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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Lee, Sang Chul
Volume & Issues
Volume 47, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 47, Issue 5 - Dec 2002
Volume 47 - Dec 2002
Volume 47, Issue 4 - Sep 2002
Volume 47, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 47, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 47, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
Genotypic and Environmental Effects on Flour Properties in Korean Winter Wheat
Hong, Byung-Hee ; Park, Chul-Soo ; Baik, Byung-Kee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 1, 2002, Pages 1~12
Flour characteristics of Korean winter wheat grown in Suwon in 1997 and 1998, and in Suwon and Deokso in 1998 were evaluated. Korean winter wheat cultivars were significantly influenced by years and locations in flour properties such as ash content, protein content, damaged starch content, starch swelling volume and power. Protein content was highly correlated with starch damage and alkaline water retention capacity. There were highly significant correlations between mixing time of mixograph and SDS sedimentation volume. Swelling properties of flour and starch were highly correlated with pasting properties of flour and starch, respectively. Compared to commercial flours for baking, Alchanmil, Gobunmil, Keumkangmil and Tapdongmil showed similar protein content, SOS sedimentation volume and mixograph mixing time. Eunpamil, Geurumil, Olgeurumil, Suwon 258, Suwon 261, Suwon 265, Suwon 275, Suwon 276, Suwon 277, Suwon 278 and Urimil had similar values to commercial noodle flours in SDS sedimentation volume. Alchanmil, Olgeurumil, Suwon 274, Suwon 275, Suwon 276 and Urimil showed higher swelling and pasting properties than the others. Chokwang, Olgeurumil, Suwon 277 and Urimil were similar to commercial cookie flours. Friabilin-absence lines showed higher protein content and starch damage than those of friabilin-presence lines. Absence lines of 1D
2.2 + 1Dy12 subunit in high molecular weight glutenin subunits showed higher SDS sedimentation volume and mixing time of mixograph than those of presence lines.
Present Status and Prospect of Crop Production Technology to Improve the Crop Quality and Functionality
Je-Cheon Chae ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, 2002, Pages 1~14
Development of crops with high quality as well as various beneficial functions is necessary to satisfy consumers being interested in their health and to enhance a competitiveness in the international market of agricultural products. What we have achieved so far from our research on crop quality was not sufficient since we often neglected sensory feature of crop products such as eating quality but in many cases, we put more emphases on nutrient contents, physico-chemical properties, and out-appearing features of the products. Therefore developments of sensory elements and technique for evaluation with a priority given to eating quality of each of an individual crop are important and very urgent to be solved in Korea. An endeavor to develop bioactive crops is necessary and resonable but aspects of both productivity and economy with a special emphasis on the original purposes such as production of energy and nutrient for human life must be considered. The development of more concrete ideas for crop functionality is essential before any research goes further.
Evaluation of Bread Baking Quality of Korean Winter Wheat over Years and Locations
Hong, Byung-Hee ; Park, Chul-Soo ; Baik, Byung-Kee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 1, 2002, Pages 13~20
Bread baking parameters and relationships between bread baking properties and flour characteristics were evaluated for two years, 1997 and 1998, and at two locations, Suwon and Deokso, with Korean winter wheat cultivars and lines. Among the bread baking parameters, lightness of crumb grain showed differences between years. No significant differences were found in dough mixing time, bread loaf volume, crumb grain score or firmness. Keumkangmil, Suwon 278 and Tapdongmil showed higher bread loaf volume, good structure of crumb grain and softer crumb firmness. However, compared to commercial flours for baking, cultivar means averaged over years and locations of nineteen Korean winter wheats showed poor bread baking quality because of low protein content and unsuitable protein quality. Protein content and flour swelling volume showed better relationships with the bread baking parameters than other flour characteristics. Friabilin-absence lines showed softer crumb firmness than those of friabilin-presence lines.
Current Status and Perspectives in Varietal Improvement of Rice Cultivars for High-Quality and Value-Added Products
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, 2002, Pages 15~32
The endeavors enhancing the grain quality of high-yielding japonica rice were steadily continued during 1980s-1990s along with the self-sufficiency of rice production and the increasing demands of high-quality rices. During this time, considerably great progress and success was obtained in development of high-quality japonica cultivars and quality evaluation techniques including the elucidation of interrelationship between the physicochemical properties of rice grain and the physical or palatability components of cooked rice. In 1990s, some high-quality japonica rice cultivars and special rices adaptable for food processing such as large kernel, chalky endosperm, aromatic and colored rices were developed and its objective preference and utility was also examined by a palatability meter, rapid-visco analyzer and texture analyzer, Recently, new special rices such as extremely low-amylose dull or opaque non-glutinous endosperm mutants were developed. Also, a high-lysine rice variety was developed for higher nutritional utility. The water uptake rate and the maximum water absorption ratio showed significantly negative correlations with the K/Mg ratio and alkali digestion value(ADV) of milled rice. The rice materials showing the higher amount of hot water absorption exhibited the larger volume expansion of cooked rice. The harder rices with lower moisture content revealed the higher rate of water uptake at twenty minutes after soaking and the higher ratio of maximum water uptake under the room temperature condition. These water uptake characteristics were not associated with the protein and amylose contents of milled rice and the palatability of cooked rice. The water/rice ratio (in w/w basis) for optimum cooking was averaged to 1.52 in dry milled rices (12% wet basis) with varietal range from 1.45 to 1.61 and the expansion ratio of milled rice after proper boiling was average to 2.63(in v/v basis). The major physicochemical components of rice grain associated with the palatability of cooked rice were examined using japonica rice materials showing narrow varietal variation in grain size and shape, alkali digestibility, gel consistency, amylose and protein contents, but considerable difference in appearance and texture of cooked rice. The glossiness or gross palatability score of cooked rice were closely associated with the peak, hot paste and consistency viscosities of viscosities with year difference. The high-quality rice variety "IIpumbyeo" showed less portion of amylose on the outer layer of milled rice grain and less and slower change in iodine blue value of extracted paste during twenty minutes of boiling. This highly palatable rice also exhibited very fine net structure in outer layer and fine-spongy and well-swollen shape of gelatinized starch granules in inner layer and core of cooked rice kernel compared with the poor palatable rice through image of scanning electronic microscope. Gross sensory score of cooked rice could be estimated by multiple linear regression formula, deduced from relationship between rice quality components mentioned above and eating quality of cooked rice, with high probability of determination. The
-amylose-iodine method was adopted for checking the varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice. The rice cultivars revealing the relatively slow retrogradation in aged cooked rice were IIpumbyeo, Chucheongyeo, Sasanishiki, Jinbubyeo and Koshihikari. A Tonsil-type rice, Taebaegbyeo, and a japonica cultivar, Seomjinbyeo, showed the relatively fast deterioration of cooked rice. Generally, the better rice cultivars in eating quality of cooked rice showed less retrogradation and much sponginess in cooled cooked rice. Also, the rice varieties exhibiting less retrogradation in cooled cooked rice revealed higher hot viscosity and lower cool viscosity of rice flour in amylogram. The sponginess of cooled cooked rice was closely associated with magnesium content and volume expansion of cooked rice. The hardness-changed ratio of cooked rice by cooling was negatively correlated with solids amount extracted during boiling and volume expansion of cooked rice. The major physicochemical properties of rice grain closely related to the palatability of cooked rice may be directly or indirectly associated with the retrogradation characteristics of cooked rice. The softer gel consistency and lower amylose content in milled rice revealed the higher ratio of popped rice and larger bulk density of popping. The stronger hardness of rice grain showed relatively higher ratio of popping and the more chalky or less translucent rice exhibited the lower ratio of intact popped brown rice. The potassium and magnesium contents of milled rice were negatively associated with gross score of noodle making mixed with wheat flour in half and the better rice for noodle making revealed relatively less amount of solid extraction during boiling. The more volume expansion of batters for making brown rice bread resulted the better loaf formation and more springiness in rice breed. The higher protein rices produced relatively the more moist white rice bread. The springiness of rice bread was also significantly correlated with high amylose content and hard gel consistency. The completely chalky and large grain rices showed better suitability far fermentation and brewing. The glutinous rice were classified into nine different varietal groups based on various physicochemical and structural characteristics of endosperm. There was some close associations among these grain properties and large varietal difference in suitability to various traditional food processing. Our breeding efforts on improvement of rice quality for high palatability and processing utility or value-adding products in the future should focus on not only continuous enhancement of marketing and eating qualities but also the diversification in morphological, physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of rice grain suitable for processing various value-added rice foods.ice foods.
Evaluation of Korean Noodle Quality of Korean Winter Wheat over Years and Locations
Hong, Byung-Hee ; Park, Chul-Soo ; Baik, Byung-Kee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 1, 2002, Pages 21~28
Noodle texture parameters of Korean style wet and dry noodles and relationships between noodle quality and flour characteristics were evaluated for two years, 1997 and 1998, and at two locations, Suwon and Deokso, using Korean winter wheat cultivars and lines. No significant difference for chewiness was found between cultivars over locations. Noodles made from flours from 1997 showed significantly higher chewiness than those from 1998. Chewiness of cooked noodles showed positively significant correlations with protein content and SDS sedimentation volume and negatively significant correlations with starch peak viscosity and flour swelling volume. Korean winter wheat cultivars, except for Gobunmil, Keumkangmil Tapdongmil, Suwon 265 and Suwon 280, showed chewiness of cooked noodles similar to commercial flours used for noodle making in Korea and Japan.
Shattering-related Characteristics and Germination Speed Based on Grain Type and Esterase Isozyme Zymogram in Korean Off-rype Rice
Kim, Dong-Kwan ; Jin, Il-Doo ; Kim, Yeon-Gyu ; Min, Kyung-Soo ; Jung, Byung-Gwan ; Kim, Yong-Jae ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 1, 2002, Pages 29~35
This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of shattering habit and germination of offtype rice plants collected in Korea which were classified into seven groups based on grain characteristics. In the long-grain red rice group, the short-grain red rice group, the long-grain normal rice group, and the long-grain waxy rice group, the tensile strength of grain and primary rachis branch was relatively low and the fiber cell of the primary rachis branch was short. Characteristics of shattering-related traits and germination in relation to grain and esterase isozyme zymogram type of off-type rice plants. In most lines of the extremely late and sterile rice group, the tensile strength of grain was low, while that of primary rachis branch was high, and the fiber cell was long. However, in the type 1 esterase isozyme zymogram(EIZ) lines among the long-grain normal rice group and the type 6 and 5+6 EIZ plants among the extremely late and sterile rice group, the tensile strength of grain was relatively higher. The long-grain waxy rice group and the type 3 EIZ lines among the long-grain red rice group, showed higher germinability than did cultivars which are known to germinate well even in low-temperature. The other off-type rice group, except for the short-grain waxy rice group and type 1 and 7 EIZ lines among the long-grain normal rice group, had higher germination speed than that of the cultivars.
Trend and Further Research of Rice Quality Evaluation
Huhn-Pal Moon ; Jung-Il Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, 2002, Pages 33~54
Rice quality is much dependent on the pre-and post harvest management. There are many parameters which influence rice or cooked rice qualitys such as cultivars, climate, soil, harvest time, drying, milling, storage, safety, nutritive value, taste, marketing, eating, cooking conditions, and each nations' food culture. Thus, vice evaluation might not be carried out by only some parameters. Physicochemical evaluation of rice deals with amy-lose content, gelatinizing property, and its relation with taste. The amylose content of good vice in Korea is defined at 17 to 20%. Other parameters considered are as follows; ratio of protein body-1 per total protein amount in relation to taste, and oleic/linoleic acid ratio in relation to storage safety. The rice higher Mg/K ratio is considered as high quality. The optimum value is over 1.5 to 1.6. It was reported that the contents of oligosaccharide, glutamic acid or its derivatives and its proportionalities have high corelation with the taste of rice. Major aromatic compounds in rice have been known as hexanal, acetone, pentanal, butanal, octanal, and heptanal. Recently, it was found that muco-polysaccharides are solubilized during cooking. Cooked rice surface is coated by the muco-polysaccharide. The muco-polysaccharide aye contributing to the consistency and collecting free amino acids and vitamins. Thus, these parameters might be regarded as important items for quality and taste evaluation of rice. Ingredients of rice related with the taste are not confined to the total rice grain. In the internal kernel, starch is main component but nitrogen and mineral compounds are localized at the external kernel. The ingredients related with taste are contained in 91 to 86% part of the outside kernel. For safety that is considered an important evaluation item of rice quality, each residual tolerance limit for agricultural chemicals must be adopted in our country. During drying, rice quality can decline by the reasons of high drying temperature, overdrying, and rapid drying. These result in cracked grain or decolored kernel. Intrinsic enzymes react partially during the rice storage. Because of these enzymes, starch, lipid, or protein can be slowly degraded, resulting in the decline of appearance quality, occurrence of aging aroma, and increased hardness of cooked rice. Milling conditions concerned with quality are paddy quality, milling method, and milling machines. To produce high quality rice, head rice must contain over three fourths of the normal rice kernels, and broken, damaged, colored, and immature kernels must be eliminated. In addition to milling equipment, color sorter and length grader must be installed for the production of such rice. Head rice was examined using the 45 brand rices circulating in Korea, Japan, America, Australia, and China. It was found that the head rice rate of brand rice in our country was approximately 57.4% and 80-86% in foreign countries. In order to develop a rice quality evaluation system, evaluation of technics must be further developed : more detailed measure of qualities, search for taste-related components, creation and grade classification of quality evaluation factors at each management stage of treatment after harvest, evaluation of rice as food material as well as for rice cooking, and method development for simple evaluation and establishment of equation for palatability. On policy concerns, the following must be conducted : development of price discrimination in conformity to rice cultivar and grade under the basis of quality evaluation method, fixation of head rice branding, and introduction of low temperature circulation.
Genetic Analysis of Morphological Traits of Rice Grain and Their Inter-relationships
Chang, Jae-Ki ; Yeo, Un-Sang ; Oh, Byong-Geun ; Lim, Sang-Jong ; Yang, Sae-Jun ; Kim, Soon-Chul ; Moon, Huhn-Pal ; Sohn, Jae-Keun ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 1, 2002, Pages 36~41
Two rice varieties, 'Oochikara' with large grain and 'Hwayeongbyeo' and their progenies (F
) were tested to understand gene action of morphological traits of rice grain and their relationships. The evaluated traits were 1,000-grain weight, grain length, width, thickness, length-width ratio and chalkiness of brown rice. Correlation between grain weight and chalkiness was highly significant in the all progenies, and grain length were not associated with width and thickness in an F
population. Scaling test and jonit scaling test revealed that inheritance of grain traits were fitted to additive-dominance model without epistasis. Additive effects for the traits were much greater than the dominance effects.
Effect of Light Source on Organic Acid, Sugar, and Flavonoid Concentrations in Buckwheat
Kim, Sun-Lim ; Lee, Han-Bum ; Park, Cheol-Ho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 1, 2002, Pages 42~47
The major free sugars of buckwheat plants were fructose, glucose, and maltose but their contents and compositions were influenced by the different wavelength of light. Free sugar contents of Clfa 39 (Fagopyrum tataricum) were higher than those of Yangjul-maemil (Fagopyrum esculentum) regardless of the light sources. As treated with red and blue light, the free sugar contents in the leaves of buckwheat plants were slightly increased, but their contents in the stems and flowers were lower than those of natural light condition. Under the natural light condition, maltose was detected in every tissues of buckwheat plants, but as treated with blue and red light, it was not detected in the flowers of buckwheat plants. Citric, malic and acetic acid were detected as major organic acids in buckwheat plants. Red and blue lights decreased the total organic acid contents in buckwheat plants as compared with natural light condition. It was considered that blue light are less active than red light for the accumulation of organic acids. Tataric acid was detected only in the leaves of buckwheat plants, however, as treated with red and blue light, it was not detected in the leaves of Clfa 39. Flowers of Yangjul-maemil contained a considerable amount of rutin and quercitrin. Only small amount of quercitrin was detected in leaves, but it was not detected in stems. On the other hand, Clfa 39 leaves contained a considerable amount of rutin, quercetin and small amount of quercitrin, but quercitrin and quercetin were detected only in the stems of Clfa 39. Red and blue lights significantly decreased the contents of rutin, quercitrin, and quercetin in buckwheat plants as comparing with natural light condition. Rutin content in the flowers of Clfa 39 was increased under the red and blue light conditions.
