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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 47, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 47, Issue 5 - Dec 2002
Volume 47 - Dec 2002
Volume 47, Issue 4 - Sep 2002
Volume 47, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 47, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 47, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
Growth Characteristics as Affected by Polyethylene Film-Mulching in Sesame
Lee, Sung-Woo ; Kang, Churl-Whan ; Kim, Dong-Hwi ; Shim, Kang-Bo ; Seong, Nak-Sul ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 269~272
This study was carried out to investigate varietal differences on growth characteristics under the conditions of PE film-mulching and non-mulching in sesame. At maturing stage from 76 to 95 days after sowing, Yangbaeckkae, non-branching plant type, under non-mulching showed larger leaf area index (LAI) than that of film-mulching, while plant height and the number of capsules per plant were similar to those of film-mulching. LAI of Ahnsankkae, branching plant type, under non-mulching was similar to film-mulching, while plant height and the number of capsules per plant were smaller than those of film-mulching. Net assimilation rate (NAR) of two varieties under non-mulching was lower at seedling stage from 25 to 35 days after sowing but higher at flowering stage from 45 to 55 days after sowing. At maturing stage from 66 to 77 days after sowing, NAR and crop growth rate (CGR) of Yangbaeckkae under non-mulching were greater than those of film-mulching, whereas those of Ahnsankkae under non-mulching were lesser than those of film-mulching. Yield under non-mulching was decreased by 7 % in Yangbaeckkae and 33 % in Ahnsankkae compared with that of film-mulching, therefore Yangbaeckkae was more adaptable for non-mulching than Ahnsankkae. Main factors decreasing yield of Yangbaeckkae under non-mulching were small LAI, NAR, and CGR at the stage of young seedling, and small number of capsules at early maturing stage from first flowering to 20 days after first flowering.
N Top-Dressing and Rice Straw Application for Low-Input Cultivation of Transplanted Rice in Japan
Cho, Y.S. ; Kobata, T. ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 273~278
An efficient low-input system (LIS) for fertiliser use in rice cultivation is necessary to reduce fossil energy use and pollution. Japanese people like Japonica rice, especially cv. Koshihikari. However, it has very low lodging resistance in Japanese weather condition. Our objective was to develop a LIS with the minimum sacrifice of grain yield in rice. Koshihikari was grown using conventional fertilization as a control (CON) with 4 g N
and 8 g
as a basal fertilizer dressing. It was compared with a low fertilizer treatment (LF) with only 4 g
as a basal dressing in the first year and no basal phosphorus fertilizer in the second year. Chopped rice straw was incorporated into the soil before the cropping season in both years. Fertilizer of 4 g N
was top-dressed at 15 days before heading in CON plots and 30 days before heading in LF plots in both years. Lodging was significantly less in LF than in CON plots, however, no rice straw effect was found in low fertilized condition. Grain yields in LF plots were reduced by 15-16% below those of CON plots. Lower yields in LF plots were associated with a reduced number of spikelets per unit area. However, big spikelet size was acquired in LF by 10 days earlier N top dressing than CON plots. A close relationship was found between spikelet numbers and N content of the plant at heading, and between grain yield or shoot dry weight and N content of the plant at maturity. Regardless of the fertilizer application methods, N use efficiency for the number of spikelets, final total dry matter and grain yield was essentially identical among fertilizer treatments. The reduced growth and yield in the LF plots resulted from low absorption of nitrogen. Conclusively, LIS can drastically reduce chemical fertilizer use and facilitate harvest operations by reducing lodging with some yield reduction..
Allelopathic Effect of Oryzalexine A on the Germination and Growth of Several Weeds
Lee, Choon-Woo ; Koichi Yoneyama ; Yasutomo Takeuchi ; Son, Young-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 279~282
Oryzalexine A, a potent growth inhibitor against several weeds such as Digitaria sanguinalis (L) Scop., and Amaranthus lividus L. was purified by conventional solvent partitioning and column chromatographies. This substance showed strong inhibitory activity on several weeds: Germination of seeds of Poa annua L. was inhibited by 36.5 % at 1.0 mM and Amaranthus lividus L. by 56.1% at 2.5mM. Growth of root and shoot of Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. by 10.2% and 22.4% at 2.5mM, respectively. These suggest that Oryzalexine A in rice straw might affect the germination and growth of susceptible weeds and other plants.
