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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 46, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 46, Issue 5 - Dec 2001
Volume 46, Issue 4 - Sep 2001
Volume 46, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 46, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 46, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
Selecting the target year
Effects of Scarification and Soaking Treatment on Germination of Sword Bean Seed
Hong Soo Doo ; Won Jae Ba다 ; Jeom-Ho Ryu ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 165~169
Seed coat of sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) is very thick and hard, it is difficult to absorb water during germination and it requires much time that cotyledon come out from seed coat since seminal root appearanced. Therefore this experiment was carried out to increase the germination rate by easing water absorption through mechanical scarification on seed coat. Non-scarification seed did not germinated at 7 days after treatment but scarification seed showed germination rate of 98%. Therefore mechanical scarification of seed coat was increased germination rate. Non-scarification seed absorbed less than 10% water of dry weight at 8 hours after treatment but scarification seed absorbed about 90% water at 7 hours after treatment and more than 150% water at 8 hours and swelled about 1.4-1.5 times in length and width of seed. Germination rate of scarification seed was high under high temperature and it was 96% and 93% at
, respectively. The rate of cotyledon emergence on clay loam soil was the highest among bed soils. Soaked seed after mechanical scarification in distilled water was germinated faster than non-soaked seed on early in bed soil. The rate of cotyledon emergence was more than 92% at 9 days after sowing but non-scarification and soaked seed was germinated late and showed very low germination rate as 67%.
Occurrences and Characteristics of the Off-type Rice Plant in Farmer's Paddy Field
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 170~175
This study was carried out to investigate the distribution and characteristics of off-type rice plant in farmer's paddy field. The ratio of the field contaminated by off-type rice was highest in the southwestern area, followed by the southeastern area, the central area in Korea. The occurrence density of off-type rice was higher in the southern area than the central area. The short-grain red rice was the most dominant off-type rice group, followed by extremely late and sterile rice group and long-grain red rice group in Korea. The long-grain red rice group was dominant in Jeonnam and Kyongnam, and the extremely late and sterile rice group was dominant in Jeonbuk, and the short-grain red rice group in the other provinces. The culm length of most off-type rice groups growing in the farmer's paddy fields was longer than the farmer's cultivars, and the long-grain red rice group and the short-grain red rice group were especially longer. The number of spikelets per panicle of the off-type rice groups were generally greater than the farmer's cultlvars, and in particular, the extremely late and sterile rice group and the long-grain normal rice group had more spikelet per panicle. Most of the off-type rice groups were extremely sterile.
Effect of Reciprocal Grafting on Growth and Yield of Sweet potato
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 176~179
To obtain the basic information of high yielding ability for varietal improvement and cultural practice, reciprocal grafts were made analyzed among five sweet potato cultivars. Five cultivars were characterized with the different in whose source and sink capacities. Grafting decreased main vine length, number of tuberous roots per plant, but its effects were different among grafting combinations. The growth of vines was affected more by scion, while growth and yield of under-ground were influenced more by stock. Grafting effects, interactions between stock and scion for main vine length and number of tuberous roots were highly significant in diallel grafting. The percentage of marketable tuberous roots was higher in the order of stem cutting＞self grafting＞reciprocal grafting.
Effect of Dust Mite Incidence on Grain Filling and Quality in Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 180~183
This study was conducted to find out the effect of ripened grain and rice quality by the breeding of rice dust mite (Steneotarsonemus spinki). Growth temperature of sample (Suwon 441 and Ilpumbyeo) was maintained from 22
(during night) to 26
(during day) in a controlled phytotron. Plant hight and number of panicle could not showed the difference by the discoloration degree of leaf sheath. But number of spikelet was reduced affected by discoloration degree of leaf sheath. Ratio discoloration of grain was increased according to circumstances more discoloration degree of leaf sheath in Suwon 441 then Ilpumbyeo. The perfect rice grain was observed to similar Suwon 441 and Ilpumbyeo in the IV degree of ratio discoloration of grain, but less Suwon 441 than Ilpumbyeo in III and II, in such a case comparison between coloration and discoloration.