Effect of Drought Stress on Carbohydrate Composition and Concentration in White Clover
Kim, Tae-Hwan ; Lee, Bok-Rye ; Jung, Woo-Jin ; Kim, Dae-Hyun ; Kim, Kil-Yong ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 1, 2002, Pages 48~53
To investigate the changes in the composition and pool size of carbohydrates under drought stress, white clover (Triforium repens L.) were exposed to -0.04 Mpa(well-watered, control) or to -0.12 Mpa (drought-stressed) of soil water potential during 28 days. Dry weight of leaves in drought-stressed plants was remarkably decreased by 45% within 14 days and 74% within 28 days compared to those of the control. Glucose concentration in drought-stressed plants was increased, while that of control was slightly decreased or remained at same level throughout experimental period. Fructose and sucrose concentrations in leaves were not significantly changed for drought-stressed plants, but those of the control were significantly decreased on plant after 14 days. Fructose and sucrose concentrations in stolon of control plants were sharply decreased, while that of drought-stressed plants was less varied. Those concentrations in roots were generally increased in drought-stressed plants. The concentration of total soluble sugars at 28 day was 438.0 and 632.6 mg
dwt. in control and drought stressed plants, respectively. Starch concentration of stolon and roots of control plants was significantly increased to 2.0 and 1.4 times of initial level, respectively, whereas those of drought stressed plants was nearly same level or slightly decreased compared to initial level.l.
Antioxidant Activity in Rice Cultivar, Wild Rice, and Barley
Ryu, Su-Noh ; Park, Sun-Zik ; Kim, Hong-Yeol ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 1, 2002, Pages 54~61
The antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of sixteen samples were tested using 1.1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl(DPPH) reactivity and TBARS substances assay in vitro. The methanol extracts of the rice brans from three wild rice -O. minuta, O. rufipogon, and O. barthii-were found to be the most effective in DPPH radical scavenging activity. The next effective ones were the rice brans of Heugjinjubyeo and leaves of Tapgolbori. When tested on lipid peroxidation using a lipid peroxidation generation system mediated by
in rat liver homogenates, the brans and hull of wild rice (O. minuta, O. rufipogon, and O. barthii) and rice bran of Heugjinjubyeo exhibited protective activities against lipid peroxidation in the order of effectiveness.s.
Current Status and Prospect of Quality Evaluation in Malting Barley
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, 2002, Pages 55~62
With lower quality and three to four times higher price than those of imported malting barley, the competitiveness of domestic malting barley is decreasing. Although the causes can be found in that the domestic environments are much unfavorable to cultivate the malting barley compared with those of USA or Canada, it is mainly reasoned from poorer developments in variety of high quality malting barley as well as in cultivation technology. For assuring the competitiveness of domestic malting barley, therefore, not only the development of high quality malting barley suitable to the climatic environment of this country but also the political supports of the government are required. Also, in addition to the breeding of the good quality malting barley haying higher germinative energy, and heavier and larger kernels of good plumpness as well as lower protein content, the modification of quality inspection standards from the system relying only on the visual characteristics such as kernel size distribution rate, shrimped kernel rate, foreign materials and so on, to such system as those of developed countries haying quality criteria such as protein content for inspection is absolutely required for the quality improvement of domestic malting barley.
Microspore Division and Plant Regeneration from Shed Pollen Culture in Rice
Kim, Hyun-Soon ; Kang, Hyeon-Jung ; Lee, Young-Tae ; Lee, Seung-Yeob ; Nam, Jeong-Kwon ; Kim, Tae-Soo ; Rha, Eui-Shik ; Jin, Il-Doo ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 1, 2002, Pages 62~67
An efficient system of rice microspore culture could contribute to the production of genetically modified rice. The microspores were isolated by mechanical or shed methods. The number of microspores per 100 anthers isolated at uninucleate stage was higher than (or similar to) those at binucleate stage in isolation method with pestle or spatular, but microspore divisions were not easily observed on both stages. On the other hand, pollen division in shed pollen culture was observed more frequently at uninuclear than at binuclear stage. Cold pretreatment at 1
for 10 days resulted in the best multicellular division to produce microcalli at 12.5% efficiency in shed microspores. Heat shock at 33
for one hour before or after pollen shedding enhanced cell division and callus formation. Out of twelve green regenerants, two were haploids and ten were diploids based on the chromosome analysis of root tips. The size of stoma was 12
m in haploids and 15
in diploids determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Current Wheat Quality Criteria and Inspection Systems of Major Wheat Producing Countries
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, 2002, Pages 63~94
On the purpose to suggest an advanced scheme in assessing the domestic wheat quality, this paper reviewed the inspection systems of wheat in major wheat producing countries as well as the quality criteria which are being used in wheat grading and classification. Most wheat producing countries are adopting both classifications of class and grade to provide an objective evaluation and an official certification to their wheat. There are two main purposes in the wheat classification. The first objectives of classification is to match the wheat with market requirements to maximize market opportunities and returns to growers. The second is to ensure that payments to glowers aye made on the basis of the quality and condition of the grain delivered. Wheat classes has been assigned based on the combination of cultivation area, seed-coat color, kernel and varietal characteristics that are distinctive. Most reputable wheat marketers also employ a similar approach, whereby varieties of a particular type are grouped together, designed by seed coat colour, grain hardness, physical dough properties, and sometimes more precise specification such as starch quality, all of which are genetically inherited characteristics. This classification in simplistic terms is the categorization of a wheat variety into a commercial type or style of wheat that is recognizable for its end use capabilities. All varieties registered in a class are required to have a similar end-use performance that the shipment be consistent in processing quality, cargo to cargo and year to year, Grain inspectors have historically determined wheat classes according to visual kernel characteristics associated with traditional wheat varieties. As well, any new wheat variety must not conflict with the visual distinguishability rule that is used to separate wheats of different classes. Some varieties may possess characteristics of two or more classes. Therefore, knowledge of distinct varietal characteristics is necessary in making class determinations. The grading system sets maximum tolerance levels for a range of characteristics that ensure functionality and freedom from deleterious factors. Tests for the grading of wheat include such factors as plumpness, soundness, cleanliness, purity of type and general condition. Plumpness is measured by test weight. Soundness is indicated by the absence or presence of musty, sour or commercially objectionable foreign odors and by the percentage of damaged kernels that ave present in the wheat. Cleanliness is measured by determining the presence of foreign material after dockage has been removed. Purity of class is measured by classification of wheats in the test sample and by limitation for admixtures of different classes of wheat. Moisture does not influence the numerical grade. However, it is determined on all shipments and reported on the official certificate. U.S. wheat is divided into eight classes based on color, kernel Hardness and varietal characteristics. The classes are Durum, Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, Hard White, soft White, Unclassed and Mixed. Among them, Hard Red Spring wheat, Durum wheat, and Soft White wheat are further divided into three subclasses, respectively. Each class or subclass is divided into five U.S. numerical grades and U.S. Sample grade. Special grades are provided to emphasize special qualities or conditions affecting the value of wheat and are added to and made a part of the grade designation. Canadian wheat is also divided into fourteen classes based on cultivation area, color, kernel hardness and varietal characteristics. The classes have 2-5 numerical grades, a feed grade and sample grades depending on class and grading tolerance. The Canadian grading system is based mainly on visual evaluation, and it works based on the kernel visual distinguishability concept. The Australian wheat is classified based on geographical and quality differentiation. The wheat grown in Australia is predominantly white grained. There are commonly up to 20 different segregations of wheat in a given season. Each variety grown is assigned a category and a growing areas. The state governments in Australia, in cooperation with the Australian Wheat Board(AWB), issue receival standards and dockage schedules annually that list grade specifications and tolerances for Australian wheat. AWB is managing "Golden Rewards" which is designed to provide pricing accuracy and market signals for Australia's grain growers. Continuous payment scales for protein content from 6 to 16% and screenings levels from 0 to 10% based on varietal classification are presented by the Golden Rewards, and the active payment scales and prices can change with market movements.movements.
Effect of Recycled Paper Mulch on Yield of Fall-grown Potato
Lee, Byun-Woo ; Cui, Ri-Xian ; Lee, Suk-Ha ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 1, 2002, Pages 68~73
High temperature during sprout emergence period of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a major limitation to the yield of fall-grown potato in Korea. To explore the possibility of improving the yield of fall-grown potato through recycled paper mulching, the changes of soil environment and the growth and yield of potato cv. Daeji as affected by three mulching treatments of non-mulched control, recycled paper mulching (RPM), and black polyethylene film-mulching (BPFM) were examined over two fall seasons at Suwon, Korea. The mulching materials were a recycled mulch paper with 110 g/
and a thickness of 0.1 mm, which was manufactured from old corrugated containers for this experiment and a commercial black polyethylene film with a thickness of 0.01mm. On an average throughout the growing period, the soil temperature with RPM at the 5-cm depth was lower by 0.4-1.1
than that of the control. The maximum temperature during daytime in RPM was lowered by approximately 1 to 5
according to the weather condition during emergence period, the difference being great on a fine day. The soil temperature with BPFM was much higher than the control. The effect of the mulching treatments diminished as the canopy became developed. The mulching treatments were more advantageous than the control in the conservation of soil water. Moreover, RPM and BPFM efficiently suppressed the occurrence of weeds until the potato harvest. RPM improved the emergence significantly due to lower soil temperature, whereas BPFM showed much poorer emergence than the control. Growth after emergence and yield were significantly higher in RPM than in the control and BPFM. It was concluded that the significantly improved yield in RPM compared to that in the control was mainly due to the improvement of the sprout emergence and tuber growth accompanied by lower soil temperature and better conservation of soil water.
Effect of NaCl Stress on Inorganic Ion, L-Proline, Sugar and Starch Content of Soybean Seedlings
Cho, Jin-Woong ; Kim, Choong-Soo ; Jung D. So ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 2, 2002, Pages 75~79
This study conducted to elucidate the change of the cation content (Na
), the L-proline content, and the sugar and starch content in the stems, roots, and leaves of three cultivars of the 30 days old seedling soybeans (Glycine max L. cv. Danwonkong, Hwang-keumkong, and Kwangankong) after 100 mM NaCl stress containing 1/2 Hoaglands nutrient solution in the sand culture. The reduction of the dry matter weight after 100 mM NaCl treatment among cultivars was higher in the order of Kwangankong, Danwonkong, and Hwang-keumkong. The highest reduction of the dry matter weight was occurred at the roots among three parts of plant. The Na
content increased with NaCl treatment in overall and specially greatly increased in roots and stems. The
content decreased with NaCl treatment at the roots and stems. The
content, however, at the leaves increased in all three cultivars with the NaCl treatment. The L-proline content with NaCl stress increased greatly. The increment of the L-proline content at the stems and roots of Hwangkeumkong was lower than that of other two cultivars, K wangankong and Danwonkong. The sugar content decreased with NaCl treatment at the stems and leaves. The starch content also decreased at the stems and leaves with NaCl treatment.aCl treatment.
Uniform Seedling Establishment and Weed Occurrence Inhibition by Seed-Mulching in Wet Seeded Rice
Yang, Woon-Ho ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Kim, Je-Kyu ; Han, Hee-Suk ; Lee, Moon-Hee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 2, 2002, Pages 80~84
In spite of simple and cheap cultivation method, water broadcast-seeded rice demonstrates uneven and unstable seedling establishment per unit land area and requires more herbicide and labor-input for weed control. Three experiments were conducted in a phytotron at 18
to evaluate the adaptability of seed-mat mulching cultivation technologies in water seeded rice for the uniform seedling establishment and the inhibition of weed occurrence without herbicide application. Five different kinds of mat with different mesh sizes and fabric properties were tested. The emergence of rice was the highest in Lawn-mat treatment, being comparable with the control, in which seeds were sown without mat. The Lawn-mat also exhibited the lowest mat tension. Mat tension may influence the emergence of rice. And once it was soaked in water, it didn't maintain its original shape any more. The emergence rate of rice was the lowest in Safer-mat treatment. In Lawn-mat treatment, which was the most effective for rice emergence in the first study, the differences of emergence and seedling establishment of rice depending on the seeding position (upper, beneath, and between mats) treatments were negligible, while they were higher in dry seeds than in pre-germinated seeds treatment. The emergence as affected by the kinds of mat also showed the same trend when tested using barnyard grass. Depending on the kinds of mat, the inhibition effect of weeds was the greatest in Safer-mat and the poorest in Lawn-mat. These results strongly suggest the possibility that the uniform seedling establishment and weed management without chemical could be achieved simultaneously by seed-mat mulching through the combination of effective mat for the emergence of rice and another efficient mat for the inhibition of weed occurrence. This possibility was also tested in the field.
Biochemical and Ultrastructural Trends in Proteolysis of the
-subunit of 7S Protein in the Cotyledons During Germination of Soybean Seeds
Krishnan, Hari B. ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 2, 2002, Pages 85~94
Antibodies raised against the purified p-subunit of
-conglycinin were used in immunohistochemical studies to monitor the pattern of
-conglycinin mobilization in the cotyledons during soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed germination. Western blot analysis revealed that the break down of the
-conglycinin commenced as early as 2 days after seed imbibition (DAI). Concurrent with the degradation of the
-conglycinin, accumulation of 48, 28, and 26 kD proteolytic intermediates was observed from 2 to 6 DAI. Western blot analysis also revealed that the acidic subunit of glycinin was mobilized earlier than the basic subunit. The basic glycinin subunit was subjected to proteolysis within 2 DAI resulting in the appearance of an intermediate product approximately 2 kD smaller than the native basic glycinin subunit. In contrast to the major seed storage proteins, lipoxygenase was subjected to limited proteolysis and was detected even after 8 DAI. The first sign of
-conglycinin breakdown was observed near the vascular strands and proceeded from the vascular strands towards the epidermis. Protein A-gold localization studies using thin sections of soybean cotyledons and antibodies raised against the
-conglycinin revealed intense labeling over protein bodies. A pronounced decrease in the protein A-gold labeling intensity over protein bodies was observed at later stages of seed germination. The protein bodies, which were converted into a large central vacuole by 8 DAI, contained very little 7S protein as evidenced by sparse protein A-gold labeling in the vacuoles.
Effect of Drought Stress on the Concentration of Nitrogen Metabolites in White Clover
Kim, Tae-Hwan ; Lee, Bok-Rye ; Jung, Woo-Jin ; Kim, Dae-Hyun ; Kim, Kil-Yong ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 2, 2002, Pages 95~101
To investigate the changes in the composition and pool size of nitrogen metabolites under drought stress, white clover (Trifolium repens L.) were exposed to -0.04MPa (well-watered, control) or to -0.12MPa (drought-stressed) of soil water potential during 28 days. Dry weight of leaves in drought-stressed plants was remarkably decreased by 45% and 74% within 14 days and 28 days, respectively, compared with control. For nitrate concentration after 28 days of treatment, a significant difference (1.6 times higher in drought-stressed plants) was observed only in stolon. NH
concentration in all three organs of drought-stressed plants linearly increased to more than 1.6 times higher level at 28 day when compared to the initial level (day 0), while the increasing rate in control was much less than that of drought-stressed plants. Proline concentrations in drought-stressed plants remarkably increased and reached to 7, 13 and 17 times higher level at 28 day compared to control. Protein concentration in leaves of drought-stressed plants tended to decrease, while it slightly increased during the first 14 days and reached a plateau afterward in control. There was not significant difference in the proteins concentration of stolon and roots throughout experimental period. On SDS-PAGE analysis, two major proteins specifically induced by drought stress (16-kD and 18-kD) were detected in stolon.n.
