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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Lee, Sang Chul
Volume & Issues
Volume 47, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 47, Issue 5 - Dec 2002
Volume 47 - Dec 2002
Volume 47, Issue 4 - Sep 2002
Volume 47, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 47, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 47, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
Genetic Analyses of Heading and Maturing Dates and Their Relationship to Freezing Resistance in Barley
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 395~401
The combination of early heading time, maturing time and short grain-filling period is very important to develop early varieties in winter barley. The 4 parental half diallel crosses (parents,
s) were cultivated at the field. The heading date was from April 3 to 26, maturing date from May 15 to 27 and grain-filling period from 31 days to 42 days, showing that the varietal differences about the 3 traits were remarkable. According to half diallel cross analyses, Dongbori 1 for heading time (late heading) was dominant, but Oweolbori (early heading) was recessive, showing partial dominance with high additive component of genetic variance. Dongbori 1 for maturing time was dominant, but Oweolbori was recessive, showing partial dominance with high additive variance. Reno for grain-filling period (short grain-filling period) was dominant, but Oweolbori (long grain-filling period) was recessive with additive, and partial dominance. There were highly significant mean squares for both GCA and SCA effects on the heading and maturing times, and GCA/SCA ratios for all traits were high, showing the additive gene effects more important. Sacheon 6 and Oweolbori had greater GCA effects for early heading and maturing times, and Dongbori 1 and Reno had greater GCA effects for late times. GCA effects were highly significant in
generations, showing high GCA/SCA ratios (7.02). The heading and maturing times in field were positively correlated with antifreeze proteins concentrations, accumulation, resistance to photoinhibition and winter survival, respectively) but the grain-filling period did negatively correlated with the trails.
Growth and Yield of Rice as Affected by Saline Water Treatment at Different Growth Stages
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 402~408
Rice cultivar 'Janganbyeo' was cultivated by irrigating the saline waters of high salinity (3.0%) and medium saliniy (1.5%) for 4 days, and low salinity (0.5%) for 30 days at tillering, early meiosis and heading stage. Leaf injury due to salinity was most severe at tillering stage in 1999, but at heading stage in 2000. Heading date was delayed by 1 to 5 days by treatment of saline waters only at tillering stage. Culm length and panicle length were most severely shortened by treatment at early meiosis stage. Yield and yield components except for panicle number were decreased most by high salinity treatment regardless of growth stages. In particular, ripening ratio and grain weight among the yield components were decreased most conspicuously by the saline water treatment regardless of salinity and growth stage. Regarding grain weight grain-filling rate and duration, there is no remarked difference among the concentrations and treatment durations of saline water at tillering stage. However, their reductions were very different among the concentrations and treatment durations of saline water at early meiosis stage, being greatest when treated with high salinity for 4 days and followed by low salinity for 30 days. Also their reductions were very severe only when treated with high salinity for 4 days at heading stage.
Effects of Salt Treatment on Yield and Physiological Characteristics of Flag Leaf at Heading Stage in Winter Barley
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 409~412
This research was conducted to obtain the fundamental data on salt injury and different responses among cultivars in winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Salts did not affect yield components including number of panicles, stem length, grain number per ear and grain yield while reduced stem dry weight and thousand seed weight significantly with increasing concentrations of salt from 60 to 180 mM. NaCl had less injury effect on barley straw dry weight and thousand seed weight than did
. Chlorophyll content and relative turgidity in flag leaf were reduced when treated with both salts, while free proline in the salt-treated leaf was increased. Content of proline in salt-treated barley was about 10 folds compared to the control. Based on yield components and physiological traits of flag leaf, the tolerance to salt injury was the greatest in Baegdong, followed by Dongbori#1, Mogpo#55, and Gangbori. The results suggested that salt- stressed barley at reproductive stage had higher free proline content, and that special management in this stage must be considered because salt stress at heading stage affect flag leaf growth as well as yield components Harmfully.