Quantification of Momilactones A and B in Rice Straw
Lee, Choon-Woo ; Koichi Yoneyama ; Yasutomo Takeuchi ; Ryu, Su-Noh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 283~285
Momilactones A and B, the major phytotoxins and phytoalexins in rice plants, were quantified by a HPLC-APCI-MS-MS (APCI-MS-MS) system under multiple reaction monitoring conditions. Since MA and MB were found to be easily extracted with water, these phytotoxic compounds may affect germination and growth of other plant species when the rice straws were left in the fields.
Biomass Partitioning during Early Growth Stage of Soybean in Response to Planting Time
Seong, Rak-Chun ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 286~291
Seedling establishment of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a critical factor in production system and cultural practices. The objective of this study was to identify the components of soybean seedling developments encompassing planting dates and cultivars that respond to emergence, early growth stage and dry matter accumulation. Three soybean cultivars, Hwangkeumkong, Shinpaldalkong 2, and Pungsannamulkong, were planted at Baegsan silty loam soil. Planting date was May 13, June 3, and June 24 in 2001. Sprinkler irrigation was accompanied with 30mm after seeding for three planting dates. Soybean seedlings were sampled at the growth stages from VE to V5. Days to emergence of soybean seedlings were taken 8 at May 13 and 5 at June 24 plantings. Emergence percentage was over 90 at three planting dates. May 13 planting took 33 days and June 24 planting was 25 days for reaching V5 growth stage. Cotyledon number was decreased after V2. Significant cultivar difference was found in cotyledon dry weight until V2 which differed in seed dry weights at the planting times. Leaf and total dry weights of soybean seedlings were not differed from V1 to V3 among planting dates and cultivars. Leaf water contents were generally ranged 78 to 85%. Branch was appeared from V4. Leaf/stem ratio among cultivars was similar at five growth stages and gradually increased from 2.1 at V1 to 2.8 at V5. The results based on this experiment indicated that seedling establishment of soybean was continued from VE to V3 growth stages affecting mainly by planting date and soil moisture.
Light Quality during Seed Imbibition Affects Germination and Sprout Growth of Soybean
Kang, Jin-Ho ; Park, A-Jung ; Jeon, Byung-Sam ; Yoon, Soo-Young ; Lee, Sang-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 292~296
Soybean seeds were treated with blue, red and far-red lights for 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours during 24-hour imbibition before culture for 6 days. The soybean sprouts raised were classified by their hypocotyl lengths; normal (＞4cm), abnormal (＜4cm) and non-germination, and their lateral roots, hypocotyl diameters and component dry weights were measured. Red light treatment and dark imbibition reduced the abnormal soybean sprouts more than far-red and blue light treatments, meaning that the former treatments produced more commercial sprouts. The lateral roots were more formed in blue light and dark imbibition than the other light treatments, but were completely blocked by any light treatment lasted during the whole imbibition. Although any light quality treatment did not influence their primary root lengths, blue light one lengthened the hypocotyl more than the others treated during the imbibition, and far-red light enlarged its diameter. Despite this morphological change, component, total or economic yield was not significantly different among the light quality treatments during the imbibition.
Dormancy-related Change in Endogenous ABA, Batatasin, and Sugar in Stored Tuber and Bulbil of Chinese Yam
Lee, In-Jung ; Kim, Sang-Kuk ; Lee, Sang-Chul ; Park, Tae-Shik ; Kwon, Soon-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 297~300
Endogenous ABA and batatasins were first quantified in the stored tubers and bulbils of the Chinese yam, Dioscorea opposita Thunb. cv. 'Tsukune' by GC-MS with comparison of internal standard, and sugar content was also analyzed by HPLC with comparison of external standard. Endogenous ABA content in stored tubers and bulbils was rapidly decreased as storage period prolonged. ABA content of the bulbils was always higher than that of tuber during storage periods. All batatasins of stored tubers and bulbils at 30 days after storage decreased steadily compared to 120 days after storage. On the contrary, batatasin-Ⅲ of the stored tuber and bulbils was only decreased at 60 days after storage. In Dioscorea opposita Thunb. cv. 'Tsukune' like D. japonica, D. alata, and D. bulbifera, may be controlled by endogenous batatasins and ABA, In these compounds, batatasins rather than ABA might be closely related to dormancy-inducing compound during dormancy of the Chinese yam, Dioscorea opposita Thunb. cv. Tsukune.