Current Achievement and Perspectives of Seed Quality Evaluation in Soybean
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, 2002, Pages 95~106
Soybean is one of the most important sources of protein and oil in the world. Recently, emphasis has been laid on the chemical composition of soybean seeds for the processing soybean foods. Improvement of soybean components has been expected to improve food-processing quality for the processed soybean products such as soymilk and various edible ingredients as well as fur the traditional soyfoods. In Korea, soybean breeding research programmes have been focused on the quality of the products derived from soybean with yield stability, and some new modified soybean varieties haying good food-processing quality were developed recently. So the efforts of establishing standard and standardization of products in soybean are important. Three main categories should be considered in view of soybean seed quality; the marketing value such as grain size, shape, and appearance; the eating and processing value such as dehulled ratio, water absorption rate, and benny flavor; the nutritional value such as protein, lipid, and carbohydrate contents. And the new frontiers in research are looking at the functional nutrients in soybeans and how to improve them. In case marketing value, mainly the appearance is evaluated, therefore, each country has an application of standard related to quality. Each determination of standard class, heat-damaged kernels, splits, and soybeans of other colors is made on the basis of the grain when free from foreign materials. But processing value and nutritional value for standardization were not studied in detail till now. In addition, soybean has potential roles in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, most notably cancer, osteoporosis, and heart disease. The functional nutrients include a protease inhibitor, phytic acid, saponins, and isoflavones, etc.. It is believed that standardization of soybean quality should perform to overcome the difficulties, relatively high price of domestic soybean products has weakened the competitive power, in the market related to WTO. So, we should focus on further research into the evaluation and establishment of quality-standard in soybean.
Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Compounds in Grain Extracts of Wheat, Barley, and Oat
Seo, Yong-Weon ; Bu, So-Young ; Jeon, Woong-Bae ; Kim, Dong-Sub ; Heo, Hwa-Young ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 2, 2002, Pages 102~107
Cereal grains are rich in phenolic compounds that give beneficial effect in human health. Although several research works have been reported on the effects of phytochemicals of plant origin, such as fruits, vegetables, few studies have examined the antioxidative effects of whole cereal grains. The objective of this study was to determine total antioxidant capacity of 80% ethanolic extracts of cereal grains by testing the ability of the extracts to inhibit UV -induced lipid peroxidation in vitro using linoleic acid in comparison to well-known antioxidant such as ascorbic acid and tannic acid. The total phenolic content of the cereal grain (80% ethanolic extracts) investigated in this study varied from 2.1 mg/g (wheat cv. Olgeurumil) to 10.4 mg/g (barely cv. Seodunchalbori). Highly positive relationship between total phenol compounds and antioxidant activity was found. When the antioxidant activities of all investigated extracts were measured with application of same quantity of phenol compounds, oat grain extracts showed similar antioxidant activity of barely cultivars. However, barely extract appeared as the most potent antioxidant activity of inhibition of UV -induced lipid peroxidation. This indicated that factors such as phenolic compound composition and their individual antioxidant activity could playa crucial role in the total antioxidant activity of cereal grains.
Current Status and Prospect of Qauality Evaluation in Maize
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, 2002, Pages 107~123
This paper is intented to present a information of various aspects of quality related characteristics and standards for grades in maize. Maize is world's one of the three most popular cereal crops and a primary energy supplement and can contribute up to 30, 60, and 98% of the dairy diet's protein, net energy, and starch, respectively. Maize is also processed into industrial goods by wet or dry milling. Sweet corn is a leader among vegetable crops and its production for fresh or processing markets is a major industry in many countries. Over the years, the combined efforts of breeders and geneticists, biochemists, food scientists, and others have helped bring us to the point where we understand issues related to sweet corn quality. Traditional criteria for selecting corn hybrids have been based primarily on agronomic factors, including grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance, and storage characteristics. Little emphasis has been placed on the quality and nutritional values of corn. Although there is widespread interest for value-enhanced corns have increased tremendously in the last five years, there is limited information available on the production and comparing the quality attributes of specialty grains with those of normal yellow dent corn. Most countries have developed national maize standards, aiming to provide a framework for trade, both internal and external. Where trading involves direct choice and price negotiation in front of the commodity, grading standards are rarely employed; quality is assessed visually and is influenced by end-use, and the price is determined more by local rather than national factors. The use of an agreed standard will provide an unambiguous description of the quality of the consignment and assist in the formation of a legally-binding contract. Standards can also be seen to protect consumers rights through setting limits to the amount of unsuitable or noxious material.
Effects of Long-Term Fertilization for Cassava Production on Soil Nutrient Availability as Measured by Ion Exchange Membrane Probe and by Corn and Canola Nutrient Uptake
Hung T. Nguyen ; Anh T. Nguyen ; Lee, B.W. ; J. Schoenau ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 2, 2002, Pages 108~115
The effects of long-term fertilization on soil properties and nutrient availability are not well documented for cassava cultivation in Vietnam. In 1990, a field research plots were established with 12 treatments to test the effect of different rates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on soil properties in Acrisols at Thai Nguyen University in Northern Vietnam. In 1999, composite soil samples (0 to 20cm depth) were collected from eight selected plots for measurements of nutrient supply rates by ion exchange membrane probes and for growing corn and canola in a growth chamber with and without added lime. Generally, long-term nitrogen (N) fertilization increased available N supply rates but decreased available potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg). Long-term phosphorus(P) applications increased canola N, calcium (Ca) and Mg uptake. Canola P uptake increased with increased P rates only when lime was added. Long-term K applications increased canola N, K, Ca, Mg uptake but only significantly increased corn N uptake. Liming significantly increased uptake of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S for both corn and canola. However, N
N, K and Mg soil supply rates were reduced when lime was added, due to competition between Ca from the added lime and other nutrients.
Cloning, Characterization, and Functional Analysis of Maize DEHYDRIN2
Paek, Nam-Chon ; Jung, Hun-Ki ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 2, 2002, Pages 116~122
Dehydrins (LEA Dll proteins) are one of the typical families of plant proteins that accumulate in response to dehydration, cold stress, abscisic acid, or during seed maturation. A 1.3-kb cDNA was cloned from a cDNA expression library of 5-day-old germinating maize scutellums under drought stress. The deduced protein sequence indicated a dehydrin gene encoding SK
LEA protein typically expressed during cold acclimation, but not by drought stress in barley and wheat. Thus, it was named maize DEHYDRIN2 (ZmDhn2). It accumulates rapidly and highly in drought-stressed scutellum and leaf tissues at any stage, but not under cold stress. ZmDhn2 gene was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana for functional analysis under drought condition. From electrolyte leakage test, no significant difference showed between wild type and transformants under normal growth condition, but the leakage level of electrolyte in wild type plants was about 3 times as high as that in the transformed plants under drought stress. It suggests that ZmDHN2 playa role in increasing drought tolerance.
Relationship of Seed Germination and Lipoxygenase Activity in Soybean
Lee, Suk-Ha ; Son, Beom-Young ; Lee, Yeong-Ho ; Lee, Hong-Suk ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 2, 2002, Pages 123~126
Lipoxygenase might be associated with seed deterioration by catalyzing the incorporation of molecular oxygen into fatty acids and generating free radicals. This study was performed to determine whether seed lipoxygenase activity would alter soybean seed longevity. In this study, germination percentage of lipoxygenase-lacking cultivar Jinpumkong2 (lx1lx1lx2lx2lx3lx3) was lower than that of Taekwangkong (Lx1Lx1Lx2Lx2Lx3Lx3). Segregation ratio for the three lipoxygenase isozymes of the F2-derived from the cross between Taekwangkong and Jinpumkong2 was fitted to 9 (Lx1Lx2Lx3) : 3 (Lx1Lx2lx3) : 3 (lxllx2Lx3) : 1 (lx1lx2lx3), suggesting the tight linkage between the Lx1 and Lx2 loci. Germination percentages varied widely but not differed among lipoxygenase isozyme types of F
seeds before and after accelerated aging. Seed coat of Jinpumkong2 was damaged severely following accelerated aging, whereas that of Taekwangkong was not. Thus, seed of lipoxygenase-lacking soybean cultivar, Jinpumkong2 showed greater deterioration compared with that of the normal Taekwangkong. However, the presence or absence of lipoxygenase activity had no effect on soybean germination.
Current Status and Prospect of Quality Evaluation in Sweetpotato
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, 2002, Pages 124~134
The sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam.), is one of the important summer upland crops in Korea and has been used as human food, industrial yaw material and vegetable. Sweetpotato has been consumed for human foods such as boiled, roasted, fried or salad etc. It should be developed for higher quality as a snack or health food, primarily through improving the eating and marketing qualities as well as nutritional value. Its quality after cooking or processing is a complex one combining the aroma, taste, texture and fiber content. The other important qualities for consumers are root shape, size, skin color, flesh color, insect and disease resistance, nutritional components and safety from phytoalexins(toxic stress metabolites) etc. Korean people generally prefer to red skin color, round or elliptic shape and dry texture, yellow flesh color of sweetpotato which is high in starch content including vitamins and nutrients. The almost factors of quality components of sweetpotato are genetically controlled by breeder, but postharvest handlings and marketing management for making high quality goods should be done thoroughly according to the quality evaluation criteria of sweetpotato from the moment of harvest until shipping them to the market by farmers and the other users. This paper describes current status and prospects of the quality evaluations and researches in sweetpotato roots in Korea.
Determination of Critical Nitrogen Concentration and Dilution Curve for Rice Growth
Lee, Byun-Woo ; Cui, Ri-Xian ; Kim, Min-Ho ; Kim, Jun-Hwan ; Nam, Hong-Shik ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 2, 2002, Pages 127~131
Critical nitrogen concentration (Nc), which is defined as the minimum % N in shoots required to maintain the maximum growth rate of top dry weight (W) at any time, was determined for rice plant. Using two rice varietal groups, japonica varieties and an indica
japonica "Dasanbyeo", 18 data points fulfilling the statistical criteria for determining Nc were obtained through eight N-fertilization experiments over two years at Suwon (37
16'N), Korea. Nc dilution curve for each variety was obtained by fitting the Nc-W relationship to power function. However, The critical nitrogen curves for the two variety groups were not different statistically. Thus, a Nc dilution curve was fitted for the Nc data points pooled over the two variety groups and proposed in rice as: Nc=4.08, where W＜1.73 t h
=0.964), where 1.73 t h
＜W＜12 t h
. The Nc for W＜1.73 t h
were estimated as a constant value of 4.08%, the mean value of the maximum N concentration for N-limiting condition and the minimum N concentration for N non-limiting condition. The model for Nc is applicable to diagnosing the nitrogen nutrition status during the rice growth period from emergence to heading stage. The Nc curve well discriminated the 144 data points between the N limiting and the N non-limiting groups regardless of varieties, cultural methods, and years.-limiting groups regardless of varieties, cultural methods, and years.
Fate of Rice Straw in Paddy Soil
Lee, Jeong-Sam ; Lee, Ho-Jin ; Lee, Seung-Hun ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 2, 2002, Pages 132~136
The rice straw managements are essential for maintaining soil fertility as well as reducing chemical fertilizer application in paddy field. A field experiment was conducted on moderately well draining alluvial paddy soil to investigate the decomposition pattern of rice straw. The mesh bags containing the rice straw harvested in the previous year were placed at soil surface and buried into around 10cm depth and recovered periodically for determining the straw decomposition. Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the fates of N released from
N-labeled rice straw under different levels of N fertilizer application. The overall decomposition patterns of rice straw were similar for the two incorporation depths in transplanted paddy field. The straw incorporated at transplanting date showed weight loss of about 50%, 70% and 90% after 2 months, 5 months, and 2 years, respectively. The decompositions of straw cell wall components showed somewhat different pattern. The decompositions of cellulose and silica were similar to that of dry weight while the decomposition of lignin was slower than that of cellulose and silica. N was released from rice straw 42% and 65 % of the initial N after one month and after five months, respectively. P release was faster than N release. Recoveries of rice straw-
N by rice plants were 10.2, 13.4 and 14.9% in 0, 120 and 240 mg N pot
, respectively. Soil recoveries of rice straw
N were 17.3, 20.6 and 18.9% in 0, 120 and 240mg N pot
Prospects and Status on Quality of Potato
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, 2002, Pages 135~139
The standard of quality was required to promote the consumption of potato and produce the high quality processing products. It will contribute the stability for processing products and the marketability of potato. The quality was determined based on size of tuber and content of dry matter. Even though the criteria of potato quality was involved many characters of tubers, the most important things were grading and packing of potato to create the consumption. For processing of raw materials, the standard of tubers had create between producer and processor according to size of tuber and content of dry matter. The evaluation of quality was performed over the standard to enhance the control of quality. In addition, the seed potato should be taken the evaluation to disease in the field during the period of cultivation and managed under the strict regulation in storage before release to farmer. Then, the producer of seed potato will make a good relationship to farmer with high quality tubers.
Decomposition and N Release of Hairy Vetch Applied as a Green Manure and its Effects on Rice Yield in Paddy Field
Lee, Jeong-Sam ; Lee, Ho-Jin ; Seo, Jong-Ho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 2, 2002, Pages 137~141
Decomposition of green manure is necessary for the nutrient supply in farm soil. Hairy vetch as a green manure is superior to other winter legumes in terms of wintering ability and N accumulation. This experiment was carried out to investigate the decomposition and N release of hairy vetch and its effect on rice production as the following crop in paddy field. Decomposition of hairy vetch placed by soil depth of 0, 10 and 20cm at transplanting time was investigated by mesh bag method, which was enclosed chopped residue in mesh bags. The fate of
N derived from
N-labeled hairy vetch was investigated at harvest in three levels of N fertilization. Grain yield of the transplanted paddy rice cultured with hairy vetch as starter N were compared with that of applying urea as starter N in the field. Hairy vetch residue decomposed very rapidly both in transplanted and dry-seeded paddy field. In transplanted paddy field, hairy vetch residue lost 72-81 % and 86-90% of its weight after one and five month, respectively, as affected by incorporation depth. The C/N ratio of the decomposing vetch residue increased sharply during the early stages and after then, decreased slowly. The amounts of N and P released from the vetch were about 90% and 97% of initial content after one month, respectively. Recoveries of hairy vetch-
N by rice plant were 30.6, 34.6 and 35.7% in 0, 6 and 12 kg urea-N 10
application, respectively, indicating that N fertilization increased the recovery of hairy vetch.
N. Hairy vetch residue incorporated as starter maintained significant N
-N concentration in soil water of plow layer until effective tillering stage. Grain yield in the plot applied with hairy vetch was not significantly different from that in the plot with urea. We concluded that hairy vetch incorporation could substitute starter N fertilization and showed possibility to reduce N amount of top-dressing.g.g.
Current Status and Prospects of Quality Evaluation in Sesame
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, 2002, Pages 140~149
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is probably the most ancient oilseed crop known in the world. Sesame seed is known for its high nutritional value and for having oil (51%) and protein (20%) content. The fatty acid composition of sesame oil is palmitic acid (7.8%), stearic acid (3.6%), oleic acid (45.3%), and linoleic acid (37.7%). Sesame oil is characterized by a very high oxidative stability compared with other vegetable oils. Two lignan-type compounds, sesamin and sesamolin, are the major constituents of sesame oil unsaponifiables. Sesamol (a sesamolin derivative) can be present in sesame seeds and oils in very small amount. Other lignans and sesamol are also present in sesame seeds and oils in very small amount as aglycones. Lipid oxidation activity was significantly lower in the sesamolin-fed rats, which suggests that sesamolin and its metabolites contribute to the antioxidative properties of sesame seeds and oil and support that sesame lignans reduce susceptibility to oxidative stress. Sesaminols strongly inhibit lipid peroxidation related to their ability to scavenge free radical. The sesame seed lignan act synergistically with vitamin I in rats fed a low
-tocopherol diet and cause a marked increase in a u-tocopherol concentration in the blood and tissue of rats fed an
-tocopherol containing diet with sesame seed or its lignan. The authors are reviewed and discussed for present status and prospects of quality evaluation and researched in sesame seeds to provide and refers the condensed informations on their quality.
Effects of Clipping on Growth and Yield in Sweet Potato
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 143~146
This study was undertaken to learn what ratio of clipping top was the most optimum for minimizing of the decrease of root yield of over 50g in sweetpotato at early cultivation. The test variety was "Shinyulmi" which was transplanted for early cultivation on April 18. The ratios of cripping top were 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 percents. The date of clipping top was June 20 when the shoots were transplanted for double cropping. The total length of vine, the number of branches per plant, the number of tuberous roots over 50g and average root weight over 50g were not affected by clipping top. The ratio of root yield over 50g was lower over 20 percents of clipping top. The fresh weights per plant of top and bottom were similar as compared control with 15 percents of clipping top. In conclusion, the optimum ratio of clipping top was 15 percents for maximizing of the production of the shoots in sweetpotato for double cropping. cropping.