-amylase Gene and Degradation of Starch Granules of Germinating Rice Seed under Low Temperature and Submerged Soil Condition
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 413~417
This study was conducted to determine
-amylase gene expression and degradation of starch granules in the endosperm near scutellar epithelium of rice cultivars under the submerged soil at hypoxia 18
, which is practically important condition for farmers in temperate regions. In case of cv. Janghyangdo, accumulation of
-amylase mRNA was detected in the aleurone layer on the ninth day after seeding. However that of cv. Suwon 287 and Norm 6 were not detected in the aleurone layer in submerged soil(hypoxia) at 18
-amylase of cv. Janghyangdo was synthesized de novo in aleurone cells not in the scutellar epithelium. Degradation of starch granules in the endosperm near scutellar epithelium of c.v. Janghyangdo and Ginbozu, which have a strong
-amylase activity, was greater than that of cv. Suwon 287 and Norm 6 with no
-amylase activity in submerged soil(hypoxia) at 18
. This result may indicate that
-amylase gene expression and degradation of starch granules of germinating rice seed are related to the emergence of rice under the submerged soil condition at low temperature.
Effects of Sowing Method and Planting Density on Growth and Root Yield of Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsly
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 418~421
This study was carried out to clarify the effect of sowing method in four planting densities on growth and root yield of Cynanchum wilfordii. vine diameter, number of branches, number of branched roots, and root length, were greater in seedling transplanting than in direct sowing. In planting densities, main vine length, number of branches, and number of tillers were increased at higher planting density, but vine diameter, leaf length, leaf width, root length, and root diameter were increased at lower planting density. fresh root yield was greater in seedling transplanting than in direct sowing. In seedling transplanting, it was 53% higher in 27 plants per unit area than 1,680 kg/10a in 17 plants per unit area. Therefore, seedling transplanting in 27 plants per unit area showed most effective for increasing root yield of Cynanchum wilfordii.
Varietal Responses of Rice Growth and Yield to Soil Salt Content
Jae Kil Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 422~426
In other to find out the basic information on cultivation and breeding for salt tolerance in rice, these studies were conducted at salinity paddy fields containing 0.2, 0.3, 0.4% of salt and normal paddy field using 6 Japonica type, 5 Tonsil type varieties and Annapurna. On these fields a series of investigation was made for the responses of rice growth and yield to salt content of saline sails. The heading dates of the rice cultivated at salinity 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4% were delayed compared by 2 or 3,5 or 8 and 10 or 13 days respectively in Japonica and Tonsil type varieties to those at the normal paddy fields. The culm length at salinity paddy fields decreased by 13-39% in Japonica type and 14-35% in Tongil type varieties. But the number of panicles per hill decreased by 16-40% in Japonica type and by 14-35% in Tongil type varieties. The number of grains per panicle in saline paddy fields decreased by 10 to 40% in all varieties, but the percent ripened grain decreased by 20-48% in Japonica type and by 19-51% in Tongil type varieties. 1000 grains weight was decreased by lower than 23% in all varieties, but yield was reduced to 20-62% in Japonica and 25-67% in Tongil type varieties.
Effect of Light Quality During Imbibition and Culture on Growth of Soybean Sprout
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 427~431
Lateral roots of soybean sprout might reduce the quality. The study was done to measure the effect of light quality treated during 24 hour imbibition or 6 day culture on growth and development of soybean sprouts on the 6th day after culture. With the soybean seeds imbibed in 4 ppm benzyladenopurine (BA) solution for last 6 hours of the imbibition, blue and red lights were treated during the imbibition, but during 6 day culture, blue and red or far-red light treatments were done for 50 minutes or 5 hours a day, respectively, the periods taking for their cotyledons to turn green color, On the 6th day after culture, the soybean sprouts were classified by 4 categories on the base of hypocotyl length;＞7cm, 4 to 7cm, ＜4cm and non-germination, and their lateral roots, hypocotyl diameters and fraction dry weights were measured. Blue and red lights treated during the imbibition completely blocked lateral root formation regardless of the lights treated during the culture, and showed nearly the same rate of hypocotyls of longer than 4cm. The period of each light treatment forced during the culture did not influence the growth of soybean sprouts. far-red light treated for 5 hours everyday, however, had the least rate of seed germination and hypocotyls of longer than 7cm of the light quality treatments. In addition, red and far-red lights almost equally having the commercial soybean sprouts of longer than 4cm hypocotyls move elongated and selenderized than blue light and dark treatment, meaning the growth and morphology of soybean sprouts was affected by light treatments during the culture.