Effect of Nursery Period on Seedling Growth and Yield in Transplant Rice with Infant Seedling
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 184~188
This study was conducted to find out the basic informations related to the rice cultivation using the infant seedlings. Infant seedlings with different nursery Periods were compared for the growth and grain yield of rice at the National Crop Experiment Station in 1997. The highest sound seedling ratio of 93.9% was observed in 8-day old seedling, followed by 88.9% of 12-day, 82.0% of 16-day, and 80.8% of 20-day, The endosperm remained 52.5% in the 8-day old seedling at transplanting and decreasingly with increasing nursery period. Missing hills at transplanting were more in 16-day and 20-day old seedling than in 8-day and 12-day old seedlings, 5.1-5.2% in 8-day and 12-day growing seedling, 6.7% in 16-day and 7.8% in 20-day old seedling. Rooting ability was observed highest in 8-day, followed by 12-day, 16-day and 20-day old seedling. The milled rice was lower by 5-16% in 12-day, 16-day and 20-day old seedling than in 8-day old seedling of 6.18 t/ha. It was found that the 8-day and 12-day old seedling provided more advantage for sound seedling ratio, endosperm remaining, missing hill during transplanting, rooting ability and grain yields than 16-day and 20-day old seedlings.
Effect of Hairy Vetch Green Manure on Corn Growth and Yield Cropping System of Corn-Oats/Hairy Vetch
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 189~194
It is possible to use hairy vetch as green manure for corn not only in corn single cropping but also in double cropping system of corn and fall oats. Fall oats and hairy vetch were mixed-sown after corn harvest and harvested as forage in the early of November, and then hairy vetch stubble was over-wintered and incorporated into soil at corn planting as green manure without N fertilizer (FO+HV-GM). Other treatments were fall oats without N fertilizer on corn (FO-0N) and with N fertilizer 200kg/ha on corn (FO-200N), hairy vetch green manure without N fertilizer on corn (HV-GM), and fell winter follow without N fertilizer on corn (WF-0N). Soil nitrate content, corn growth and nitrogen uptakes, and yield of corn were measured and compared during 2-year experimental seasons. Dry matter and N amount of hairy vetch at the plot of FO+HV-GM were 60% less than those at the plot of HV-GM. The N effect of hairy vetch green manure on corn at the plot of HV-GM was similar to that at FO-200N plot for two years. Soil nitrate at the plot of FO+HV-GM was below the half of those at plots of HV-GM and FO-200N at 6-leaf stage of corn. N uptake of corn at the plot of FO+HV-GM at silking stage was 30% less than those at plot of HV-GM and FO-200N. However, soil nitrate at 6-leaf stage of corn and the amount of nitrogen uptake of corn at silking stage increased two times and 30-40 kg/ha, respectively, compared with those at the plot of FO-0N. Corn yield at FO+HV-GM decreased about 2 ton/ha due to the decrease of corn grain weight in the first year compared with plot of HV-GM and FO-200N, but its difference was not shown in succeeding second year. Corn N uptake at FO+HV-GM decreased 60 kg/ha and 20 kg/ha in 1999 and 2000, compared with plot of HV-GM and FO-200N, respectively, but increased 30kg/ha and 45kg/ha compared with the plot of FO-0N in 1999, 2000, respectively. Therefore, it is estimated that hairy vetch green manure in fall oats-corn double cropping system can reduce nitrogen chemical fertilizer on corn as much as 50-100 kg/ha although its N effect is much lower than the N effect of hairy vetch green manure in corn single cropping of which N effect is over 200 kg/ha.
Heading date and final Leaf Number as Affected by Sowing Date and Prediction of Heading Date Based on Leaf Appearance Model in Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 195~201
Sowing date experiments were carried out by employing a rice variety "Kwanganbyeo" in both field and phytotron with natural daylength. In phytotron, temperatures were controlled at daily mean of 21
. The responses of final leaf number and beading date were analyzed in relation to daylength during photo-sensitive period (PSP). Based on the component models predicting the final leaf number and leaf appearance rate, a rice phenology model was established and verified. Days from sowing to flowering (DSF) were shortened and final number of leaves (FNL) increased as sowing dates were delayed from 25 April to 5 June in field and phytotron. The increased leaf appearance rate (LAR) and the reduced FNL, respectively, due to the higher temperature and the shorter daylength in delayed sowings in the field brought about greater shortening of DSF than in the phytotron where only FNL was reduced by shorter daylength in delayed sewings. FNL showed very close relationship with the average daylength during PSP of six-leaf stage to panicle initiation, being well fitted to the following rational function (
=0.98):(equation omitted) where D is daylength and a, b, and c are the constants that were estimated as 14.694, -0.992, and -0.068 in Kwanganbyeo, respectively. The rice phonology model, which was composed of two component models for LAR and FNL, predicted DSF very accurately. The differences between the observed and predicted DSF was less than two days in the sewing date field experiments in 1999 and 2000 of which data were not used for the model construction.struction.
