the inter-row space (TNDPIR) for increasing the efficiency of nitrogen. To evaluate these two application methods, leaf chlorophyll contents, growth characteristics and yields were compared with two conventional methods, basal application (BA) and top dressing on flooded paddy condition at the 4th leaf stage (TNFP). The SPAD value of rice in TNDP was similar with that in TNFP throughout the whole growth stage of rice. Also, there were no differences in rice growth and yield between the two methods. However, in TNDPIR, the SPAD value was the highest during tillering stage among the four application methods, and the tiller number, LAI at heading stage and the panicle number were higher than the two conventional methods.
Quantitative Growth Analysis of White and Reddish Sword Bean
Park, Sun-Young ; Doo, Hong-Soo ; Song, Seung-Kyoung ; Ryu, Jeom-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 89~94
Sword bean belongs to the subgenus Canavalia in the genus Canavalia. White and reddish varieties in sword bean were tested to obtain the basic information for improving the yield, quality, and cultural environments through the quantitative growth analysis. Growing plants were sampled at intervals of 10 days from 20 days after sowing. Whole plant weight increased during the period of 11-20 days after sowing in both varieties. The weight of each organ between two varieties increased similarly except leaf area. Whole plant weight changed more close to pod weight than any other characters. The leaf areas of both varieties increased from 50 days after sowing, var. white displayed S type curved line but var. reddish displayed slow S type curved line. The SGR of whole plant weight in both varieties had 3 maxima and 2 minima, 3 maxima and first minimum were shown at the same period but the second minimum was shown at different period. Both varieties showed bimodal curved line. All SGR of each organ and leaf area were shown the 2 maxima and 1 minimum in both varieties. The changes of SLA and LAR were not remarkable between two varieties but these were united together with the maximum of whole plant weight and root weight. ULWR and ULWR were shown similar in both varieties. Reddish variety was more prosperous in early growth stage than white variety because SLA, LAR and LWR were high. In surplus weight, both varieties increased rapidly during the period of 111-120 days after sowing that was applicable to the maximum SGR of pod weight. Surplus weight of var. white increased markedly during the same period comparing those of var. reddish.
Effect of Planting Date and Plant Density on Yield and Quality of Soybean Forage in Jeju
Kang, Young-Kil ; Kim, Hyun-Tae ; Cho, Nam-Ki ; Kim, Yeong-Chan ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 95~99
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is known to produce the highest total digestible mutrients (TDN) yield among summer grain legumes in Jeju area but little is known about the effects of cultural practices on forage yield and quality. A determinate soybean cv. Baegunkong was planted on 5 June, 20 June, and 3 July and grown at four plant densities (30, 50, 70 and 90 plants
in 1998 in Jeju to evaluate the effects of planting date and plant density on the yield and quality of soybean forage. Days to flowering decreased from 47 to 38 days, average plant height from 61 to 51cm and main stem diameter from 6.31 to 5.00mm as planting was delayed from 5 June to 3 July. Average plant height quadratically increased from 45 to 62cm as plant density increased from 30 to 90 plants
. Planting date did not affect the average dry matter, crude protein, and TDN yields. The average dry matter and TDN yields displayed a quadratic response to plant density and the optimum plant density for both dry matter and TDN yields was estimated about 60 plants
. Plant density had no effect on crude protein yield. Planting date did not significantly influence forage quality. The crude protein content was not significantly influenced by plant density. Increasing plant density slightly increased acid detergent fiber content but slightly decreased TDN content.
Biochemical and Genetic Variation of Hordein Subunits in Korean Barley
Lee, Sung-Shin ; Kim, Jin-Baek ; Kim, Dong-Sub ; Nam, Jung-Hyun ; Kim, Jae-Chul ; Kim, Chung-Kon ; Hong, Byung-Hee ; Seo, Yong-Weon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 100~105
One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D SDS-PAGE) was used to determine whether it would provide improved resolving power of hordein proteins concomitant with improved identification of Korean barley cultivars and germplams. This system gave rapid and reproducible separations of hordein polypeptides. Total fourteen of clear and easily scorable subunits were identified in Korean barley cultivars and germplasms and their polymorphic constitutions could provide biochemical genetic information in progeny analysis and endosperm quality improvement in barley breeding programs. Each hordein polypeptides residing in B, C, and D hordein pattern designations were scored to prepare a cultivar catalogue of protein patterns. On the basis of this character, 7 hordein polypeptide patterns were constructed from 108 barley cultivars and experimental lines. The molecular weight of hordein subunits in Korean barley cultivars and experimental lines varied in the range of 98 to 48 kDa. In contrast, less polymorphic hordein polypeptides were found in the low protein barley lines including malting barleys than those found in Korean barley cultivars and experimental lines.