Effects of Seed-piece Size and Seed-piece Number Per a Hydroponiclly Grown Mini-tuber on Growth and Yield of Potato
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 432~436
This study was conducted in 2001 to determine the influence of seed-piece size (SPS) and number (SPN) per mini-tuber produced by hydroponics on growth and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Treatments consisted of the combination of six SPS (3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13g/seed-piece) and four SPN (whole tuber, and two, three, and four pieces/tuber). Percentage sprout emergence at transplanting was higher for seed pieces weighing 7 to 13 g (83.0 to 85.4%) and for three and four pieces per tuber (85.4 and 84.8%). As SPS were increased from 3 to 9 g/piece, total yields markedly increased from 2,052 to 2,924 kg/10a and seed tuber (31 to 250 g) yield from 1,589 to 2,428kg/10a with no further increase with SPS. As SPN was increased from one to three/ tuber, total yields increased from 1,918 to 2,982 kg/10a and seed tuber yields from 1,422 to 2,579 kg/10a with no further increase with SPN. Average tuber weight increased with SPS (46.3 to 71.5 g/tuber) and SPN (56.5 to 64.9 g/tuber).
Flowering and Fruiting of Characteristics of Short Flowering Period Lines in Peanut
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 437~442
To breed high quality and yield peanut variety according to select the short flowering duration, fifteen germplasms (1 virginia,7 spanish,6 valencia types and var, Daekwang) were investigated the flowering habit and agronomic characteristics from 1998 to 1999. Emergence date of the selected short flowering duration germplasms (SPFGs) was earlier 1-3 days and middle or small seed than that of var, Daekwang. Main stem length was longer 57cm but the number of branches, pods, 100-seed weight, and pod weight per plant was reduced 25%, 23%, 42%, 46%, respectively, in SPFCs comparing to var, Daekwang. The flowering date in SPFGs was similar but the flowering duration was earlier 5-16 days than that of var, Daekwang (52 days). Varieties that flowered shorter duration than 50 days were 18.8% among the SPFGs. The number of total flowers in SPFGs was fewer 50% than that of var, Daekwang. The rate of flowering inhibition were 50-52% than that of var Daekwang. The frequencies of flowering duration (under 50 days) were 7.7% in virginia, 46.2% in spanish, 53.9% in valencia. The effect of shading treatment on rate of flowering inhibition were 11%, but number of branches and pods were reduced by 27-31% in valencia type compared to non-shade. Correlation coefficient was significant positively (
valencia) between the air temperature and flower number, The frequency of peg and pod number on 1st to 2nd nodes in SPFGs were more 3-12%, 21-26% than that of var. Daekwang. The rate of mature pods at 80 days after flowering were higher 12-17% than that of var, Daekwang (68%). Correlation coefficient was high significant negatively between date of first flower and flowering date, the ratio of mature pod.