Temperature Response and Prediction Model of Leaf Appearance Rate in Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 202~208
Under the constant daylength of 13 hours and growth temperatures of 15
, the final number of loaves (FNL) on the main culm was constant as 15 regardless of temperature in rice variety 'Kwanganbyeo'. Leaf appearance rate (LAR) increased with rising temperature and decreased with phenological development. Threshold temperature (T
) was not constant across growth stages, but increased with phenological development. Effective accumulated temperature (EAT), which is calculated by the summation of values subtracting T0 from daily mean temperature, is closely related with number of leaves appeared (LA). LA was fitted to bilinear, quadratic, power and logistic function of EAT. Among the functions, logistic function had the best fitness of which coefficient of determination was
=0.995. Therefore, LAR prediction model was established by differentiating this function in terms of time: (equation omitted). where dL/dt is LAR, T
is daily mean temperature, L is the number of leaves appeared, and a, b, and c are constants that were estimated as 41.8, 1098.38, and -0.9273, respectively. When predictions of LA were made by LAR prediction model using data independent of model establishment, the observed and predicted LA showed good agreement of
Effect of Overhead Flooding Stress on Photosynthesis and Growth in Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 209~214
Physiological responses of rice to the flooding time of different water turbidity (clear water, sub-muddy water, muddy water) were analyzed as photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, transpiration, and physiological recovery. Photosynthetic rate was higher as turbidity increased and decreased as flooding time was extended. Floodings of 36 hrs and 42 hrs were resulted in 25% and 50% decrease of photosynthetic rate, respectively. Transpiration rate was higher in high turbidity (increased 30%, 25%, and 20% in clear, sub-muddy, and muddy water, respectively) and in increased floodings. Fv/Fm decreased as increased turbidity and flooding time. About 20% decrease of Fv/Fm was recorded in 48 hrs and 36 hrs after flooding with clear water and sub-muddy water(including muddy water), respectively. Total nitrogen was decreased with flooding treatment. Significant decrease of total nitrogen was occurred 36 hrs after flooding with muddy water, Dry weight measured 2 weeks after flooding treatment as an indication of recovery of flooding stress didn't show significant difference with turbidity, but significantly decreased as flooding time was prolonged. About 25% and 50% decreases were found in 24 hrs and 42 hrs flooding time, respectively. furthermore, 48 hrs of flooding with sub-muddy and muddy water resulted in no physiological recovery. Photosynthetic rate was decreased 15% and 10% with clear water and muddy water(including sub-muddy water), respectively. The rate was dramatically decreased 42 hrs after flooding. Transpiration rate increased about 20% regardless of turbidity and flooding time. We found transitory decrease of photosynthetic and transpiration rate at the point of 24 hrs after flooding and right after do-flooding.
Effect of Overhead Flooding Stress on Protein Profiles, Fatty Acid Composition, and Lipid Peroxidation in Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 215~220
Biochemical responses of rice to the flooding stress with different water turbidities and flooding time were evaluated. About 20% decrease of soluble protein was occurred with flooding stress. The decreasing rate was higher as flooding time and higher turbidity increased. Especially, dramatic decrease of soluble protein content was observed after 36 hrs of flooding. No protein subunit change was found before and after flooding. However, subunit product of 53 Kd increased from the beginning of flooding and subunit of 28 Kd was increased 48 hrs and 54 hrs after flooding. Lipid peroxidation increased about 150% by flooding. There was no significant difference in lipid peroxidation between clear and sub-muddy water, However, the lipid peroxidation was increased up to 180% at 60hrs of flooding. The malondialdehyde content (MDA) was higher in muddy water at the beginning of flooding and increased about 190-200% 36 hrs after flooding. Catalase activity increased with increasing turbidity and flooding time. Forty eight hours of flooding time provided a criteria for dramatic increase of catalase activity. In general, increase of saturated fatty acids and decrease of unsaturated fatty acids occurred with flooding treatment. Among unsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated increased and polyunsaturated decreased. Double bond index(DBI) decreased as flooding time was extended and turbidity increased.