Effect of Harvesting Time and Additives on the Nutritive Values of Peanut Silage
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 147~150
To investigate the effects of Harvesting time and additives on the quality of peanut silage, the silage was mixed in combination with peanut leaf and stem, rice and barley straw, inoculant etc. Harvesting time at peanut growth stage was the best at 90 days after flowering with 30 branches,81 g of 100-seed weight, and 77% of shelling rate with low diseases in leaf and stem. By delay of harvest, diseases and lodging were increased. The yield of forage was the highest at 90 days after flowering as 52 t/ha, and seed yield was at 110 days as 3.72 t/ha. The yields between forage yield and seed yield (
) were correlated positively. The value of silage as a forage came over 90 days after flowering in combination with peanut leaf+stem+vice straw+inoculant treatment. The treatment was increased dry matter (DM) yield and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the coarse protein (CP), and total digestible nutrient (TDN) content of silage in comparing with control (peanut leaf+stem). The pH at the organic matter contents of silage in combination of peanut leaf+stem+rice straw+lactic acid treatment was 5.04 to 5.10, the content of butyric and lactic acid were 3.12 to 4.64%, 2.07 to 7.34%, respectively.y.
Current Status and Prospects of Quality Evaluation in Perilla
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, 2002, Pages 150~162
Perilla, Perilla frutescens. (L.) Britton, is a traditional oil seed crops grown in Korea. The seeds and seed oil is used for edible and some industrial sectors. The seeds of perilla contains 35-54% of a drying oil which is similar to the linseed oil. The fatty acids of seed oil is composed with linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid. The majority of fatty acids of the oil is
-linolenic acid proportioned 51-71% of the oil. This high linolenic acid makes it unstable of the oil and owing to the fast oxidation. Therefore, the plant breeders are challenges to develope a new varieties with low linolenic acid for edlible oil and high linolenic acid for industrial uses. Perilla foliage is also used as a potherb. The green leaves contains a special flavor, perilla aldehyde, and some abundant minerals and vitamins. The vitamin C and
-carotene is more available than lettuce and crown-daisy of which used for similar potherb and vegetables in traditional Korean food table. The authors are reviewed and discussed on the current status and prospects of the quality evaluations and researches in perilla seeds and leaves to provide and refers the condensed informations on their quality.
Heritability Estimates of Sink and Source Characters by
Correlation in Rice
Hak-Soo SUH ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 151~156
The heritability of sink-source characters was estimated by regression coefficient between F
in two crosses of IR 66738-118-1-2/Gayabyeo and the Ilpumbyeo/YR 15965 Acp 33. In order to get the some basic information for breeding of high yielding rice, genetic resources of new plant type with low tiller and heavy panicle were used. Most of the sink and source characters in Ilpumbyeo/YR 15965 Acp 33 cross showed high heritability over than 0.224. But the specific leaf area and sink-source ratio displayed low heritability being 0.009 and 0.013, respectively. Heritability of all sink and source characters in IR 66738-118-1-2/Gayabyeo cross ranged from 0.115 to 0.247. Correlation coefficient between yield and yield components in both combination were in the ranged between 0.001 and 0.247. But correlations among the yield components were not significant. Correlations between the yield and sink-source characters in both combinations were also highly significant. Particularly, correlation between the grain tiling ratio and most of the sink-source characters in IR 66738-118-1-2/Gayabyeo cross were not significant. In Ilpumbyeo/YR 15965 Acp 33 cross, correlations between grain filling ratio and source characters were positively significant. but sink characters (sink capacity and sink-source ratio, etc) were negatively significant.
Comparison of Rhizome Harvesting Methods Saururus chinensis
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 157~160
This study was carried out to the harvesting efficiency of equipment used fer harvesting of rhizomes of Saururus chinensis Bail. Labor-saving efficiency showed 60-67% enhancement by using tillage operations with power tiller, digger attached to power tiller, and digger attached to tractor compared with manual harvest. Loss percentage of rhizomes by harvesting equipments was 2.2-8.8% lower than by manual harvest. Fresh rhizome yield and income index were increased 3-10% and 13-27% respectively by harvesting equipments, showing the highest yield and index in digger attached to tractor, Thus, digger attached to tractor showed the most effective harvest equipment for Saururus chinensis rhizome.
Comparison of Inorganic Elements and Epidermis Structures in Healthy and Rusty Ginseng
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 161~166
The ultrastructural characteristics of epidermis isolated from healthy and rusty ginseng roots(Panax ginseng) were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the distribution profiles of inorganic elements were also examined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The epidermis of rusty ginseng was thick and cell walls were also severely disrupted whereas the epidermal image of healthy ginseng showed relatively thin, clear and rectangular structure. A high amount of rod-shaped bacteria was found in rusty ginseng and cells near bacteria were degraded. The bacterial density in epidermis of rusty ginseng was ranged from 2.9
CFU/g fresh weight, while that of healthy ones was from 4.7
CFU/g. Artificial inoculation of bacteria isolated from rusty ginseng induced similar symptom like rusty ginseng. The mineral contents inculding Al, Si and Fe were Higher in the epidermis of rusty ginseng, but K content was lower compared to healthy ones.
Review of the Studies on the Qualities in Peanut
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, 2002, Pages 163~174
Peanut is one of the principal oil seeds in the world as a rich source of edible oil and protein. Peanut quality arises as a result of a complex interaction of genetic, physiological and biochemistry processes that produce the chemical composition of the peanut seed. The major factors influencing seed quality are degree of maturity and digging and drying, curing and storage as a series of harvesting. The end products, peanut butter, salted seed, confections, roasting stock and by-products are favored in world-wide because of their unique roasted peanut flavor, Literatures are reviewed mainly focusing on the physiological properties and nutritional quality of oil, protein and flavor in peanut. Chemical properties of protein and oil, and volatile flavor component in peanut seeds are studied. The objectives of this paper were to review and summarize the results obtained from the improving quality breeding program and evaluation of the chemical composition in peanut up to now.
Effect of Continuous Cultivation Years on Soil Properties, Weed Occurrence, and Rice Yield in No-tillage Machine Transplanting and Direct Dry-seeding Culture of Rice
Jae Kil Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 167~173
This experiment was conducted to figure out the change of soil physical properties, rice growth and yield with the years of continuous cultivation in direct dry-seeding and no-tillage machine transplanting. Experiments were conducted at NHAES(National Honam Agricultural Experiment Station, RDA, Iksan, Cheon Buk Province, South Korea) with a rice variety "Dongjinbyeo" from 1995 to 2000. In no-tillage machine transplanting cultivation, organic matter in soil was higher than that on direct dry-seeding and was significantly high in topsoil. Problematic weed species were E. crus-galli B., A. keisak H., and L. japonica M. Plant height and tiller number m-2 were higher in common-tillage during the total growth duration. The highest weedy rice occurrence of 27.5% was observed in live years' continuous direct dry-seeding and followed by 6.2%, in four years', and 3.7%, in three years'. The highest yield reduction of 38% was observed in five years' continuous direct dry-seeding. The reduction may resulted from the competition between weedy rice and cultivated rice.
Effects of Abscisic acid on Ozone Injury in Rice
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 174~185
This study was carried out to investigate the effects or abscisic acid (ABA), three concentrations, on growth, activities of antioxidant-related enzymes and grain yield of two rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cv. Hwamyungbyeo and cv. Namchunbyeo) exposed to ozone (0.150 ppm) for 6 hours a day for 30 days. The leaf chlorop0hyll contents, plant height, and tillering numbers were not shown significant difference. But ABA 10
M treatment affects to growth slightly. In all concentrations of ABA, superoxide dismutase (SOB) activities were increased at tillering stage of Namchunbyeo which was exposed to ozone. It is considered that the optimum concentration of ABA is 10
M for minimizing loss of grain yield loss.
Prospect and Situation of Quality Improvement in Oilseed rape
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, 2002, Pages 175~185
Rapeseed(Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop as a vegetable oil, concentrated feed and industrial materials. The name "canola" was registered in 1979 by the Western Canadian Oilseed Crushers Association to describe "double-low" varieties. Double low indicates that the processed oil contains less than 2% erucic-acid and the meal less than 3mg/g of glucosinolates. Today annual worldwide production of rapeseed is approximately 35 million tons on 24 million hectares. China accounts for 33% of the world production and the European Economic Community for nearly 32%. Canola ranks 3rd in production among the world's oilseed crops following soybeans, sunflowers, peanuts and cottonseed. The recent advances in genomics and in gene function studies has allowed us to understand the detailed genetic basis of many complex traits, such as flowering time, height, and disease resistance. The manipulation of seed oil content via transgene insertion has been one of the earliest successful applications of modern biotechnology in agriculture. For example, the first transgenic crop with a modified seed composition to be approved for unrestricted commercial cultivation in the US was a lauric oil, rape-seed, grown in 1995. There were also some significant early successes, mostly notably the achievement of 40% to 60% lauric acid content in rapeseed oil, which normally accumulates little or no lauric acid. The name "
" was registered in 1995 by Calgene Inc. Nevertheless, attempts to achieve high levels of other novel fatty acids in seed oils have met with much less success and there have been several reports that the presence of novel fatty acids in transgenic plants can sometimes lead to the induction of catabolic pathways which break down the novel fatty acid, i.e. the plant recognizes the "strange" fatty acid and, far from tolerating it, may even actively eliminate it from the seed oil. It is likely that, in the future, transgenic oil crops and newly domesticated oil crops will both be developed in order to provide the increased amount and diversity of oils which will be required for both edible and industrial use. It is important that we recognize that both approaches have both positive and negative points. It will be a combination of these two strategies that is most likely to supply the increasing demands for plant oils in the 21st century and beyond.ant oils in the 21st century and beyond.
Current Status and Prospects for the Quality Evaluation of Medicinal Plants
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, 2002, Pages 186~199
This is a brief review and discussion for present status and prospects of quality evaluation in medicinal plants as oriental medicine materials (OMM). Quality in medicinal plants could be defined as the combination of origin, external appearance, effectiveness and safety, and be evaluated by plant taxonomic, morphological, physiochemical and biological methods. For high-quality improvement and standardization of OMM, medicinal plants should be produced through using proper species or good variety and standard cultivation method in suitable cultivation area. Standardizing of quality means to meet with minimum qualifying criteria of OMM in the market while improving of quality to be over standard quality of medicinal piano in production. For making new high quality and standardized products, we need to keep standard field plants, standard OMM, standard plant specimen, and standard compounds. Researchers and administration have to study and propose the quality factors and their evaluating techniques and criteria, so high-quality and standardized produce of medicinal plane could be produced and distributed under the control of the relevant regulations, and would be contributed to increasing of national health.
Rooting and Acclimatization of Shoots Harvested from Bioreactor Culture in Rehmania glutinosa
Young-Am Chae ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 186~188
This experiment was carried out to know the effect of media and agar concentrations, aeration and growth regulators on rooting and acclimatization of the shoots harvested from bioreactor culture in Rehmannia glutinosa. Half MS media with 1.2% agar improved rooting and acclimatization of shoots. Shoots were effectively acclimatized and rooted well in case of aeration by using membrane filtered vessels. Shoots acclimatized in vessel with membrane Inter were healthier and had higher ex vitro survival rate than those without membrane Inter on plug tray. Addition of paclobutrazol 0.3-0.4 mg/L, to acclimatization media enhanced shoots growth and root development.
Comparison of Characteristics Related with Soybean Sprouts between Glycine max and G. soja
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 189~195
Soybean sprout trails were evaluated for soybeans for sprout (Glycine max) and wild soybeans (Glycine soja). Soybeans for sprout are characterized with small seed size of 10-14 grams per 100 seeds and are traditionally used only for producing sprouts. No difference was observed in hypocotyl length and sprout yield between two types of soybean. (However total length, hypocotyl hypocotyl, body weight, and the rate of good quality were greater in soybeans for sprout.) Number of lateral roots and root length were greater in wild soybeans. Contents of crude oil, oleic acid, and sucrose were higher in soybean for sprout, while that of protein and linoleic acid were higher in wild soybeans. There was no difference in sprout isoflavone content. Out of 17 amino acids analyzed, 10 amino acids such as aspartic acid, lysine, and arginine. etc. showed significantly Higher content in wild soybeans. Hypocotyl color of sprouts estimated by color meter based on the degree of L(brightness), a(red), and b(yellow) values were better in wild soybeans than soybean for sprout.
Effects of Planting Date and Accelerated Aging on Seed Germination-related Traits of Lipoxygenase-Lacking Soybean
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 196~200
Lower field germination was observed in lipoxygenase- lacking soybean genotypes. This study was performed to understand seed-related traits after accelerated aging in response to planting date of soybeans. Two soybean cultivars, Jinpumkong (null lipoxygenase-2,3) and Jinpumkong 2 (lacking lipoxygenase-1, 2, 3) were evaluated for germination, and were compared with the cultivar, Taekwangkong containing lipoxygenase-1,2,3 isozymes. Greater seed coat cracking was shown in Jinpumkong and Jinpumkong 2 than Taekwangkong. Regardless of soybean genotypes, earlier planting resulted in greater seed coat cracking. After accelerated aging, seed fracturability and hardness of Jinpumkong and Jinpumkong 2 were lower than those of Taekwangkong. There was significant difference in germination percentage among soybean genotypes in response to planting date. Seeds obtained from late planting showed better germination ability. Accelerated aging resulted in lower germination percentages of Jinpumkong and Jinpumkong 2 than that of Taekwangkong, and showed higher electric conductivity in Jinpumkong and Jinpumkong 2 than Taekwangkong. After accelerated aging at 4
for thirty five days, germination percentages of Jinpumkong and Jinpumkong 2 were lower than that of Taekwangkong. Electric conductivity was increased continually as accelerated aging time became longer, and Jinpumkong and Jinpumkong 2 showed higher electric conductivity than Taekwangkong. Even though there were significant genotype differences in seed traits, further studies are needed to determine whether seed lipoxygenase ability is associated with germination ability.
Legal Aspects for Quality Evaluation Standard of Plant Variety and Seed
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, 2002, Pages 200~215
There are some international standards and organization controling the quality characteristics of varieties and seeds such as UPOV, OECD, ISTA, AOSA. The National List system to check variety performance such as quality characteristics of plant varieties and seeds was established by each countries. The UPOV (International Union for the Protection of New varieties of Plant) regulates the requirement of plant variety protection that is distinctness (D), uniformity (U), stability (S) (here in after called DUS), Novelty and Denomination, and some quality characteristics are used to examine the requirement of plant variety protection by each crops. OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation Development) seed scheme regulates the seed certification for seed trade between countries. ISTA (International Seed Testing Association) and AOSA(Association for Official Seed Analyst) regulates the seed analysis standard and methods. Most of the countries in Europe has the National List system, which check the value for cultivation and use(VCU), that is to say, variety performance such as yield, quality and stress to environment. All the seeds should be enlisted in the National List before sell the seed in their country. All the quality characteristics checked variety performance are for instance, amylose and amylopectin content in rice, molting quality,
-glucan, protein in barley, protein and sugar content in soybean, sugar and amylopectin content in corn etc. Conditions for the protection of new variety of plant are DUS. Quality characteristics may be the important characteristics and used to check DUS in crop by crop. It is very important to develop a new characteristics and establish standard method fur examine the VCU and DUS test for each crop.
Effect of Storage Method on Seed Chemical and Germination Traits in Barley
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 201~205
This study was carried out to investigate storability and develop suitable storage method for barley. Rough and milled barley such as Olbori(covered barley), Ssalbori(naked barley) and Chalssalbori (waxy naked barley) were packaged in 3P bag and OPP film bag, respectively, and stored at ambient and low temperature warehouse conditions. The weight loss was higher in milled barley than that of rough barley during barley storage. Acid value, one of the most important factor for grain quality evaluation, was increased from 4.9-9.0 mg KOH/100g to 6.5-19.9mg KOH/100g in milled barley at 16 months after storage. Reducing sugar content was increased while germination and water absorption rates were decreased during barley storage period. In terms of penal taste of boiled barley, rough barley could be stored safely more than one year regardless of storage methods where-ase milled barley stored in ambient temperature ware-house produced nasty flavor at 8 to 10 months after storage.