Growth and Seed Quality as Affected by Growing Condition in Sesame
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 443~447
This study was carried out to determine the differences in the growth, grain yield, and seed quality of sesame plant according to seeding date between P,E. vinyl-house and outdoor cultures. Reproductive growth period in vinyl-house culture was shorter than in outdoor culture. Stem length and capsule setting length of sesame were much longer in vinyl-house culture than in outdoor culture. Also, number of capsules per plant and 1,000 grain weight in vinyl-house culture were higher, specially the grain yield was approximately 57% more than in outdoor culture. In vinyl house culture, sesame plants sown on June 8 had longer capsule setting length, more capsules per plant, higher 1,000 grain weight, and higher percent ripened grain at the upper part of the capsule settings than those sown in May 9. They also had higher 1,000 grain weight at the middle and lower part of the capsule settings compared to May 9 seeding. However, no difference in grain yield of in seeding dates was observed. In outdoor culture, sesame plants, which was sown on May 9, had more effective branch number and capsule number and plant compared to those sown on June 8. Though sesame plants sown on May 9 had lower percent ripened grain at the upper and middle part of the capsule settings and lower 1,000 grain weight, the seed yield was similar to those sown on June 8. No difference in chromaticity value
of sesame seeds between two culture conditions was observed. The
value was higher in vinyl-house culture than outdoor culture while
value was higher in outdoor culture. Sesaminol triglucoside content of sesame seeds was higher in vinyl-house culture than in outdoor culture. On the other hand, the content of sesamin and sesamolin from sesame seeds in vinyl-house culture were lower than in outdoor culture.
Effect of Sowing Amount on Seedling Growth and Grain Yield of Automatic Seedling Raising facility
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 448~452
The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum sowing amount for raising rice seedlings in automatic facility. four levels of seeding amount, 200, 220, 250 and 300 tray were applied to compare the seedling characteristics according to seeding density. Sowing dates were fixed at May 10 for single cropping and June 10 for double cropping. The seedling height was taller as the increase of sowing amount from 200g to 300g/tray, however the seedling quality was decreased with increasing of seed density. At 40-50 days after transplanting, there was no significant difference in the plant height and tiller number among the rice seedling raised under different seeding densities. Grain yield of 15-day old seedlings transplanted at May 25 was not significantly different among four different levels of seeding amount. However, the yield of 10day old seedling transplanted at June 20 was significantly higher in seeding density of 250g/tray than that of 300g/tray.
Effect of Microbe Control and Water Temperature on Early Growth and Yield of Soybean Sprouts
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 453~458
High temperature sterilization method (30min. at
longrightarrow30 min. at
longrightarrow30 min. cooling at
) was evaluated better than that of chloride, ion water,
water, and salt water for the controling of micro-organisms at the early stage of sprout culture. Due to the improved germination rate and effective control of micro-organisms at early stage, the method resulted in much lower in the number of micro-organisms, higher in sprout yield, and 2 days longer in quality keeping at market than sprouts prepared by conventional method. There are two methods related with water temperature; constant temperature method (18.5
) which keeps the same water temperature during the culture and 3-stage temperature method which changes the water temperature depending on the days after culture. Three-stage temperature method set the temperature at 21
) in the second and third days after the initial acceleration of germination (about 4 hours), at 18.5
in the fourth and fifth days, and at 17.0
) in the sixth and seventh days. Three-stage temperature method could enhance the resistance power to diseases at the early growth stage, control the growth to standard goods (8-9cm in length and 2.15-2.30mm in width), and keep good body color at the middle or final stage. This method also increased the sprout yield by 6% compared with the conventional method, constant temperature method.
Bioactive Component Content as Affected by Different Drying Condition in Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) Root
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 459~464
This experiment was conducted to know the changes of bioactive component content in four-year-old peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) root with various drying methods such as room temperature drying,
heat-air drying, room temperature drying after
boiling water treatment and freeze drying, and to establish the optimum drying method for high quality production of Paeoniae Radix. For this purpose, the contents of paeoniflorin, albiflorin and five phenolic compounds (gallic acid, benzoic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and (+)-taxifolin 3-O-
-D-glucopyranoside) in peony root with different drying methods were analyzed by RP-HPLC. The contents of paeoniflorin, albiflorin and (+)-taxifolin 3-O-
-D-glucopyranoside at room temperature drying were higher than in the other drying methods and that of gallic acid at 8
boiling water treatment was the highest among that of all drying methods. In the case of freeze drying, the contents of (+)-catechin, benzoic acid and (-)-epicatechin were the highest among those of all drying methods. As increase of drying and treatment temperature, the contents of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, (+)-taxifolin 3-O-
-D-glucopyrano-side, (+)-catechin and benzoic acid were decreased.