Effect of Germination Condition and Drying Methods on Physicochemical Properties of Sprouted Brown Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 221~228
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of germination condition and drying temperature on growth and physicochemical properties of brown rice. Three brown rice seeds of Ilpumbyeo, Dasanbyeo and Heugjinjubyeo were stored at room temperature for six weeks to test the time-sequence germination viability. Relatively stable germination ratio was maintained until 2 weeks after storage. However, 3 weeks after storage, germination ratio of brown rice seeds started to decrease rapidly and their germination ratio was lower than 80%. For this reason, brown rice was recommended for seeding within 2 weeks after hulling. During the initial 5 days, germination ratio of 24 hours pre-soaking brown rice was higher about 2-3% than that of non-soaking brown rice. The
was considered as the most favorable temperature for brown rice germination, because of the high germination ratio and desirable coleoptile growth of the brown rice, and little seed rotting symptoms. The scanning electron micrographs showed the structural differences between hot-air dried and freeze dried germinated-brown rice kernel. In the freeze dried germinated-brown rice, seed coat (pericarp, tegmen and aleurone layer) was mechanically disrupted from the endosperm, and many cleavages were observed among starch storing cells and starch granules. The endosperm of freeze-dried brown rice kernels formed the sponge-like structures and showed the fragile traits. For this reason, hot-air drying is considered as more suitable method than freeze drying for germinated-brown rice. The crude protein and amylose contents were slightly changed, but there were no significant differences during the germination period. Crude fiber content was decreased, but crude Int and total amino acid contents were increased as seeding days increased. A rapid increase in
-amylase activities of germinating brown rice was observed at S days after seeding, and
-amylase activities were decreased from 8 days after seeding. Total free sugar contents were decreased during the germination period. There was continuous decline in the contents of sucrose and glucose until 8 days after seeding, but fructose and maltose content were gradually increased from the 5 days after seeding.
Soil Surface Energy Balance and Soil Temperature in Potato Field Mulched with Recycled-Paper and Black Plastic Film
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 229~235
The thermal and photometric properties of mulching materials modify the radiation and energy balance on the mulched soil surface and thereby change the soil temperature. The soil surface energy balances and soil temperatures under the mulching treatments of non-mulched control, recycled paper (RPM), and black polyethylene film (BPFM) were compared before and after the establishment of potato canopy. On August 30 in 1998 when potato was not emerged yet and solar radiation was 17.9 MJ
, the net radiation of the soil surface was estimated as 10.(1, 2. 4, and 1.3 MJ
under the control, BPFM, and RPM, respectively. The sensible and latent heat loss from the soil surface was 9.65 MJ
in the control, most of the net radiation being lost through evaporation and convection, whereas it amounted only to 1.39 MJ
in BPFM and 1.36 MJ
in RPM. Therefore, the soil heat fluxes were 0.36 1.02, and 0.06 MJ m
under the control, BPFM and RPM, respectively. On September 27 when potato canopy was fully developed, the soil surface net radiation in the control was sharply decreased as compared to that of Aug. 30, whereas the net radiation of the mulched soil surfaces showed little changes. The soil heat flux was -0.01, 0.95, and 0.12 MJ
at the soil surface under the control, BPFM and RPM, respectively. As the mulching treatments brought about such alteration of energy partitioning into the soil, the highest soil temperature was recorded in BPFM and the lowest in RMP without regard to potato canopy development. However, the soil temperature differences among the treatments become smaller when potato canopy were fully developed.
Effect of Soil Texture on Rice Growth and Paddy Soil Percolation under Lysimeter Condition
Je-Cheon Chae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 236~240
The lysimeter experiment was conducted to investigate the temporal changes of irrigation requirement, soil water percolation and rice root distribution during rice growing period under different soil texture that were sandy loam, clay loam and clay paddy soil in 1999 and 2000. The irrigation requirement in the first year was 3,306 l/
in clay loam, 2,650 l/
in sandy loam and 2,002 l/
in clay soil. However, the highest irrigation requirement was 5,281 l/
in sandy loam and the next was 4,984 l/
in clay loam and 3,968 l/
in clay soil in the second year, Soil water percolation in the first year was 2,141 l/
in clay loam, 1,228 l/
in Sandy loam and 862 l/
in clay soil. However, in the second year, the highest water percolation of 4,448 l/
was measured in sandy loam, and was followed by 3,833 l/
in clay loam and 2,925 l/
in clay soil. Distribution ratio of rice roots measured in 0-10cm of soil depth was 56.0% in sandy loam, 61.4% in clay loam and 72.1% in clay soil, respectively. It was interpreted that the greater water percolation measured in the second year was caused mainly by the large amount of rice root growth. Therefore, it was concluded that the soil water percolation in rice paddy soil was affected greatly not only by soil texture but also the growth of rice root.