Variation of Alternative and Cytochrome Respiration during Ripening in Rice Leaves
Lee, Kwang-hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 301~304
The variation of alternative and cytochrome respiration during ripening in rice leaves (Oryza sativa L. cv. Takanari) was examined. The capacity of both respiration pathway was measured by inhibitor titration method using gas-phase oxygen electrodes. The alternative respiration rate decreased from 31.3% of the total respiration rate at around heading to 11.7% at 34 days after heading in the first fully expanded leaf from the top, and further to 6.4 % at 34 days after heading in the fourth leaf from the top. In contrast, the proportion of cytochrome respiration to total respiration increased with leaf senescence. The possible cause of alternative respiration as either an increase in inefficient respiration or a decrease in growth efficiency during ripening was discussed.
Performance of Imported Sweet Corn Hybrids in Korea
Seo, Seo-Jung ; Yun, Yun-Sang ; Lee, Lee-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 305~310
The performance of 7 sugary (su) and 12 shrunken-2 (sh2) sweet com hybrids which are commercially grown in the United States was tested in Korea. The 100-seed weight of su hybrids (16.5-23.6 g) was much heavier compared to that of sh2 hybrids (10.9-17.5 g). The germination rate of su and sh2 hybrids at
ranged 93.3-100% and 86.7-98.9%, the emergence rate of su and sh2 hybrids in cold test ranged 78.9-97.8% and 62.2-97.8%, and field emergence rate of su and sh2 hybrids ranged 74.4-100.0% and 79.9-98.2%, respectively. In su hybrids, there was a significantly positive correlation between germination rate at
and emergence rate in cold test or early growth. In contrast, in sh2 hybrids seed weight was positively correlated with early plant growth, while not with the germination rate at
or emergence rate in cold test and field. Most sh2 hybrids produced larger and more marketable ears compared to su hybrids although there were significant differences among the hybrids in the same genotype. At harvest (24 days after pollination) soluble solids content of su hybrids (24.3-27.1 Brix %) was much higher than that of sh2 hybrids (13.8-18.0 Brix %), while total sugars of sh2 hybrids (21.4-28.6% on the dry weight basis) was much higher compared to su hybrids (2.4-15.9%). Considering germination and emergence rates, marketable ear production, and total sugar content, 'GCB 70' and 'Sweet Satin' in su hybrids and 'Ice Queen', 'Aspen', 'Sweet Magic', 'Bandit', 'Xtrasweet 82', 'Aspen', and 'Cambella 90' in sh2 hybrids performed better than other hybrids.
Dry Matter Accumulation, Harvest Index, and Yield of Soybean in Response to Planting Time
Chun, Seong-Rak ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 311~318
Planting date of soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of production components in cultural systems. The objective of the current study was to identify the components of soybean production and cultural practices encompassing planting dates and cultivars that respond to dry matter accumulation, harvest index and yield components. Three determinate soybean cultivars were planted on May 13 (early), June 3 (mid), and June 24 (late). Planting density was 60
15cm with 2 seeds (222,000 plants per ha). Soybean plants were sampled every 10 days interval from the growth stages of V5 to R8 and separated into leaves including petioles, stems, pods, and seeds. Dry matter accumulations, harvest indices, and yield components were measured. Early planting had taken 55 days from VE to R2 and late planting taken 39 days indicating reduced vegetative growth. Early planting showed higher leaf, stem, pod and seed dry weights than late planting. However, late planting appeared to be higher harvest index and harvesting rate. Vegetative mass including leaf and stem increased to a maximum around R4/R5 and total dry weight increased to a maximum around R5/R6 and then declined slightly at R8. The highest seed yield was obtained with mid planting and no difference was found between early and late plantings. Cultivar differences were found among planting dates on growth characteristics and yield components. The results of this experiment indicated that soybean yield in relation to planting dates examined was mainly associated with harvest index and harvesting rate, and planting date of cultivars would be considered soybean plants to reach the growth stage of R4/R5 after mid August for adequate seed yield.