Genotypic Variation of Esterase Isozyme in Breeding Lines of Two-rowed Barley by Electrophoretic Banding Pattern
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 465~470
This study presents results of electro-phoretically detectable isozyme variation in Crossing Block (CB) lines of two-rowed barley maintained by the National Crop Experiment Station. The specific objectives were to determine allelic frequencies at the four Est loci(Est1, Est2, Est4, and Est5) and their distribution over 380CB lines of two-rowed barley. A total of 17 alleles were detected over the four Est loci in these lines. There were 4 alleles (Pr, Al, Ca, and Af at the Est1 locus and their frequencies were 69.7, 1.1, 28.4, and 0.8%, respectively. At the Est2 locus, 5 different alleles (Dr, Fr, Sp, Un and a recessive null allele) were detected and their frequencies were 2.9,84.5,0.5,2.1, and 10%, respectively. four alleles (Nz, Su, At, and null were detected at the Est4 locus and the allelic frequency of Su was about 84%. Four alleles(Mi, Pi, Te, and a null allele(od)) were detected at the Est5 locus and their frequencies were 34.2, 61.0, 2.4, and 2.4%, respectively. Based on the allelic frequencies over the four Est loci, 380 CB lines were classified into 25 genotypes. The most frequent genotypes were G1(Pr-Fr-Su-Mi) and G2(Pr-Fr-Su-Pi), and their frequencies were 28.1 and 39.5%, respectively. The frequencies of other genotypes were less than 10%.
Growth and Yield Response of Rice Cultivars to Different Night illumination Intensities
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 471~474
This experiment was conducted to investigate the response of rice growth and grain yield to night illumination. Three cultivars Heugjubyeo (early maturing), Hwaseongbyeo (medium maturing), and Ilpumbyeo(mid-late maturing) were tested under different light intensities ranging 1.0 to 20.0 lux (0.3 to 5.6
). Awn length of all cultivars became longer as night illumination intensity increased; 4.09 cm under 10-20 lux compared to 1.93cm under 2 lux in Hwaseongbyeo. However culm and spike length ere not affected by night illumination. Night illumination delayed flowering by 3 days in Heugjinjubyeo, 5 days in Hwaseongbyeo, and 9 days in Ilpumbyeo at 10-20 lux compared to that at 2 lux. Grain yield was reduced by 10.0% in Heugjinjubyeo, 17.7% in Hwaseongbyeo, and 20.7% in Ilpumbyeo at 10-20 lux compared to 2 lux condition.
Effects of Post-Harvest Bulk Management System Using Rice Processing Complex on Labor Saving and Quality of Barley
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 475~478
Post-harvest treatment for barley production requires many steps including drying, cleaning, and packing, and these steps be needed many labor input. Rice processing complex (RPC) is useful for post harvest management system in rice production. However, it is rare to be used for barley production. This study was conducted to explore the variations of quality and labor saving between conventional method and bulk-management system in post-harvest using RPC. The sorting rate was not different between manual method and bulk management. The hardness of non-polished grain was ranged 10,175-10,329 g/
, and that for non-polished grain was higher than that for polished grain, but there was not different between drying method. There was not be showed the hunter's value such as L, a and b according to drying method. Cooking characters such as water absorption ratio, swelling ratio, and water soluble extracts by circulated or continued dryer was higher than manual drying using solar heat. Labor input per ha for each cultivation process in bulk-management of barley using rice processing complex was 21 hours, compared to 46 hr/ha in the conventional method, labor input was greatly saved by up to 54.3% in the post-harvest bulk management system.