Upper Boundary Line Analysis of Rice Yield Response to Meteorological Condition for Yield Prediction I. Boundary Line Analysis and Construction of Yield Prediction Model
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 241~247
Boundary line method was adopted to analyze the relationships between rice yield and meteorological conditions during rice growing period. Boundary lines of yield responses to mean temperature(
) and sunshine hour(
) and diurnal temperature range(
) were well-fitted to hyperbolic functions of f(
) ) and f(
)), to quadratic function of f(
), respectively. to take into account to, the sterility caused by low temperature during reproductive stage, cooling degree days [
] for 30 days before heading were calculated. Boundary lines of yield responses to
were fitted well to exponential function of f(
). Excluding the constants of
from the boundary line functions, formed are the relative function values in the range of 0 to 1. And these were used as yield indices of the meteorological elements which indicate the degree of influence on rice yield. Assuming that the meteorological elements act multiplicatively and independently from each other, meteorological yield index (MIY) was calculated by the geometric mean of indices for each meteorological elements. MIY in each growth period showed good linear relationship with rice yield. The MIY's during 31 to 45 days after transplanting(DAT) in vegetative stage, during 30 to 16 days before heading (DBH) in reproductive stage and during 20 days after heading (DAH) in ripening stage showed greater explainablity for yield variation in each growth stage. MIY for the whole growth period was calculated by the following three methods of geometric mean of the indices for vegetative stage (MIVG), reproductive stage (HIRG) and ripening stage (HIRS). MI
was calculated by the geometric mean of meteorological indices showing the highest determination coefficient n each growth stage of rice. That is, (equation omitted) was calculated by the geometric mean of all the MIY's for all the growth periods devided into 15 to 20 days intervals from transplanting to 40 DAH. MI
was calculated by the geometric mean of MIY's for 45 days of vegetative stage (MIV
), 30 days of reproductive stage (MIR
) and 40 days of ripening stage (MIR
showed good linear relationships with grain yield, the coefficients of determination being 0.651, 0.670 and 0.613, respectively.and 0.613, respectively.
Determination of Seed Protein and Oil Concentration in Kiddny Bean by Near Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 248~252
Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a rapid and accurate analytical method for determining the composition of agricultural products and feeds. An important merit of the NIRS analytical system is consistent predictions across instruments. However, proper calibration is the most important factor for a NIRS analytical system. Forty samples were obtained from Kyonggi-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services, and used to develop calibrations for crude protein content and crude oil content. Calibrations equations were developed using multiple linear regression (MLR). Accuracy and precision of NIRS predictions were adequate for quality measurement for the two constituents in kidney bean seed. In calibration sample sets (N=30), multiple correlation coefficient between NIR and lab measurements is 0.90 for seed, 0.97 for powder in seed protein concentration and 0.40 for seed and 0.92 for powder in seed oil concentration, respectively. It is concluded that NIRS method is suitable for the determination of seed composition in whole kidney bean.
Nutrient Uptake and Leaching Under Different Fertilizer Treatment for Corn and Potato Growth in Volcanic Ash Soil
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 46, issue 3, 2001, Pages 253~259
The purpose of this study was loused on understanding of uptake of nutrients by plants, the behaviors of nutrients in soil and the possibility of leaching loss when N fertilizer (urea) and mature compost were applied. Lysimeters (volume 0.15㎥, diameter 62cm, height 62.8cm) were installed for collecting leachate in the Jeju volcanic ash soils. Lysimeter study consisted of thirteen treatments: fellow, fellow with weeding, cropping without fertilizer and compost, three N fertilizer soil surface applications (16, 32, and 64 kg/10a), three N fertilizer and compost soil surface applications (16+800i 32+1600, and 64+3200 kg/10a), two water dissolved N fertilizer applications(16 and 32 kg/10a), and low and high plant densities. The growth of corn (preceding crop) and potatoes (succeeding crop) and leaching loss were determined during the experimental period. The amount of leachate from lysimeter was remarkably greater at bare conditions than at cropping conditions for corn and potatoes. The N content of plants (corn and potatoes) tended to increase as fertilizer rate increased. Fertilization of urea dissolved in water to soil was more efficient than surface fertilization for the growth, yield, and the N uptake N of corn and potatoes. There were no differences in dry matter yield of plants between medium and high N rates, but N, Ca, K and Mg concentrations of plants were higher at higher N rates. There were significant correlations between N uptake and each of Ca, K and Mg uptakes in corn and potatoes. Total N uptake by plants increased with increased N fertilizer and compost applications. Plane absorbed 54.9% of applied N at low N rate and 31.0 to 34.0% at high N rates. The proportion of N leaching losses was lower at low N rate and high plant density