Molecular Marker Analysis for Resistance of Soybean Cultivars to Soybean Cyst Nematode
Chung, Jong-Il ; Park, Won-Gyeong ; Park, Min-Jung ; Ko, Mi-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 319~322
Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe; SCN) is an important soybean pest and the use of resistant cultivars is the effective method to reduce or eliminate SCN damage. However, breeding for SCN resistance is difficult and expensive by the oligogenic nature of the resistance and genetic variability in the pathogen. Fortunately, SCN resistance loci, rhg1 and Rhg4 are generally accepted as a necessity for the development of resistant genotypes using any source of resistance. In this study, resistance of 44 Korean soybean cultivars to SCN was tested using two molecular markers. Seonheukkong and Pokwangkong were the homozygous to rhg1 locus. Seven cultivars were susceptible to SCN based on Satt309 marker linked rhg1 locus. All Korean cultivars estimated in this study were recessive homozygous to Rhg4 locus and were susceptible in the PCR reaction using primer 548/563 linked to the Rhg4 locus conferring resistance to SCN race 3. Among 44 cultivars estimated, seven cultivars were susceptible to SCN in both Satt309 and primer 548/563 markers. Based on both Satt309 and primer 548/563 markers, there is no resistant cultivar to SCN in Korea. Therefore, SCN resistant cultivars need to be developed in the future. These two markers can be used for improving SCN resistant cultivars.
Effect of High Nitrogen Application on Two Components of Dark Respiration in a Rice Cultivar Takanari
Akita, Shigemi ; Lee, Kwang-hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 323~327
Plant growth and the two components of respiration, growth and maintenance, were compared between low and high nitrogen applications in hydroponic culture on a high-yielding rice cultivar 'Takanari' (Oryza sativa L.). Grain yield decreased by high nitrogen application, and thus this cultivar has low adaptability to nitrogen. Growth efficiency (GE) and net assimilation rate (NAR) were lower in the high-nitrogen plot. The maintenance coefficient (m) and growth coefficient (g) of dark respiration were 0.0111
and 0.196 in the low-nitrogen plot and 0.0166
and 0.237 in the high-nitrogen plot, respectively. Thus, high nitrogen application increased both g and m. Calculated
(maintenance respiration rate) was 70 and 90% of total respiration rate at heading, respectively. The significance of nitrogen adaptability and g was discussed.
Control of Sulfonylurea Herbicide-Resistant Lindernia dubia in Korean Rice Culture
Kuk, Yong-In ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 328~334
A Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell var. dubia accession from Jeonnam province, Korea was tested for resistance to sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides, imazosulfuron and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in whole-plant response bioassay. The accession was confirmed resistant to both herbicides. The
(herbicide concentration that reduced shoot dry weight by 50%) values of resistant accession were 264 and 19 times higher to imazosulfuron and pyrazosulfuronethyl, respectively, than that of the standard susceptible accession. The surviving resistant L. dubia after pyrazosulfuron-ethyl + molinate application can be controlled by sequential applications of soil-applied herbicides, butachlor, dithiopyr, pyrazolate, and thiobencarb and foliar herbicides, bentazon. Sulfonylurea-based mixtures such as mixtures of azimsulfuron + anilofos, bensulfuron-methyl + oxadiazon, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl + fentrazamide, and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl + anilofos + carfentrazon can also be used to control the surviving resistant L. dubia. However, use of these mixtures should be restricted to a special need basis. Thus, we suggest that sequential applications of non-SU-based mixtures such as butachlor + pyrazolate and MCPB + molinate + simetryne be used to control the surviving resistant L. dubia after SU herbicide applications. Rice yield was reduced 24 % by resistant L. dubia that survived after the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl + molinate application compared with pyrazolate + butachlor in transplanted rice culture. In vitro ALS activity of the resistant biotype was 40 and 30 times more resistant to imazosulfuron and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, respectively, than the susceptible biotype. Result of in vitro ALS assay that the resistance mechanism of L. dubia to SU herbicides may be due, in part, to an alteration in the target enzyme, ALS.