Esterase Isozyme Patterns of Rice-off Ope Groups Classified by Grain Characteristics
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 206~210
This study was carried out to investigate the genetic segregations and characteristics of off-type rice plants collected in Korea which were classified into seven groups based on grain characteristics. In the analysis of esterase electrophoresis, the long-grain red group was classified as 1 and 3 esterase isozyme zymogram(EIZ), the long-grain normal group was classified as 1, 3 and 7 EIZ. The extremely late sterility group was segregated variously as 1, 2, 1+2, 5, 6, 5+6, 7,8 ,7+8 and 12 EIZ. The long-grain red rice lines with 1 EIZ had a longer culm length and a lower length/width ratio to brown rice than the long-grain red rice lines with 3 EIZ. The long-grain normal rice lines with 3 EIZ had a longer culm length, shorter panicle length, greater number of tillers, lower length/width ratio of brown rice, and fewer number of grains per panicle than did the long-grain red rice lines with 1 or 7 EIZ.
Optimum Harvesting Time Based on Growth Characteristics of Four-year Ginseng
Kwang-He Kang ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 211~215
This study was carried out to find out the optimum harvesting time on the basis of physiological characteristics, yield and commercial value in four years old ginseng. For this purpose, the changes of agronomic growth characteristics of the aerial and underground parts with different growing stages were examined with fourth year ginseng. The leaf growth was dramatically increased from the mid-April (shooting stage) to the mid-May (flowering stage), and the growth was nearly completed by the mid-May, but the stem growth continued by the mid-August. The weight of fresh root decreased from the April (20.7g) to the June (18.2g), but increased from the June to the October(45. 1g). The yield of fresh root per "Kan" was 1.5 kg, 1.2kg and 1.3kg at the April, the May and the June, respectively, thereafter continually increased to 2.9 kg of the October, which showing the maximum yield. In conclusion, the ginseng root was generally harvested from the September to the October at farm-house, but it had better be harvested after the mid-October rather than from September to October considering the weight of dry root and the yield of fresh ginseng.h ginseng.
Ginsenoside Concentration and Chemical Component as Affected by Harvestin Time of Four-Year Ginseng Root
Kwang-He Kang ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 216~220
This study was conducted to know the change pattern of chemical components, especially proximate constituents, saponin and free sugars in roots of 4-year ginseng according to different harvesting time, and to find out the optimum harvesting time on the basis of chemical components in fourth year ginseng root. The crude protein content was 20.77% of the highest on the April (shootinzg stage),13.13% of the lowest on the June among all growing stages, and was constant at 17% after the August. But crude oil and fiber contents showed the highest value on the May (flowering stage). The content of total sugars which was the largest constituent among the chemical components in ginseng root was in the range of 60~7(1% during the all growing stages. It showed the highest value of 7l% on the June, but the lowest of 60% on the May. The total free sugar contents was the highest on the April (20.40%), but the lowest on the May (11.89%). The change pattern of sucrose contents (10.96-19.60%) was same as the total sugars contents (11.89-20.40%), on the other hand, the contents of glucose and maltose were not changed significantly during all harvesting times. The contents of crude saponins and total ginsenosides had the value of 7.60% and 4.09% on the May, respectively. That was statistically significant, but the other harvesting times were not. Therefore, on the basis of the only chemical characteristics in the four year-old ginseng root, we suggest that the harvesting on the May at flowering stage was most proper time.
Effect of Latex Coated Urea on Growth and Yield in Rige Direct Dry Seeding for Water-saving Rice Culture
Jae Kil Lee ; Moon-Hee Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 221~225
This study was conducted to identify the effects of slow release fertilizer (LCU) on ridge direct seeding on dry paddy of rice as an irrigation water-saying cultural system. During 1999-2000, a series of experiments was carried out at field (Chonbuk series) of the National Honam Agricultural Experiment Station, RDA using Dongjinbyeo. Plant height and culm length during the total growth duration were the longest and panicle umber per
was the highest in 100% LCU application rate. Leaf area index and top dry weight were the highest in the 100% LCU application rate. They increased as more LCU was applied. Nitrogen uptake was the highest in 100% LCU application, and N use efficiency was the highest in LCU 60% + FP (fertilization at panicle formation stage) 20% application. Milled rice yield was 7% higher in 100% LCU application rate than that of conventional N application. Ripened grain rate and 1,000-grain weight of brown rice did not differ, but panicle number per
and grain number per m2 were the highest at 100% LCU application.
Field Lodging Degree of Rice Varieties according to Nitrogen Application Rate
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 226~235
This experiment was to evaluate lodging characteristics of 35 recommended rice varieties of Kyonggi-do at normal (110 kg N/ha) and hen (220 kg N/ha) nitrogen application rates during 1999 to 2000. At heavy N fertilization rate, varieties that were highly resistant to lodging were Obongbyeo, Daejinbyeo, Naepoongbyeo, Nonganbyeo and Ilpumbyeo. Fourteen varieties including Daeanbyeo were moderately resistant and 11 varieties including Jinbubyeo were susceptible to lodging. The lodging-related characters which showed the highest effect on lodging at lodging degree of 9 were culm length and height of center gravity, culm length at lodging degree of 5, and culm length and the third internode length at lodging degree of 3 or below. The difference in rice yield between normal and heavy nitrogen fertilization rate was within 5% in early-maturing varieties but there was great yield difference in mid- and late-maturing varieties depending on the degree of lodging. Consequently, stable rice yield could be obtained by selecting lodging-resistant varieties and lowering fertilization rate, specially in the paddy field where lodging occurrence is common.
Saponin Composition of Liriope platyphylla and Ophiopogon japonicus
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 236~239
Saponin is one of major conponents in oriental medicine, which':s present in Ophiopogoneae. Saponin composition on ethyl acetate fractions from the butanolic extracts of two species, Liriope platyphylla and Ophiopogon japonicus was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC analysis revealed that spicatoside A and B were identified in the tuber of L. platyphylla. However, spicatoside A was not identified in the tuber of O. japonicus. Related to that, it may be possible to discriminate between Liriopis and Ophiopogonis Tuber using HPLC analysis.
Seed Protein Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Black Seeded Soybeans Collected From Southwestern Islands
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 240~243
A total of 135 black seeded soybeans genotypes were collected in 45 island locations from January to May 2001. Seeds of 135 genotypes collected were analyzed for crude protein and fatty acid compositions. The crude protein content was averaged to be 40.75%, and was ranged from 34.70% to 44.20%. The average palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid content were 11.41%, 3.93%, 22.75%, 53.55%, and 8.35%, and the ranges of those were 9.00% to 14.40%, 2.90% to 5.00%, 22.75% to 26.50%, 50.30% to 57.20% and 6.7% to 11.20%, respectively. Heritabilities of palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and crude protein were higher, but that of stearic acid and linolenic acid were relatively lower, Crude protein content was correlated positively with oleic acid content, whereas it was correlated negatively with linoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and linolenic acid contents.
Water Uptake and Germination of Soybean Seed as Affected by Soaking Condition
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 244~249
Varietal difference in seed shape and size, water absorption rate, and soybean sprouts was compared. In general, soybean seeds of yellow seed-coat and spherical shape with 100 seeds of 9.0
2g were evaluated as the best ones; Pungsannamulkong out of tested varieties was considered to be the best one in these respect. Varietal difference in water absorption yale depending on the soaking duration and temperature was recognized; Jungeri and Jillin 3 showed higher water absorption rate at higher temperature but it was completely vice versa for Pungsannamulkong. It took about 15 hours(soaking at 2
) for seed shape of size to grow to 10mm in length. Maximum enlargement in thickness of soybean seeds was made right after the completion of repeated soaking-drying treatment but three hours and nine hours soaking were needed for one time-soaking and non-soaking treatment, respectively. Varietal difference in germination rate was recognized between one hour's soaking at 2
and two hour's soaking at 15
The growth rate for Jillin 3 was excellent at all soaking methods and temperatures while three hours of soaking was the best for Jungeril and Pungsannamulkong, regardless of soaking temperatures. The growth of hypocotyl length showed somewhat faster in repeated soaking-drying than one time-soaking and non-soaking while the increase of hypocotyl thicknes was better in one-time soaking than repeated soaking-drying.
Post Harvest Management of Bulk-Harvested Barley Using Rice and Barley Processing Complex
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 250~253
The post harvest treatment of barley had many hard work steps, such as drying, cleaning, and packing. This is a reason why farmer doesn't like to cultivate barley. This study was conducted to investigate the optimum post harvest management of bulk-harvested barley using rice processing complex (RPC). Bulk-harvested barley was stored to 61.1% after 6pm at RPC. Grain moisture contents of bulk-harvested barley differed from storing date, farmer household, and field. Required dry hours were different with grain moistures contents. The average dry hour was 9.5 hours per 10a and dry rate was 0.89%. The proportion of impurity removed by coarse cleaning differed from grain moisture contents, as higher grain moisture content made impurity rate increase up to 38.9%. Cost of drying of bulk-harvested barley was 50won per ㎏ at above 24% of grain moisture contents, and the average dry cost was 41.25 won/㎏ and 14,400won/10a. The 62% of barley treated was stored in indoor-grain bin, and the others packed in 500 ㎏-poly con bag were stored in warehouse insulated.
Effect of Harvest Time on Yield and Quality of Rice
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 254~258
The characteristics of yield and quality in 3 rice varieties according to harvest time of 40, 50, 60 and 70days after heading(DAH) was investigated to obtain basic information for the production of high quality rice. The protein content of milled rice increased significantly as increase the ripening period from 40 to 70DAH. The palatability value measured by rice taster was the highest in ripening period of 40DAH and decreased with increase of ripening period. The optimum time for harvest in terms of both rice yield and quality was 4050DAH in Daejinbyeo, and 4060DAH in Seojinbyeo and Chucheongbyeo, however, it was considered to be 4050DAH only for rice quality. The palatability value measured by rice taster showed a highly negative correlation with protein content of milled rice(1=-0.94
) and cumulative ripening temperature(r=-0.79
Relationship between Yield and Quality of Rice Varieties Grown in Reclaimed Saline Paddy Field
Je-Cheon Chae ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 259~262
Relationship between yield and palatability value measured by vice taster among 9 rice varieties was investigated to obtain basic information for production of rice with high quality in reclaimed paddy field. The rice yield showed a highly negative correlation with palatability value of milled rice (r=-0.49
). The varieties of high palatability value tend to show low yield. The protein content of milled rice grown in reclaimed paddy field was higher than 7.5% mainly due to heavy fertilization of nitrogen and irrigation of eutrophicated water, The rice varieties such as Daeanbyeo, Jinpumbyeo and Sindongjinbyeo were recommendable only for higher yield, but in view of rice quality, Kwanganbyeo, Surabyeo and Nampyoengbyeo were more recommendable because of their lower protein content and higher palatability value.e.
Varietal Difference in Relationship between SPAD Value and Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Concentration in Rice Leaf
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 3, 2002, Pages 263~267
This experiment was conducted to find out the varietal differences in the relationships of chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration with leaf greenness value (SPAD value). We used two rice varieties with different leaf color type: Hwaseongbyeo has pale green leaves, and Gwanganbyeo has dark green leaves. SPAD value was correlated with chlorophyll a concentration significantly in both varieties, but not with chlorophyll b in Hwaseongbyeo. The correlation coefficients between SPAD value and nitrogen concentration of rice flag leaves were highly significant. However, the regression analysis between SPAD value and nitrogen concentration of rice flag leaves showed different relation among varieties. The slope of the regression line in Gwanganbyeo was steeper than that in Hwaseongbyeo. In conclusion, SPAD value can be applied to estimate the chlorophyll a concentration without consideration of varietal differences. Chlorophyll b and nitrogen concentration in the leaf were regressed to the SPAD values differently with varieties. This implies that the SPAD value can not be used directly to estimate chlorophyll b and nitrogen concentration without consideration of varietal differences.
Growth Characteristics as Affected by Polyethylene Film-Mulching in Sesame
Lee, Sung-Woo ; Kang, Churl-Whan ; Kim, Dong-Hwi ; Shim, Kang-Bo ; Seong, Nak-Sul ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 269~272
This study was carried out to investigate varietal differences on growth characteristics under the conditions of PE film-mulching and non-mulching in sesame. At maturing stage from 76 to 95 days after sowing, Yangbaeckkae, non-branching plant type, under non-mulching showed larger leaf area index (LAI) than that of film-mulching, while plant height and the number of capsules per plant were similar to those of film-mulching. LAI of Ahnsankkae, branching plant type, under non-mulching was similar to film-mulching, while plant height and the number of capsules per plant were smaller than those of film-mulching. Net assimilation rate (NAR) of two varieties under non-mulching was lower at seedling stage from 25 to 35 days after sowing but higher at flowering stage from 45 to 55 days after sowing. At maturing stage from 66 to 77 days after sowing, NAR and crop growth rate (CGR) of Yangbaeckkae under non-mulching were greater than those of film-mulching, whereas those of Ahnsankkae under non-mulching were lesser than those of film-mulching. Yield under non-mulching was decreased by 7 % in Yangbaeckkae and 33 % in Ahnsankkae compared with that of film-mulching, therefore Yangbaeckkae was more adaptable for non-mulching than Ahnsankkae. Main factors decreasing yield of Yangbaeckkae under non-mulching were small LAI, NAR, and CGR at the stage of young seedling, and small number of capsules at early maturing stage from first flowering to 20 days after first flowering.
N Top-Dressing and Rice Straw Application for Low-Input Cultivation of Transplanted Rice in Japan
Cho, Y.S. ; Kobata, T. ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 273~278
An efficient low-input system (LIS) for fertiliser use in rice cultivation is necessary to reduce fossil energy use and pollution. Japanese people like Japonica rice, especially cv. Koshihikari. However, it has very low lodging resistance in Japanese weather condition. Our objective was to develop a LIS with the minimum sacrifice of grain yield in rice. Koshihikari was grown using conventional fertilization as a control (CON) with 4 g N
and 8 g
as a basal fertilizer dressing. It was compared with a low fertilizer treatment (LF) with only 4 g
as a basal dressing in the first year and no basal phosphorus fertilizer in the second year. Chopped rice straw was incorporated into the soil before the cropping season in both years. Fertilizer of 4 g N
was top-dressed at 15 days before heading in CON plots and 30 days before heading in LF plots in both years. Lodging was significantly less in LF than in CON plots, however, no rice straw effect was found in low fertilized condition. Grain yields in LF plots were reduced by 15-16% below those of CON plots. Lower yields in LF plots were associated with a reduced number of spikelets per unit area. However, big spikelet size was acquired in LF by 10 days earlier N top dressing than CON plots. A close relationship was found between spikelet numbers and N content of the plant at heading, and between grain yield or shoot dry weight and N content of the plant at maturity. Regardless of the fertilizer application methods, N use efficiency for the number of spikelets, final total dry matter and grain yield was essentially identical among fertilizer treatments. The reduced growth and yield in the LF plots resulted from low absorption of nitrogen. Conclusively, LIS can drastically reduce chemical fertilizer use and facilitate harvest operations by reducing lodging with some yield reduction..
Allelopathic Effect of Oryzalexine A on the Germination and Growth of Several Weeds
Lee, Choon-Woo ; Koichi Yoneyama ; Yasutomo Takeuchi ; Son, Young-Koo ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 279~282
Oryzalexine A, a potent growth inhibitor against several weeds such as Digitaria sanguinalis (L) Scop., and Amaranthus lividus L. was purified by conventional solvent partitioning and column chromatographies. This substance showed strong inhibitory activity on several weeds: Germination of seeds of Poa annua L. was inhibited by 36.5 % at 1.0 mM and Amaranthus lividus L. by 56.1% at 2.5mM. Growth of root and shoot of Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. by 10.2% and 22.4% at 2.5mM, respectively. These suggest that Oryzalexine A in rice straw might affect the germination and growth of susceptible weeds and other plants.
Quantification of Momilactones A and B in Rice Straw
Lee, Choon-Woo ; Koichi Yoneyama ; Yasutomo Takeuchi ; Ryu, Su-Noh ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 283~285
Momilactones A and B, the major phytotoxins and phytoalexins in rice plants, were quantified by a HPLC-APCI-MS-MS (APCI-MS-MS) system under multiple reaction monitoring conditions. Since MA and MB were found to be easily extracted with water, these phytotoxic compounds may affect germination and growth of other plant species when the rice straws were left in the fields.