Determination of Protein and Oil Contents in Soybean Seed by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy
Choung, Myoung-Gun ; Baek, In-Youl ; Kang, Sung-Taeg ; Han, Won-Young ; Shin, Doo-Chull ; Moon, Huhn-Pal ; Kang, Kwang-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 106~111
The applicability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy(NIRS) was tested to determine the protein and oil contents in ground soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seeds. A total of 189 soybean calibration samples and 103 validation samples were used for NIRS equation development and validation, respectively. In the NIRS equation of protein, the most accurate equation was obtained at 2, 8, 6, 1(2nd derivative, 8 nm gap, 6 points smoothing and 1 point second smoothing) math treatment condition with SNV-D (Standard Normal Variate and Detrend) scatter correction method and entire spectrum by using MPLS (Modified Partial Least Squares) regression. In the case of oil, the best equation was obtained at 1, 4, 4, 1 condition with SNV-D scatter correction method and near infrared (1100-2500nm) region by using MPLS regression. Validation of these NIRS equations showed very low bias (protein:-0.016%, oil : -0.011 %) and standard error of prediction (SEP, protein: 0.437%, oil: 0.377%) and very high coefficient of determination (
, protein: 0.985, oil : 0.965). Therefore, these NIRS equation seems reliable for determining the protein and oil content, and NIRS method could be used as a mass screening method of soybean seed.
Genetic Diversity Based on Morphology and RAPD Analysis in Vegetable Soybean
Srinives, P. ; Chowdhury, A.K. ; Tongpamnak, P. ; Saksoong, P. ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 112~120
Genetic diversity of 47 East-Asian vegetable soybean was characterized by means of agro-morphological traits and RAPD markers. A field trial was conducted to evaluate 14 agro-morphological traits. To study RAPD-based DNA analysis, a total of sixty 10-mer random primers were screened. Of these, 23 polymorphic markers in 16 varieties used for screening. Among 207 markers amplified, 48 were polymorphic for at least one pairwise comparison within the 47 varieties. A higher differentiation level between varieties was observed by using RAPD markers compared to morphological markers. Correspondence analysis using both types of marker showed that RAPD data could fully discriminate between all varieties, whereas morphological markers could not achieve a complete discrimination. Genetic distances between the varieties were estimated from simple matching coefficients, ranged from 0.0 to 0.640 with an average of 0.295
0.131 for morphological traits and 0.042 to 0.625 with an average of 0.336
0.099 for RAPD data, respectively. Cluster analysis based on genetic dissimilarity of these varieties gave rise to 4 distinct groups. The clustering results based on RAPDs did not match with those based on morphological traits. Geographical distribution of most varieties in each of the groups were not well defined. The results suggested that the level of genetic diversity within this group of East-Asian vegetable soybean varieties was sufficient for a breeding program and can be used to establish genetic relationships among them with unknown or unrelated pedigrees.
Effect of Seed Potato Size on Plug Seedling Growth and Field Performance
Kang, Bong-Kyoon ; Kang, Young-Kil ; Ko, Mi-Ra ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 121~124
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 g were planted in plug trays with vermiculite-based root medium on 10 August 2000 and grown for 15 days in a glasshouse to determine the effects of mini-tuber size on plug seedling growth and field performance of plug seedlings. For a control, common potato tubers weighing 50 g were also planted. As size of seed tubers planted increased from 10 to 50 g, seedling height decreased from 24.6 to 20.0cm while shoot number per seedling increased from 2.0 to 3.5, main stem diameter from 4.3 to 6.1mm, and fresh weight of root + top from 9.3 to 19.4 g/seedling. At 90 days after transplanting plug seedlings, the total number of tubers per plant increased from 3.62 to 4.72, average tuber weight from 62.9 to 72.8g, and total tuber yield 20.5 to 23.6 t/ha with increase in seed tuber size. Plug seedlings raised from 50g tubers produced 22% more tubers per plant and had 21 % higher＞80g tuber yield than the directly planted potatoes.