Variation in Spikelet Number under Different Nitrogen Levels and Shading Treatments during Panicle Formation Stage of Rice
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 479~485
This study was conducted in order to elucidate the effects of nitrogen level and split application method, and shading treatment during reproductive stage on sink formation. Japonica variety Choocheongbyeo and Hwaseongbyeo and indica
japonica cross type variety Nampoongbyeo were used. Five levels (6 to 30 kg/10a at 6 kg/10a interval) of nitrogen fertilization, and two split application methods (50-25-25% and 30-30-40% as basaltillering-panicle fertilizer) for each nitrogen treatment were applied. In addition shading treatments (shading rate, 65%) were performed for N 12 kg/10a and 24 kg/10a plot. Shading were applied for 30 days from panicle initiation to heading, 15 days from panicle initiation and 15days before heading. Panicle per square meter, and primary rachis branches per panicle and differentiated number of secondary branch per panicle increased according as applied nitrogen amount increased up to 18 to 24 kg/10a, and there was no significant difference between two nitrogen application methods. Primary rachis branch and secondary branch per square meter also increased according as the amount of applied nitrogen increase up to 18 to 24 kg/10a, and there was no significant difference between nitrogen application methods. Panicle per square meter and primary rachis branch per panicle were significantly decreased due to shading treatments only in Choochengbyeo. In all varieties, shading reduced secondary rachis branch per panicle significantly and the reduction was greatest in 30 days shading during reproductive stage. Spikelets per square meter increased according as the amount of applied nitrogen increases up to 18 to 24kg/10a, but showed no move increase above this nitrogen application level. Significant difference was not shown between nitrogen split methods. Spikelets per square meter also decreased significantly due to shading treatment during reproductive stage, showing the greatest reduction by 30 days shading during reproductive stage, and the least by 15 days shading during booting stage. The variation of spikelets per square meter was influenced greatest by the variation of panicles per square meter and spikelets per secondary rachis branch.
Relationship of Spikelet Number with Nitrogen Content, Biomass, and Nonstructural Carbohydrate Accumulation During Reproductive Stage of Rice
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 486~491
Spikelet number and its components of rice plant are closely associated with nitrogen accumulation and biomass production during panicle formation stage. To elucidate this relationship and also compare the differences of the sink formation efficiency among cultivars, spikelet number, its components, nitrogen content, nonstructural carbohydrate content, and plant dry matter were investigated under 5 nitrogen levels with two split application methods and shading treatments by using three rice varieties. The nitrogen amount in shoot at panicle initiation stage and at 15 days after panicle initiation showed significant positive correlation with primary rachis branches per square meter, and that at 15 days after panicle initiation and at heading stage with secondary rachis branches per square meter, Primary and secondary rachis branches per square meter showed positive significant correlation with the shoot dry weight at panicle initiation stage and at 15 days after panicle initiation stage, respectively, The amount of degenerated secondary rachis branches and spikelets per square meter showed significant negative correlation with the dry weight and nonstructural carbohydrate increase of stem during 15days after panicle initiation, and the contents of nonstructural carbohydrate at 15 days after panicle initiation. Spikelets per unit area showed significant positive correlation with nitrogen amount in shoot and shoot dry weight at heading stage. The sink formation efficiency expressed as the spikelet number produced by the unit amount of nitrogen in shoot at heading stage was higher in Nampoongbyeo than Choocheongbyeo and Hwaseongbyeo. Sink formation efficiency was negatively correlated with the dry weight increase of shoot and stem during reproductive stage. but not significantly with that of leaf in all varieties. Sink formation efficiency was not significantly correlated with nonstructural carbohydrate, but was significantly negatively correlated with structural carbohydrate increase during reproductive stage.