Biomass Partitioning during Early Growth Stage of Soybean in Response to Planting Time
Seong, Rak-Chun ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 286~291
Seedling establishment of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a critical factor in production system and cultural practices. The objective of this study was to identify the components of soybean seedling developments encompassing planting dates and cultivars that respond to emergence, early growth stage and dry matter accumulation. Three soybean cultivars, Hwangkeumkong, Shinpaldalkong 2, and Pungsannamulkong, were planted at Baegsan silty loam soil. Planting date was May 13, June 3, and June 24 in 2001. Sprinkler irrigation was accompanied with 30mm after seeding for three planting dates. Soybean seedlings were sampled at the growth stages from VE to V5. Days to emergence of soybean seedlings were taken 8 at May 13 and 5 at June 24 plantings. Emergence percentage was over 90 at three planting dates. May 13 planting took 33 days and June 24 planting was 25 days for reaching V5 growth stage. Cotyledon number was decreased after V2. Significant cultivar difference was found in cotyledon dry weight until V2 which differed in seed dry weights at the planting times. Leaf and total dry weights of soybean seedlings were not differed from V1 to V3 among planting dates and cultivars. Leaf water contents were generally ranged 78 to 85%. Branch was appeared from V4. Leaf/stem ratio among cultivars was similar at five growth stages and gradually increased from 2.1 at V1 to 2.8 at V5. The results based on this experiment indicated that seedling establishment of soybean was continued from VE to V3 growth stages affecting mainly by planting date and soil moisture.
Light Quality during Seed Imbibition Affects Germination and Sprout Growth of Soybean
Kang, Jin-Ho ; Park, A-Jung ; Jeon, Byung-Sam ; Yoon, Soo-Young ; Lee, Sang-Woo ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 292~296
Soybean seeds were treated with blue, red and far-red lights for 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours during 24-hour imbibition before culture for 6 days. The soybean sprouts raised were classified by their hypocotyl lengths; normal (＞4cm), abnormal (＜4cm) and non-germination, and their lateral roots, hypocotyl diameters and component dry weights were measured. Red light treatment and dark imbibition reduced the abnormal soybean sprouts more than far-red and blue light treatments, meaning that the former treatments produced more commercial sprouts. The lateral roots were more formed in blue light and dark imbibition than the other light treatments, but were completely blocked by any light treatment lasted during the whole imbibition. Although any light quality treatment did not influence their primary root lengths, blue light one lengthened the hypocotyl more than the others treated during the imbibition, and far-red light enlarged its diameter. Despite this morphological change, component, total or economic yield was not significantly different among the light quality treatments during the imbibition.
Dormancy-related Change in Endogenous ABA, Batatasin, and Sugar in Stored Tuber and Bulbil of Chinese Yam
Lee, In-Jung ; Kim, Sang-Kuk ; Lee, Sang-Chul ; Park, Tae-Shik ; Kwon, Soon-Tae ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 297~300
Endogenous ABA and batatasins were first quantified in the stored tubers and bulbils of the Chinese yam, Dioscorea opposita Thunb. cv. 'Tsukune' by GC-MS with comparison of internal standard, and sugar content was also analyzed by HPLC with comparison of external standard. Endogenous ABA content in stored tubers and bulbils was rapidly decreased as storage period prolonged. ABA content of the bulbils was always higher than that of tuber during storage periods. All batatasins of stored tubers and bulbils at 30 days after storage decreased steadily compared to 120 days after storage. On the contrary, batatasin-Ⅲ of the stored tuber and bulbils was only decreased at 60 days after storage. In Dioscorea opposita Thunb. cv. 'Tsukune' like D. japonica, D. alata, and D. bulbifera, may be controlled by endogenous batatasins and ABA, In these compounds, batatasins rather than ABA might be closely related to dormancy-inducing compound during dormancy of the Chinese yam, Dioscorea opposita Thunb. cv. Tsukune.
Variation of Alternative and Cytochrome Respiration during Ripening in Rice Leaves
Lee, Kwang-hong ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 301~304
The variation of alternative and cytochrome respiration during ripening in rice leaves (Oryza sativa L. cv. Takanari) was examined. The capacity of both respiration pathway was measured by inhibitor titration method using gas-phase oxygen electrodes. The alternative respiration rate decreased from 31.3% of the total respiration rate at around heading to 11.7% at 34 days after heading in the first fully expanded leaf from the top, and further to 6.4 % at 34 days after heading in the fourth leaf from the top. In contrast, the proportion of cytochrome respiration to total respiration increased with leaf senescence. The possible cause of alternative respiration as either an increase in inefficient respiration or a decrease in growth efficiency during ripening was discussed.
Performance of Imported Sweet Corn Hybrids in Korea
Seo, Seo-Jung ; Yun, Yun-Sang ; Lee, Lee-Suk ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 305~310
The performance of 7 sugary (su) and 12 shrunken-2 (sh2) sweet com hybrids which are commercially grown in the United States was tested in Korea. The 100-seed weight of su hybrids (16.5-23.6 g) was much heavier compared to that of sh2 hybrids (10.9-17.5 g). The germination rate of su and sh2 hybrids at
ranged 93.3-100% and 86.7-98.9%, the emergence rate of su and sh2 hybrids in cold test ranged 78.9-97.8% and 62.2-97.8%, and field emergence rate of su and sh2 hybrids ranged 74.4-100.0% and 79.9-98.2%, respectively. In su hybrids, there was a significantly positive correlation between germination rate at
and emergence rate in cold test or early growth. In contrast, in sh2 hybrids seed weight was positively correlated with early plant growth, while not with the germination rate at
or emergence rate in cold test and field. Most sh2 hybrids produced larger and more marketable ears compared to su hybrids although there were significant differences among the hybrids in the same genotype. At harvest (24 days after pollination) soluble solids content of su hybrids (24.3-27.1 Brix %) was much higher than that of sh2 hybrids (13.8-18.0 Brix %), while total sugars of sh2 hybrids (21.4-28.6% on the dry weight basis) was much higher compared to su hybrids (2.4-15.9%). Considering germination and emergence rates, marketable ear production, and total sugar content, 'GCB 70' and 'Sweet Satin' in su hybrids and 'Ice Queen', 'Aspen', 'Sweet Magic', 'Bandit', 'Xtrasweet 82', 'Aspen', and 'Cambella 90' in sh2 hybrids performed better than other hybrids.
Dry Matter Accumulation, Harvest Index, and Yield of Soybean in Response to Planting Time
Chun, Seong-Rak ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 311~318
Planting date of soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of production components in cultural systems. The objective of the current study was to identify the components of soybean production and cultural practices encompassing planting dates and cultivars that respond to dry matter accumulation, harvest index and yield components. Three determinate soybean cultivars were planted on May 13 (early), June 3 (mid), and June 24 (late). Planting density was 60
15cm with 2 seeds (222,000 plants per ha). Soybean plants were sampled every 10 days interval from the growth stages of V5 to R8 and separated into leaves including petioles, stems, pods, and seeds. Dry matter accumulations, harvest indices, and yield components were measured. Early planting had taken 55 days from VE to R2 and late planting taken 39 days indicating reduced vegetative growth. Early planting showed higher leaf, stem, pod and seed dry weights than late planting. However, late planting appeared to be higher harvest index and harvesting rate. Vegetative mass including leaf and stem increased to a maximum around R4/R5 and total dry weight increased to a maximum around R5/R6 and then declined slightly at R8. The highest seed yield was obtained with mid planting and no difference was found between early and late plantings. Cultivar differences were found among planting dates on growth characteristics and yield components. The results of this experiment indicated that soybean yield in relation to planting dates examined was mainly associated with harvest index and harvesting rate, and planting date of cultivars would be considered soybean plants to reach the growth stage of R4/R5 after mid August for adequate seed yield.
Molecular Marker Analysis for Resistance of Soybean Cultivars to Soybean Cyst Nematode
Chung, Jong-Il ; Park, Won-Gyeong ; Park, Min-Jung ; Ko, Mi-Suk ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 319~322
Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe; SCN) is an important soybean pest and the use of resistant cultivars is the effective method to reduce or eliminate SCN damage. However, breeding for SCN resistance is difficult and expensive by the oligogenic nature of the resistance and genetic variability in the pathogen. Fortunately, SCN resistance loci, rhg1 and Rhg4 are generally accepted as a necessity for the development of resistant genotypes using any source of resistance. In this study, resistance of 44 Korean soybean cultivars to SCN was tested using two molecular markers. Seonheukkong and Pokwangkong were the homozygous to rhg1 locus. Seven cultivars were susceptible to SCN based on Satt309 marker linked rhg1 locus. All Korean cultivars estimated in this study were recessive homozygous to Rhg4 locus and were susceptible in the PCR reaction using primer 548/563 linked to the Rhg4 locus conferring resistance to SCN race 3. Among 44 cultivars estimated, seven cultivars were susceptible to SCN in both Satt309 and primer 548/563 markers. Based on both Satt309 and primer 548/563 markers, there is no resistant cultivar to SCN in Korea. Therefore, SCN resistant cultivars need to be developed in the future. These two markers can be used for improving SCN resistant cultivars.
Effect of High Nitrogen Application on Two Components of Dark Respiration in a Rice Cultivar Takanari
Akita, Shigemi ; Lee, Kwang-hong ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 323~327
Plant growth and the two components of respiration, growth and maintenance, were compared between low and high nitrogen applications in hydroponic culture on a high-yielding rice cultivar 'Takanari' (Oryza sativa L.). Grain yield decreased by high nitrogen application, and thus this cultivar has low adaptability to nitrogen. Growth efficiency (GE) and net assimilation rate (NAR) were lower in the high-nitrogen plot. The maintenance coefficient (m) and growth coefficient (g) of dark respiration were 0.0111
and 0.196 in the low-nitrogen plot and 0.0166
and 0.237 in the high-nitrogen plot, respectively. Thus, high nitrogen application increased both g and m. Calculated
(maintenance respiration rate) was 70 and 90% of total respiration rate at heading, respectively. The significance of nitrogen adaptability and g was discussed.
Control of Sulfonylurea Herbicide-Resistant Lindernia dubia in Korean Rice Culture
Kuk, Yong-In ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 4, 2002, Pages 328~334
A Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell var. dubia accession from Jeonnam province, Korea was tested for resistance to sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides, imazosulfuron and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in whole-plant response bioassay. The accession was confirmed resistant to both herbicides. The
(herbicide concentration that reduced shoot dry weight by 50%) values of resistant accession were 264 and 19 times higher to imazosulfuron and pyrazosulfuronethyl, respectively, than that of the standard susceptible accession. The surviving resistant L. dubia after pyrazosulfuron-ethyl + molinate application can be controlled by sequential applications of soil-applied herbicides, butachlor, dithiopyr, pyrazolate, and thiobencarb and foliar herbicides, bentazon. Sulfonylurea-based mixtures such as mixtures of azimsulfuron + anilofos, bensulfuron-methyl + oxadiazon, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl + fentrazamide, and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl + anilofos + carfentrazon can also be used to control the surviving resistant L. dubia. However, use of these mixtures should be restricted to a special need basis. Thus, we suggest that sequential applications of non-SU-based mixtures such as butachlor + pyrazolate and MCPB + molinate + simetryne be used to control the surviving resistant L. dubia after SU herbicide applications. Rice yield was reduced 24 % by resistant L. dubia that survived after the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl + molinate application compared with pyrazolate + butachlor in transplanted rice culture. In vitro ALS activity of the resistant biotype was 40 and 30 times more resistant to imazosulfuron and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, respectively, than the susceptible biotype. Result of in vitro ALS assay that the resistance mechanism of L. dubia to SU herbicides may be due, in part, to an alteration in the target enzyme, ALS.
Varietal Difference Based on Efficiency of Rice Anther Floating Culture
Kang, Hyeon-Jung ; Lee, Seong-Yeob ; Kim, Hyun-Soon ; Lee, Jae-Gil ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 5, 2002, Pages 335~340
To evaluate the efficiency of anther floating culture according to the maturing group, the varietal difference and classification of fifty varieties was conducted in N6 liquid medium containing 1mg
NAA, 0.25 mg
kinetin. The efficiency of callus induction was widely ranged from 0 to 113.4%, but the mean callus induction was not significantly different among maturing groups. The efficiency of anther floating culture showed the highest variation in early-maturing group among three maturing groups. The varieties with the best callus induction were Sambaegbyeo and Jinbuolbyeo, while the recalcitrant variety was Obongbyeo in early-maturing group. The efficiency of plant regeneration showed the highest trends in late-maturing group among three maturing groups. The fifty varieties were classified into three groups (distance=0.78) by cluster analysis based on the callus formation and plant regeneration. Group including only two varieties, Shinunbongbyeo and Sambaegbyeo had the excellent androgenic efficiency, and the medium efficiency of Group was included thirty-six varieties. Whereas twelve varieties, including three Tongil varieties were fell into the bad efficiency of Group. Especially, Tongil varieties containing Japonica rice, Obongbyeo were the recalcitrant genotypes for the anther floating culture.
Mechanisms of Chilling Tolerance in Relation to Antioxidative Enzymes in Rice
Kuk, Yong-In ; Shin, Ji-San ; Whang, Tay-Eak ; Guh, Ja-Ock ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 5, 2002, Pages 341~351
In order to examine the mechanistic basis for differential sensitivities to chilling and subsequent recovery between two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cutivars, a chilling-tolerant japonica type (Ilpumbyeo) and a chilling-susceptible indica type (Taebaekbyeo), changes of physiological responses and antioxidant enzymes were investigated. Both cultivars at 3 leaf stage were exposed at a low temperature of
for 3 days and subsequently recovered in a growth chamber at a
for 5 days with 250 mmol
. Physiological parameters such as leaf fresh weight, relative water content, cellular leakage, lipid peroxidation, and chlorophyll a fluorescence showed that the chilling tolerant cultivar had a high tolerance during chilling. However, the chilling-susceptible cultivar revealed severe chilling damages. The chilling-tolerant cultivar was also faster in recovery than the chilling-susceptible cultivar in all parameters examined. We analyzed the activity and isozyme profiles of four antioxidant enzymes which are: superoxide dismutase (SOD), caltalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutation reductase (GR). We observed that chilling-tolerance was due to a result of the induced or higher antioxidant enzyme system, CAT and APX in leaves and SOD, CAT, APX, and GR in roots. Especially, we observed the most significant differences between the chilling-tolerant cultivar and -susceptible cultivar in CAT and APX activity. Also in isozyme profiles, CAT and APX band intensity in the chilling-tolerant cultivar was distinctively higher than in the chilling-susceptible cultivars during chilling and recovery. Thus, the cold stability of CAT and APX are expected to contribute to a tolerance mechanism of chilling in rice plants. In addition, the antioxidative enzymes activity in roots may be more important than in that of leaves to protect chilling damage on rice plants.
Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Mature Embryos in Oat
Lee, Byung-Moo ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 5, 2002, Pages 352~355
Mature embryos of five oat genotypes were cultured to develop an efficient method of callus induction and plant regeneration. Murashige and Skoog(MS) and N6 media supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and kinetin were used for callus induction. Percentage of callus induction showed significant among the combinations of plant growth regulators. Callus induction showed high efficiency in medium containing 3 mg/
of 2,4-D. The high frequency of callus induction was obtained in Gwiri37. For plant regeneration, calli induced from mature embryos were transferred onto MS and N6 media supplemented with combinations of 6-benzyladenine (BA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for 5 weeks. Percentage of plant regeneration showed high in MS medium containing 0.2 mg/
of NAA and 1 mg/
of BA. The callus initiation medium affected the subsequent plant regeneration. Treatment with 3 mg/
of 2,4-D, and 3 mg/
of 2,4-D and 3 mg/
of kinetin in callus induction media showed high frequency for plant regeneration. Plant regeneration frequency among the genotypes showed significant. Especially, Gwiri37 showed high regeneration frequency. Regenerated shoots were treated with 200, 350 and 500 mg/
of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) transferred onto half-strength MS medium without plant growth regulators. Treatment of shoots with IBA induced root formation rapidly.