Effect of Root Media Formulation and Fertilizer Application on Potato Plug Seedling Growth and Field Performance
Kang, Bong-Kyoon ; Kang, Young-Kil ; Kang, Si-Yong ; Park, Yang-Mun ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 125~129
Eight vermiculite-based root media prepared with addition of complete fertilizer (2 g/L; N-
O, 10-10-14) for potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and a commercial root medium were evaluated in 2000 to develop the root media suitable for potato plug seedling production. The eight media consisted of various ratios of vermiculite, perlite, peatmoss, and compost. In addition, four rates (0, 1, 2, or 4 g/L) of the complex fertilizer for potato were added to a root medium (70% vermiculite, 10% perlite, 10% peat moss, and 10% compost by volume) to determine the optimum addition rate of the complex fertilizer for plug seedlings. Compost addition to the media increased plant height, the number of leaves per plant, and top and root fresh weight of 15-day old plug seedlings. The seedlings raised in root media containing compost produced significantly higher total tuber yield. Addition of the complex fertilizer to root media enhanced seedling growth and increased the number of tubers per plant and tuber yields. The results suggest that root media containing 50% vermiculite, 0 to 20% peat moss, 10% perlite, 20 to 40% compost, and 2 g/L complex fertilizer for potato appear suitable for potato plug seedling production.
Effect of Delayed Sowing on Growth, Flowering Date, and Yield in Sesame
Lee, Sung-Woo ; Kang, Churl-Whan ; Kim, Dong-Hwi ; Shim, Kang-Bo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 130~133
The purpose of this study was to investigate the decreased ratio of growth and yield by delayed seeding and flowering because drought of spring season often cause to delay seeding and sprout emergence. Equation of linear regression, y=-11.914x＋818.61 (
=0.916) and y=-16.96lx＋913.98 (
=-0.885) were derived from relationship between sowing date and yield of leading variety, Yangbaeckkae in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Yield was decreased by 7, 24, 40, 57, 74%, respectively, according as sowing date was delayed more 5, 15, 26, 36, 46 days than May 15, standard sowing date under the culture mulched with black P.E. film. Number of capsules per plant and length of stem bearing capsule were greatly decreased, while plant height, stem diameter, and day to flowering were affected little by delayed seeding date. Equation of linear regression, y=-0.7081x＋41.04 (
=0.861) was derived from relationship between flowering date and yield of 33 accessions. Yield was decreased by 7.7, 8.3, 9.2, 10.1, 11.2%, respectively, according as flowering date was delayed more 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 days than July 3, normal flowering date of Yangbaeckkae when it was sown on May 15, and the more flowering date was delayed, the more yield was decreased. Number of capsules per plant and length of stem bearing capsules were greatly decreased, but plant height and harvest index were decreased little by delay of flowering date
Effect of Fertilizer and Straw Mulching on Winter Discoloration and Spring Regrowth of Lawn Grasses
Lee, Jin-Wook ; Lee, Ho-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 134~138
This experiment evaluates wintering ability to maintain green color of lawn grasses during winter and investigates the effects of top dressing of fertilizer on improving green color during regrowth. Kentucky blue-grass could maintain green color and leaf chlorophyll content better than tall fescue and creeping bentgrass in winter. All three grasses in this experiment have shown the excellent wintering ability. In enhancing the recovery of green color at the early stage of regrowth, the mulching effect with rice straw was highly significant for creeping bentgrass. Green color recovery in grasses during its regrowth was better at the top dressing plots than at the plots without top dressing, but when fertilizer application levels were increased, green color in lawn grass did not significantly change. Although green color in tall fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and Korean lawngrass could be maintained during summer, the green color of creeping bentgrass is reduced significantly with high temperature. Top dressing after winter and mowing improved leaf chlorophyll content and green color in tail fescue and Kentucky bluegrass significantly. However, Korean lawngrass did not respond significantly with increased levels of fertilizer.
Yearly and Genotypic Variations in Seed Isoflavone Content of Local Soybean Cultivars
Yang, Kae-Jin ; Chung, Ill-Min ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 139~144
To analyze their isoflavones contents by HPLC analysis during two years on 60 collected old local traditional soybean varieties from various districts of Korea was conducted. There was a yearly variation in the seed isoflavon concentrations. The total contents on 5 isoflavones were in the range from 16.21mg/g to 25.21 mg/g and from 6.47 mg/g to 15.44 mg/g, in 1997 and 1998, respectively. Collected soybean from Gunsnsi-1(25.21 mg/g) in 1997 and from Gangjingun-3 (16.50 mg/g) in 1998 showed the highest amount of isoflavones as compared with other collected soybean varieties. The highest amount among 5 isoflavones was genistin as 48.45% and 49.73%, in 1997 and 1998, respectively, indicating the genotypic variation in seed isoflavon contents of local soybean cultivar. Our data suggest that it may be feasible for improving soybean variety with higher antioxiadtive activity and substances.