Response of Different Seedlings to Growth and Yield in Yacon
Ryu, Jeom-Ho ; Doo, Hong-Soo ; Lee, Kang-Soo ; Choi, Sun-Young ; Cheong, Young-Keun ; Park, Ki-Hun ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 5, 2002, Pages 356~360
The seedlings of yacon (Polymnia sonchifolia Poeppig ＆ Endlicher), which were cuttings, plug seedling (PS), crown bud before sprouting (CBBS), crown bud after sprouting (CBAS), and divided seedling after budding (DSAB) were planted at 70
50 cm planting distance on ridge; that was interow spacingintrarow spacing, and about 28,500
71 plants/ha. CBBS didn't need work and equipment to raise seedlings. PS and DSAB grew taller to 140.5 and 143.3cm, respectively, than others at 150 days after planting. In the changes of plant height, PS and DSAB showed taller than others during growth period, cuttings, CBBS, and CBAS grew rapidly in middle growth stage. Excepting main stem and petiole length, other characters were significant for seedling. Fresh weights were different among seedlings. Even though the yield of plants grown from CBAS and CBBS were lower with 34.7 and 36.4 ton/ha, respectively, than 3.6 ton/ha of DSAB; its yield index were over 95%, hence, those of plants grown from cutting and PS were lower with 73 and 87%, respectively. The ratio of tuberous roots over 200g to total tuberous roots per plant was the highest from DSAB. Most of tuberous roots were under 200g per tuberous root from cuttings. CBBS, CBAS, and DSAB are suitable to use seedlings for high yield of yacono. Yacon plant by DSAB much produced tuberous root of over 200g.
Effect of Harvest Time on Seed Quality of Silage Corn Inbreds and Hybrids
Lee, Suk-Soon ; Yun, Sang-Hee ; Soo, Jung-Moon ; Min, Hwang-Kee ; Ryu, Si-Hwan ; Park, Jong-Yeol ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 5, 2002, Pages 361~367
In order to determine the optimum harvest time for the seed production of inbreds and hybrids in silage corn, the ears of sib-pollinated 'KS5', 'KS7rhm', and 'Ga209' and cross-pollinated 'KS5'
'KS6' (Suwon19), 'KS7 rhm'
'KSl17' (Suwonok), and 'Ga209'
'DB544'(Kwanganok) were harvested at the one-week intervals from 4 to 10 weeks after silking. The optimum harvest time for the seed production for 'KS5', 'KS5'
'KS6', 'KS7 rhm', and 'KS7rhm'
'KS117' was 7 weeks after silking considering both emergence rate and plumule growth in cold test. Although earlier harvested seeds showed similar germination rate as the seeds harvested at the optimum time at
, their emergence rate were lower in cold test. Seed weight and
-amylase activity of earlier harvested seeds were lower compared to those of seeds harvested at the optimum time, while leakage of total sugars and electrolytes were higher. However, the later harvested seeds showed lower germination rates at
and emergence rates in cold test probably due to the lower
-amylase activity although they showed increased seed weight and reduced leakage of total sugars and electrolytes. In contrast, the emergence rate of 'Ga209' and 'Ga209'
'DB544' in cold test increased up to 10 weeks after silking probably due to the increased seed weight and
-amylase activity and reduced sugar and electrolyte leakages during the germination. The cross-pollinated F
hybrid seeds showed higher germination and emergence rates at
and in cold test, and higher plumule growth and
-amylase activity compared to those of sib-pollinated inbreds.
Influence of Light on Biomass of Soybean in Narrow Strip Cropping of Oat, Corn, and Soybean
Van, Kyujung ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 5, 2002, Pages 368~373
The strip intercropping system has used due to many advantages. Many researches supported these crop systems are usually equal to or better than monoculture crop systems in both total production and profit. There was no research to examine the important ecological factors in the competition between crops. A strip intercropping system composed of adjacent narrow strips of corn, soybean, and oat/legumes has been investigated in Iowa, USA. This study conducted to investigate why and how the differences in soybean yield are produced and affected by light, one of the microclimate, of the strip intercropping system. In height, the two rows of soybean closest to corn were taller than the two rows near the then-empty oat strip. The height of each crop decreased as the amount of light received increased. Weight of plant parts was lowest in row 1, nearest corn, and highest in row 4, next to the vacant oat strip. Daily photon flux density(PFD) increased with increasing distance from corn, with the highest value occurring on the edge next to the empty oat strip. Analyses of the relationship between light and biomass of soybean showed that all biomass measurements had a positive relationship to total PFD per day except height.
Effect of Seeding Date on Growth Habit and Pod Setting of Peanut in Southern Korea
Pae, Suk-Bok ; Jung, Chan-Sik ; Oh, Ki-won ; Ko, Jong-Chul ; Kim, Jung-Tae ; Park, Chung-Berm ; Kwack, Yong-Ho ; Kim, Soo-Dong ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 5, 2002, Pages 374~378
To evaluate growth habits, fresh pod yield potential, and possibility of early and late seeding, seeding dates were extended from March 21 to June 20 by PE mulching and non-mulching. Soil temperature, under 5cm from surface, above 15
at 10 a.m. in early seeding reached about March 25 in mulching and April 5 to April 12 in non-mulching. Days to emergence and first flowering were accelerated owing to increasing temperature, as seeding was delayed. Days to emergence according to seeding dates reduced 21 to 8 day in mulching and 33 to 10 day in non-mulching. Days to flowering were ranged from 51 to 26 day in mulching and from 69 to 32 day in non-mulching and differences between mulching and non-mulching on each seeding date had 18 to 4 days. Early seedings till April 21 had 160-170 flowers per plant for 8 weeks, while late seedings from May 21 increased more speedily with 200 flower for 6 weeks. Harvesting of fresh peanut, at 80 days after first flowering, was possible from Aug. 1 to Oct. 7 (133-108 days to harvest) by mulching and from Aug. 19 to Oct. 12 (151 to 114 days) by non-mulching. Yields between mulching and non-mulching in early seeding until April 21 had more difference, but in late seeding after May 21 was higher and showed insignificance. Pod setting periods by early and late seeding were about 3 weeks equally. In late seeding pod setting were almost concentrated for front 15 days. In spite of difference of fresh pod weight between two seeding times, the distributions of average of seed weight showed nearly same tendency.
Genetic Diversity of Barley Cultivars as Revealed by SSR Masker
Kim, Hong-Sik ; Park, Kwang-Geun ; Baek, Seong-Bum ; Suh, Sae-Jung ; Nam, Jung-Hyun ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 5, 2002, Pages 379~383
Allelic diversity of 44 microsatellite marker loci originated from the coding regions of specific genes or the non-coding regions of barley genome was analyzed for 19 barley genotypes. Multi-allelic variation was observed at the most of marker loci except for HVM13, HVM15, HVM22, and HVM64. The number of different alleles ranged from 2 to 12 with a mean of 4.0 alleles per micro-satellite. Twenty-one alleles derived from 10 marker loci are specific for certain genotypes. The level of polymorphism (Polymorphic Information Content, PIC) based on the band pattern frequencies among genotypes was relatively high at the several loci such as HVM3, HVM5, HVM14, HVM36, HVM62 and HVM67. In the cluster analysis using genetic similarity matrix calculated from microsatellite-derived DNA profiles, two major groups were classified and the spike-row type was a major factor for clustering. Correlation between genetic similarity matrices based on microsatellite markers and pedigree data was highly significant (
), but these two parameters were moderately associated each other. On the other hand, RAPD-based genetic similarity matrix was more highly associated with microsatellite-based genetic similarity (
) than coefficient of parentage.
Growth and Yield Performance in no-till Cultivation of sugary and shrunken-2 Corn Hybrids
Lee, Myoung-Hoon ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 5, 2002, Pages 384~389
No-tillage (NT) practice for corn production has advantages of reduction of soil erosion and energy conservation. Research on effects of NT for sweet corn or super sweet corn is very limited. Hybrids of sugary (su) and shrunken-2 (sh2) were tested under NT and conventional tillage (CT) practices to investigate plant characters, ear characters, fresh yield, and grain yield. Sugary hybrids were Golden Cross Bantam 70 (GCB70), Sprint, Geumdanok, and Danok3. Shrunken-2 hybrids were BSS9472, Cambella90, GSS9299, Jubilee, KS-Y-65, and Chodangok1. Emergence rates under NT were lower than those under CT for su, while there was no difference between tillage systems for sh2. There were no differences between CT and NT for days to tasseling and silking, plant height, and ear height for both su and sh2. Ear characters such as ear length, number of kernel rows, number of kernels per row, and t100-kernel weight under NT were not significantly different from those under CT. There were no differences between two tillage practice for fresh and grain yield, rather they showed trend of increases under NT practices. Results from this trial indicate that NT practice for both su and sh2 cultivation may be possible to recommend to farmers.
Spikelet Number Estimation Model Using Nitrogen Nutrition Status and Biomass at Panicle Initiation and Heading Stage of Rice
Cui, Ri-Xian ; Lee, Lee-Byun-Woo ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 5, 2002, Pages 390~394
Spikelet number per unit area(SPN) is a major determinant of rice yield. Nitrogen nutrition status and biomass during reproductive stage determine the SPN. To formulate a model for estimating SPN, the 93 field experiment data collected from widely different regions with different japonica varieties in Korea and Japan were analyzed for the upper boundary lines of SPN responses to nitrogen nutrition index(NNI), shoot dry weight and shoot nitrogen content at panicle initiation and heading stage. The boundary lines of SPN showed asymptotic responses to all the above parameters(X) and were well fitted to the exponential function of
. Excluding the constant, from the boundary line equation, the values of the equation range from 0 to 1 and represent the indices of parameters expressing the degree of influence on SPN. In addition to those indices, the index of shoot dry weight increase during reproductive stage was calculated by directly dividing the shoot dry weight increase by the maximum value (
) of dry weight increase as it showed linear relationship with SPN. Four indices selected by forward stepwise regression at the stay level of 0.05 were those for NNI (
) at panicle initiation, NNI(
) and shoot dry weight(
) at heading stage, and dry weight increase(
) between those two stages. The following model was obtained: SPN=48683ㆍ
). This model accounted for about 89% of the variation of spikelet number. In conclusion this model could be used for estimating the spikelet number of japonica rice with some confidence in widely different regions and thus, integrated into a rice growth model as a component model for spikelet number estimation.n.n.
Genetic Analyses of Heading and Maturing Dates and Their Relationship to Freezing Resistance in Barley
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 395~401
The combination of early heading time, maturing time and short grain-filling period is very important to develop early varieties in winter barley. The 4 parental half diallel crosses (parents,
s) were cultivated at the field. The heading date was from April 3 to 26, maturing date from May 15 to 27 and grain-filling period from 31 days to 42 days, showing that the varietal differences about the 3 traits were remarkable. According to half diallel cross analyses, Dongbori 1 for heading time (late heading) was dominant, but Oweolbori (early heading) was recessive, showing partial dominance with high additive component of genetic variance. Dongbori 1 for maturing time was dominant, but Oweolbori was recessive, showing partial dominance with high additive variance. Reno for grain-filling period (short grain-filling period) was dominant, but Oweolbori (long grain-filling period) was recessive with additive, and partial dominance. There were highly significant mean squares for both GCA and SCA effects on the heading and maturing times, and GCA/SCA ratios for all traits were high, showing the additive gene effects more important. Sacheon 6 and Oweolbori had greater GCA effects for early heading and maturing times, and Dongbori 1 and Reno had greater GCA effects for late times. GCA effects were highly significant in
generations, showing high GCA/SCA ratios (7.02). The heading and maturing times in field were positively correlated with antifreeze proteins concentrations, accumulation, resistance to photoinhibition and winter survival, respectively) but the grain-filling period did negatively correlated with the trails.
Growth and Yield of Rice as Affected by Saline Water Treatment at Different Growth Stages
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 402~408
Rice cultivar 'Janganbyeo' was cultivated by irrigating the saline waters of high salinity (3.0%) and medium saliniy (1.5%) for 4 days, and low salinity (0.5%) for 30 days at tillering, early meiosis and heading stage. Leaf injury due to salinity was most severe at tillering stage in 1999, but at heading stage in 2000. Heading date was delayed by 1 to 5 days by treatment of saline waters only at tillering stage. Culm length and panicle length were most severely shortened by treatment at early meiosis stage. Yield and yield components except for panicle number were decreased most by high salinity treatment regardless of growth stages. In particular, ripening ratio and grain weight among the yield components were decreased most conspicuously by the saline water treatment regardless of salinity and growth stage. Regarding grain weight grain-filling rate and duration, there is no remarked difference among the concentrations and treatment durations of saline water at tillering stage. However, their reductions were very different among the concentrations and treatment durations of saline water at early meiosis stage, being greatest when treated with high salinity for 4 days and followed by low salinity for 30 days. Also their reductions were very severe only when treated with high salinity for 4 days at heading stage.
Effects of Salt Treatment on Yield and Physiological Characteristics of Flag Leaf at Heading Stage in Winter Barley
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 409~412
This research was conducted to obtain the fundamental data on salt injury and different responses among cultivars in winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Salts did not affect yield components including number of panicles, stem length, grain number per ear and grain yield while reduced stem dry weight and thousand seed weight significantly with increasing concentrations of salt from 60 to 180 mM. NaCl had less injury effect on barley straw dry weight and thousand seed weight than did
. Chlorophyll content and relative turgidity in flag leaf were reduced when treated with both salts, while free proline in the salt-treated leaf was increased. Content of proline in salt-treated barley was about 10 folds compared to the control. Based on yield components and physiological traits of flag leaf, the tolerance to salt injury was the greatest in Baegdong, followed by Dongbori#1, Mogpo#55, and Gangbori. The results suggested that salt- stressed barley at reproductive stage had higher free proline content, and that special management in this stage must be considered because salt stress at heading stage affect flag leaf growth as well as yield components Harmfully.
-amylase Gene and Degradation of Starch Granules of Germinating Rice Seed under Low Temperature and Submerged Soil Condition
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 413~417
This study was conducted to determine
-amylase gene expression and degradation of starch granules in the endosperm near scutellar epithelium of rice cultivars under the submerged soil at hypoxia 18
, which is practically important condition for farmers in temperate regions. In case of cv. Janghyangdo, accumulation of
-amylase mRNA was detected in the aleurone layer on the ninth day after seeding. However that of cv. Suwon 287 and Norm 6 were not detected in the aleurone layer in submerged soil(hypoxia) at 18
-amylase of cv. Janghyangdo was synthesized de novo in aleurone cells not in the scutellar epithelium. Degradation of starch granules in the endosperm near scutellar epithelium of c.v. Janghyangdo and Ginbozu, which have a strong
-amylase activity, was greater than that of cv. Suwon 287 and Norm 6 with no
-amylase activity in submerged soil(hypoxia) at 18
. This result may indicate that
-amylase gene expression and degradation of starch granules of germinating rice seed are related to the emergence of rice under the submerged soil condition at low temperature.
Effects of Sowing Method and Planting Density on Growth and Root Yield of Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsly
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 418~421
This study was carried out to clarify the effect of sowing method in four planting densities on growth and root yield of Cynanchum wilfordii. vine diameter, number of branches, number of branched roots, and root length, were greater in seedling transplanting than in direct sowing. In planting densities, main vine length, number of branches, and number of tillers were increased at higher planting density, but vine diameter, leaf length, leaf width, root length, and root diameter were increased at lower planting density. fresh root yield was greater in seedling transplanting than in direct sowing. In seedling transplanting, it was 53% higher in 27 plants per unit area than 1,680 kg/10a in 17 plants per unit area. Therefore, seedling transplanting in 27 plants per unit area showed most effective for increasing root yield of Cynanchum wilfordii.
Varietal Responses of Rice Growth and Yield to Soil Salt Content
Jae Kil Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 422~426
In other to find out the basic information on cultivation and breeding for salt tolerance in rice, these studies were conducted at salinity paddy fields containing 0.2, 0.3, 0.4% of salt and normal paddy field using 6 Japonica type, 5 Tonsil type varieties and Annapurna. On these fields a series of investigation was made for the responses of rice growth and yield to salt content of saline sails. The heading dates of the rice cultivated at salinity 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4% were delayed compared by 2 or 3,5 or 8 and 10 or 13 days respectively in Japonica and Tonsil type varieties to those at the normal paddy fields. The culm length at salinity paddy fields decreased by 13-39% in Japonica type and 14-35% in Tongil type varieties. But the number of panicles per hill decreased by 16-40% in Japonica type and by 14-35% in Tongil type varieties. The number of grains per panicle in saline paddy fields decreased by 10 to 40% in all varieties, but the percent ripened grain decreased by 20-48% in Japonica type and by 19-51% in Tongil type varieties. 1000 grains weight was decreased by lower than 23% in all varieties, but yield was reduced to 20-62% in Japonica and 25-67% in Tongil type varieties.
Effect of Light Quality During Imbibition and Culture on Growth of Soybean Sprout
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 427~431
Lateral roots of soybean sprout might reduce the quality. The study was done to measure the effect of light quality treated during 24 hour imbibition or 6 day culture on growth and development of soybean sprouts on the 6th day after culture. With the soybean seeds imbibed in 4 ppm benzyladenopurine (BA) solution for last 6 hours of the imbibition, blue and red lights were treated during the imbibition, but during 6 day culture, blue and red or far-red light treatments were done for 50 minutes or 5 hours a day, respectively, the periods taking for their cotyledons to turn green color, On the 6th day after culture, the soybean sprouts were classified by 4 categories on the base of hypocotyl length;＞7cm, 4 to 7cm, ＜4cm and non-germination, and their lateral roots, hypocotyl diameters and fraction dry weights were measured. Blue and red lights treated during the imbibition completely blocked lateral root formation regardless of the lights treated during the culture, and showed nearly the same rate of hypocotyls of longer than 4cm. The period of each light treatment forced during the culture did not influence the growth of soybean sprouts. far-red light treated for 5 hours everyday, however, had the least rate of seed germination and hypocotyls of longer than 7cm of the light quality treatments. In addition, red and far-red lights almost equally having the commercial soybean sprouts of longer than 4cm hypocotyls move elongated and selenderized than blue light and dark treatment, meaning the growth and morphology of soybean sprouts was affected by light treatments during the culture.
Effects of Seed-piece Size and Seed-piece Number Per a Hydroponiclly Grown Mini-tuber on Growth and Yield of Potato
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 432~436
This study was conducted in 2001 to determine the influence of seed-piece size (SPS) and number (SPN) per mini-tuber produced by hydroponics on growth and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Treatments consisted of the combination of six SPS (3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13g/seed-piece) and four SPN (whole tuber, and two, three, and four pieces/tuber). Percentage sprout emergence at transplanting was higher for seed pieces weighing 7 to 13 g (83.0 to 85.4%) and for three and four pieces per tuber (85.4 and 84.8%). As SPS were increased from 3 to 9 g/piece, total yields markedly increased from 2,052 to 2,924 kg/10a and seed tuber (31 to 250 g) yield from 1,589 to 2,428kg/10a with no further increase with SPS. As SPN was increased from one to three/ tuber, total yields increased from 1,918 to 2,982 kg/10a and seed tuber yields from 1,422 to 2,579 kg/10a with no further increase with SPN. Average tuber weight increased with SPS (46.3 to 71.5 g/tuber) and SPN (56.5 to 64.9 g/tuber).
Flowering and Fruiting of Characteristics of Short Flowering Period Lines in Peanut
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 437~442
To breed high quality and yield peanut variety according to select the short flowering duration, fifteen germplasms (1 virginia,7 spanish,6 valencia types and var, Daekwang) were investigated the flowering habit and agronomic characteristics from 1998 to 1999. Emergence date of the selected short flowering duration germplasms (SPFGs) was earlier 1-3 days and middle or small seed than that of var, Daekwang. Main stem length was longer 57cm but the number of branches, pods, 100-seed weight, and pod weight per plant was reduced 25%, 23%, 42%, 46%, respectively, in SPFCs comparing to var, Daekwang. The flowering date in SPFGs was similar but the flowering duration was earlier 5-16 days than that of var, Daekwang (52 days). Varieties that flowered shorter duration than 50 days were 18.8% among the SPFGs. The number of total flowers in SPFGs was fewer 50% than that of var, Daekwang. The rate of flowering inhibition were 50-52% than that of var Daekwang. The frequencies of flowering duration (under 50 days) were 7.7% in virginia, 46.2% in spanish, 53.9% in valencia. The effect of shading treatment on rate of flowering inhibition were 11%, but number of branches and pods were reduced by 27-31% in valencia type compared to non-shade. Correlation coefficient was significant positively (
valencia) between the air temperature and flower number, The frequency of peg and pod number on 1st to 2nd nodes in SPFGs were more 3-12%, 21-26% than that of var. Daekwang. The rate of mature pods at 80 days after flowering were higher 12-17% than that of var, Daekwang (68%). Correlation coefficient was high significant negatively between date of first flower and flowering date, the ratio of mature pod.
Growth and Seed Quality as Affected by Growing Condition in Sesame
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 443~447
This study was carried out to determine the differences in the growth, grain yield, and seed quality of sesame plant according to seeding date between P,E. vinyl-house and outdoor cultures. Reproductive growth period in vinyl-house culture was shorter than in outdoor culture. Stem length and capsule setting length of sesame were much longer in vinyl-house culture than in outdoor culture. Also, number of capsules per plant and 1,000 grain weight in vinyl-house culture were higher, specially the grain yield was approximately 57% more than in outdoor culture. In vinyl house culture, sesame plants sown on June 8 had longer capsule setting length, more capsules per plant, higher 1,000 grain weight, and higher percent ripened grain at the upper part of the capsule settings than those sown in May 9. They also had higher 1,000 grain weight at the middle and lower part of the capsule settings compared to May 9 seeding. However, no difference in grain yield of in seeding dates was observed. In outdoor culture, sesame plants, which was sown on May 9, had more effective branch number and capsule number and plant compared to those sown on June 8. Though sesame plants sown on May 9 had lower percent ripened grain at the upper and middle part of the capsule settings and lower 1,000 grain weight, the seed yield was similar to those sown on June 8. No difference in chromaticity value
of sesame seeds between two culture conditions was observed. The
value was higher in vinyl-house culture than outdoor culture while
value was higher in outdoor culture. Sesaminol triglucoside content of sesame seeds was higher in vinyl-house culture than in outdoor culture. On the other hand, the content of sesamin and sesamolin from sesame seeds in vinyl-house culture were lower than in outdoor culture.
Effect of Sowing Amount on Seedling Growth and Grain Yield of Automatic Seedling Raising facility
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 448~452
The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum sowing amount for raising rice seedlings in automatic facility. four levels of seeding amount, 200, 220, 250 and 300 tray were applied to compare the seedling characteristics according to seeding density. Sowing dates were fixed at May 10 for single cropping and June 10 for double cropping. The seedling height was taller as the increase of sowing amount from 200g to 300g/tray, however the seedling quality was decreased with increasing of seed density. At 40-50 days after transplanting, there was no significant difference in the plant height and tiller number among the rice seedling raised under different seeding densities. Grain yield of 15-day old seedlings transplanted at May 25 was not significantly different among four different levels of seeding amount. However, the yield of 10day old seedling transplanted at June 20 was significantly higher in seeding density of 250g/tray than that of 300g/tray.
Effect of Microbe Control and Water Temperature on Early Growth and Yield of Soybean Sprouts
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 453~458
High temperature sterilization method (30min. at
longrightarrow30 min. at
longrightarrow30 min. cooling at
) was evaluated better than that of chloride, ion water,
water, and salt water for the controling of micro-organisms at the early stage of sprout culture. Due to the improved germination rate and effective control of micro-organisms at early stage, the method resulted in much lower in the number of micro-organisms, higher in sprout yield, and 2 days longer in quality keeping at market than sprouts prepared by conventional method. There are two methods related with water temperature; constant temperature method (18.5
) which keeps the same water temperature during the culture and 3-stage temperature method which changes the water temperature depending on the days after culture. Three-stage temperature method set the temperature at 21
) in the second and third days after the initial acceleration of germination (about 4 hours), at 18.5
in the fourth and fifth days, and at 17.0
) in the sixth and seventh days. Three-stage temperature method could enhance the resistance power to diseases at the early growth stage, control the growth to standard goods (8-9cm in length and 2.15-2.30mm in width), and keep good body color at the middle or final stage. This method also increased the sprout yield by 6% compared with the conventional method, constant temperature method.
Bioactive Component Content as Affected by Different Drying Condition in Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) Root
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 459~464
This experiment was conducted to know the changes of bioactive component content in four-year-old peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) root with various drying methods such as room temperature drying,
heat-air drying, room temperature drying after
boiling water treatment and freeze drying, and to establish the optimum drying method for high quality production of Paeoniae Radix. For this purpose, the contents of paeoniflorin, albiflorin and five phenolic compounds (gallic acid, benzoic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and (+)-taxifolin 3-O-
-D-glucopyranoside) in peony root with different drying methods were analyzed by RP-HPLC. The contents of paeoniflorin, albiflorin and (+)-taxifolin 3-O-
-D-glucopyranoside at room temperature drying were higher than in the other drying methods and that of gallic acid at 8
boiling water treatment was the highest among that of all drying methods. In the case of freeze drying, the contents of (+)-catechin, benzoic acid and (-)-epicatechin were the highest among those of all drying methods. As increase of drying and treatment temperature, the contents of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, (+)-taxifolin 3-O-
-D-glucopyrano-side, (+)-catechin and benzoic acid were decreased.
Genotypic Variation of Esterase Isozyme in Breeding Lines of Two-rowed Barley by Electrophoretic Banding Pattern
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 465~470
This study presents results of electro-phoretically detectable isozyme variation in Crossing Block (CB) lines of two-rowed barley maintained by the National Crop Experiment Station. The specific objectives were to determine allelic frequencies at the four Est loci(Est1, Est2, Est4, and Est5) and their distribution over 380CB lines of two-rowed barley. A total of 17 alleles were detected over the four Est loci in these lines. There were 4 alleles (Pr, Al, Ca, and Af at the Est1 locus and their frequencies were 69.7, 1.1, 28.4, and 0.8%, respectively. At the Est2 locus, 5 different alleles (Dr, Fr, Sp, Un and a recessive null allele) were detected and their frequencies were 2.9,84.5,0.5,2.1, and 10%, respectively. four alleles (Nz, Su, At, and null were detected at the Est4 locus and the allelic frequency of Su was about 84%. Four alleles(Mi, Pi, Te, and a null allele(od)) were detected at the Est5 locus and their frequencies were 34.2, 61.0, 2.4, and 2.4%, respectively. Based on the allelic frequencies over the four Est loci, 380 CB lines were classified into 25 genotypes. The most frequent genotypes were G1(Pr-Fr-Su-Mi) and G2(Pr-Fr-Su-Pi), and their frequencies were 28.1 and 39.5%, respectively. The frequencies of other genotypes were less than 10%.
Growth and Yield Response of Rice Cultivars to Different Night illumination Intensities
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 471~474
This experiment was conducted to investigate the response of rice growth and grain yield to night illumination. Three cultivars Heugjubyeo (early maturing), Hwaseongbyeo (medium maturing), and Ilpumbyeo(mid-late maturing) were tested under different light intensities ranging 1.0 to 20.0 lux (0.3 to 5.6
). Awn length of all cultivars became longer as night illumination intensity increased; 4.09 cm under 10-20 lux compared to 1.93cm under 2 lux in Hwaseongbyeo. However culm and spike length ere not affected by night illumination. Night illumination delayed flowering by 3 days in Heugjinjubyeo, 5 days in Hwaseongbyeo, and 9 days in Ilpumbyeo at 10-20 lux compared to that at 2 lux. Grain yield was reduced by 10.0% in Heugjinjubyeo, 17.7% in Hwaseongbyeo, and 20.7% in Ilpumbyeo at 10-20 lux compared to 2 lux condition.
Effects of Post-Harvest Bulk Management System Using Rice Processing Complex on Labor Saving and Quality of Barley
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 475~478
Post-harvest treatment for barley production requires many steps including drying, cleaning, and packing, and these steps be needed many labor input. Rice processing complex (RPC) is useful for post harvest management system in rice production. However, it is rare to be used for barley production. This study was conducted to explore the variations of quality and labor saving between conventional method and bulk-management system in post-harvest using RPC. The sorting rate was not different between manual method and bulk management. The hardness of non-polished grain was ranged 10,175-10,329 g/
, and that for non-polished grain was higher than that for polished grain, but there was not different between drying method. There was not be showed the hunter's value such as L, a and b according to drying method. Cooking characters such as water absorption ratio, swelling ratio, and water soluble extracts by circulated or continued dryer was higher than manual drying using solar heat. Labor input per ha for each cultivation process in bulk-management of barley using rice processing complex was 21 hours, compared to 46 hr/ha in the conventional method, labor input was greatly saved by up to 54.3% in the post-harvest bulk management system.
Variation in Spikelet Number under Different Nitrogen Levels and Shading Treatments during Panicle Formation Stage of Rice
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 479~485
This study was conducted in order to elucidate the effects of nitrogen level and split application method, and shading treatment during reproductive stage on sink formation. Japonica variety Choocheongbyeo and Hwaseongbyeo and indica
japonica cross type variety Nampoongbyeo were used. Five levels (6 to 30 kg/10a at 6 kg/10a interval) of nitrogen fertilization, and two split application methods (50-25-25% and 30-30-40% as basaltillering-panicle fertilizer) for each nitrogen treatment were applied. In addition shading treatments (shading rate, 65%) were performed for N 12 kg/10a and 24 kg/10a plot. Shading were applied for 30 days from panicle initiation to heading, 15 days from panicle initiation and 15days before heading. Panicle per square meter, and primary rachis branches per panicle and differentiated number of secondary branch per panicle increased according as applied nitrogen amount increased up to 18 to 24 kg/10a, and there was no significant difference between two nitrogen application methods. Primary rachis branch and secondary branch per square meter also increased according as the amount of applied nitrogen increase up to 18 to 24 kg/10a, and there was no significant difference between nitrogen application methods. Panicle per square meter and primary rachis branch per panicle were significantly decreased due to shading treatments only in Choochengbyeo. In all varieties, shading reduced secondary rachis branch per panicle significantly and the reduction was greatest in 30 days shading during reproductive stage. Spikelets per square meter increased according as the amount of applied nitrogen increases up to 18 to 24kg/10a, but showed no move increase above this nitrogen application level. Significant difference was not shown between nitrogen split methods. Spikelets per square meter also decreased significantly due to shading treatment during reproductive stage, showing the greatest reduction by 30 days shading during reproductive stage, and the least by 15 days shading during booting stage. The variation of spikelets per square meter was influenced greatest by the variation of panicles per square meter and spikelets per secondary rachis branch.
Relationship of Spikelet Number with Nitrogen Content, Biomass, and Nonstructural Carbohydrate Accumulation During Reproductive Stage of Rice
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 47, issue 6, 2002, Pages 486~491
Spikelet number and its components of rice plant are closely associated with nitrogen accumulation and biomass production during panicle formation stage. To elucidate this relationship and also compare the differences of the sink formation efficiency among cultivars, spikelet number, its components, nitrogen content, nonstructural carbohydrate content, and plant dry matter were investigated under 5 nitrogen levels with two split application methods and shading treatments by using three rice varieties. The nitrogen amount in shoot at panicle initiation stage and at 15 days after panicle initiation showed significant positive correlation with primary rachis branches per square meter, and that at 15 days after panicle initiation and at heading stage with secondary rachis branches per square meter, Primary and secondary rachis branches per square meter showed positive significant correlation with the shoot dry weight at panicle initiation stage and at 15 days after panicle initiation stage, respectively, The amount of degenerated secondary rachis branches and spikelets per square meter showed significant negative correlation with the dry weight and nonstructural carbohydrate increase of stem during 15days after panicle initiation, and the contents of nonstructural carbohydrate at 15 days after panicle initiation. Spikelets per unit area showed significant positive correlation with nitrogen amount in shoot and shoot dry weight at heading stage. The sink formation efficiency expressed as the spikelet number produced by the unit amount of nitrogen in shoot at heading stage was higher in Nampoongbyeo than Choocheongbyeo and Hwaseongbyeo. Sink formation efficiency was negatively correlated with the dry weight increase of shoot and stem during reproductive stage. but not significantly with that of leaf in all varieties. Sink formation efficiency was not significantly correlated with nonstructural carbohydrate, but was significantly negatively correlated with structural carbohydrate increase during reproductive stage.