Growth, Nitrogen Metabolism, and Nodulation of Hypernodulating Soybean Mutant Affected by Soil Fertility
Ha, Bo-Keun ; Lee, Suk-Ha ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 145~149
This study was performed to evaluate the growth and nodulation characters of hypernodulating soy-bean mutant, SS2-2, and to know the growth and yield performance of the mutant in infertile soil. Soil fertility was adjusted by mixing the different ratios of soil components including clay, river sand, and horticultural bed, which resulted in fertile and infertile soil. Dry weight, nitrogen concentration, and leaf nitrate reductase of each plant were measured around V6 stage (47 days after planting) and around R3 stage (82 days after planting). There were significant effects of soil fertility and soybean genotype on the total dry weights including root, nodule, stem, leaf, and pod dry weight at V6 and R3 stages. Total dry weight of hypernodulating mutant, SS2-2, was clearly less than that of its wild type, Sinpaldalkong 2. However, nodule development on the roots of SS2-2 was much greater than that of Sinpaldalkong 2, regardless of soil fertility. Though SS2-2 was smaller in plant size than Sinpaldalkong 2, genotypic difference in total nitrogen content was not significant at both V6 and R3 stages because SS2-2 fixed more nitrogen biologically than its wild type in the root nodule. The SS2-2 mutant showed lower plant yield in both infertile and fertile soil. The SS2-2 contained more crude seed protein than Sinpaldalkong 2, and was characterized with reduced top and root growth.
Growth and Yield of Spring-Grown Potato under Recycled-Paper Mulching
Cui, Ri-Xian ; Lee, Byun-Woo ; Lee, Hac-Lae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 150~156
To explore the feasibility of recycled paper mulching in spring-grown potato the changes of soil environments and the growth and yield of potato under non-mulched control and three mulching treatments of recycled paper (RPM), transparent polyethylene film (TPFM), and black polyethylene film (BPFM) were examined over two spring seasons in 1998 and 1999 at Suwon, Korea. The mulching materials were a recycled mulch paper with 110 g/
and a thickness of 0.1mm, which was manufactured from old corrugated containers for this experiment and the commercial polyethylene films with a thickness of 0.01mm. RPM lowered the average soil temperature at 5-cm depth during the potato growing period by 03
compared with the control, whereas TPFM and BPFM raised it by 2.
, and 1.8
, respectively. On a sunny day during sprout emergence, RPM reduced the maximum soil temperature by about 5
, while TPFM and BPFM enhanced it by about 11
, respectively. The temperature difference between the control and the mulching treatments decreased with the development of canopy. All the mulching treatments had an advantage in preserving the soil moisture over the control. RPM and BPFM resulted in the effective control of weed by obstructing light transmission onto soil surface, but TPFM had no control effect of weed. Sprout emergence started two to three days earlier in TPFM and BPFM, but one day later in RPM than in the control due to the altered soil temperature by the mulching treatments. However, the final percentage of emergence was notably lower in TPFM than that in the control because of too high soil temperature during daytime, but was not different among the control, RPM, and BPFM. During the early stage of potato growth, the shoot and root growth under RPM was lower compared with the control, but afterwards, RPM outpaced the control. In 1998 experiment, the tuber yield under RPM and BPFM were significantly higher than those of the control and TPFM. In 1999 experiment, there was no significant difference in tuber yield between RPM and the control.
Potential Risk of Genetically Modified Plants in Korean Ecosystem: a Proposal for Unintended Effects on Korean Wild Species
Shim, Sang-In ; Lee, Byung-Moo ; Kang, Byeung-Hoa ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 2, 2001, Pages 157~163
Introgression from genetically modified plants (GMPs) may be dependent on the genetic similarity to wild relative plants. In Korea, many wild plant species are botanically related to the cultivated plants that have a potential to be genetically transformed. The controversy for hazards of GMPs is continuing because the studies on gene flow or introgression are little. Based on the systematic criteria, we have surveyed Korean wild plant species that showed the similarity to cultivating crops. The consideration for feasibility of genetic pollution (introgression of transgene) is necessary for the successful accomplishment in the practical use of GMPs. Although the detrimental effects of GMPs on wild relatives have not been clearly verified, Korean wild plant species related to crop plant (potential GMP) have to be investigated with respect to the introgression. Korean flora consists of ca. 5,500 species. Among them, 1,448 species are classified as weed species (966 native, 325 naturalized, and 167 escaped ones), which is vulnerable to GMPs in term of introgression. We suggested the principal Korean wild plants related to major crops that might be affected by GMPs via introgression. The investigated species herein are selected based on the morphological and phenological relationship. It is necessary to verify the genetic relationship between cultivated plants and wild relatives sing more precise molecular techniques, which provide the information of likelihood for the introgression of transgene.