Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 48, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 48, Issue 5 - Dec 2003
Volume 48 - Dec 2003
Volume 48, Issue 4 - Sep 2003
Volume 48, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 48, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Selecting the target year
Congruency Analysis for Rice Direct Seeding Research Resource Allocation
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 135~138
Appropriate allocation of personal and financial resources of a research organization is important for the successful accomplishment of its goals. Direct-seeding of rice is a technology compatible with sustainable agriculturer and much research on the technology has been carried out in the research institutes of Rural Development Adminstration (RDA). We analyzed, with a special interest in research on rice direct-seeding technology, patterns of resource allocation in RDA by technology to evaluate congruency levels in research resource allocation. Research on direct-seeding technology had been focused on its fundamental field in the past. However, research to solve the practical difficulties encountered by farmers such as those in seedling establishment weed control, and water management practices, has been increased in recent years. Research resource allocation had largely been made to the projects for variety and seeding-technology development in the early years, however, allocation to the projects for the fertilization, weed control, and water management fields has been increased in recent years. Allocation of resources to the projects in soil management and seedling establishment categories was decreased, indicating that difficulties encountered by farmers in these fields were mostly solved. High congruency between economic outcome of research and allocation of resources by technology categories indicates a rational allocation of resources for research on direct-seeding of vice in RDA.
Disease Severity of Bacterial Blight in Mixed Plantings of Rice Near-Isogenic Lines
Mun Sik Shin ; Ki Young Kim ; Jae Kil Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 139~141
Disease severity, percent ripened grains, and yield were investigated in the seven mixtures by using near-isogenic lines having different resistant gene(s) to bacterial blight(BB) of rice. The seven mixtures including the four pure stands were inoculated with a 1:1:1 mixture of races
of BB. Among the seven mixtures-ML01, ML02, ML03, MLl2, MLl3, ML23 and ML0123-, disease severiety, percent ripened grains, and yield of ML01 and ML12, respectively did not show significant difference with those of mean values of their components. But degree of disease severity of the other mixtures, respectively -ML02, ML03, MLl3, ML23, and ML0123-was less than the mean of their components. Percent ripened grains and yield of them were higher than those of mean of their components. ML03, MLl3, ML23 and ML0123 comprised of the equal amount of two or four components having different resistant gene, these mixtures appeared to be a desirable combination for delaying spread of the pathogen, stabilizing of the race structure of the pathogen population, and extending durability of a cultivar with monogenic resistance.
Inheritance of Grain Weight and Size of a High Yielding Japonica cultivar, Sobibyeo
Tae Hwan Noh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 142~146
To obtain information on the inheritance of grain weight and grain size of japonica cultivar, Sobibyeo which has high yielding potential and large grain in rice, the genetic variation, heritability and phenotypic correlation of 1,000 grain weight, grain length, width and thickness were investigated in two crosses, Iksan 429/Sobibyeo and Iksan 430/Sobibyeo. The gram characteristics of
hybrids exceeded mid-parental values, while grain length: width ratio was intermediate between the parents. In
populations, the average grain length, width and thickness were intermediate as mid-parental values, but grain weight exceeded the mid-parental values. In
populations of Iksan 429/Sobibyeo and Iksan 430/Sobibyeo, mean 1,000 grain weights were 24.86g and 25.04 g on the average, and ranged 18.4g-32.2g and 19.5g-33.4g, respectively. The segregation mode for grain weight was regarded as a nearly normal distribution in two crosses of
populations. Estimates of broad sense heritabilities for grain weight in Iksan 429/Sobibyeo and Iksan 430/Sobibyeo were high as 89.00% and 89.06%, and grain length showed the highest heritability among grain characteristics as 97.45% and 97.35%, respectively. Grain weight was highly correlated with grain length, width and thickness, and grain length was highly correlated with grain width and thickness. These grain characteristics were apparently controlled by polygenes. Accordingly, these traits will be readily improved through selection in the early segregating generations.
Influence of Polyethylene Film Mulch and Seedling Types on Growth and tuber Yield of Fall-Grown Potato
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 147~151
Normal seed tubers and plug seedlings raised from stem cutting and mini-tubers (
g) were planted or transplanted on August 20,2001 in bare soil or under transparent and black polyethylene film mulches to evaluate the effects of mulch material and seedling type on the growth and tuber yield of fall-grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Dejima) in Jeju region. Total tuber number per plant was 4.6 regardless of mulch treatment, and direct planting seed potatoes resulted in the greatest tubers (5.14)/plant and followed by transplanting seedlings raised from cutting and mini-tubers (4.15 and 5.15 tubers/plant). Transparent and black polyethylene film mulches increased total tuber yield by 16 and 8%, respectively, and average tuber weight by 14 and 12%, respectively, compared with no mulch (21.16 t/ha and 72.2 g/tuber). Transplanting plug seedlings raised from cutting resulted in the greatest tuber yield, followed by transplanting plug seedlings raised from mini-tubers and direct planting seed potatoes.
Germination, Seedling Emergence, and Growth of Burcucumber Affected by Maturity and Size
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 152~155
Burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.), used as a medicinal or rootstock for cucurbitaceous crops have shown high variation in seed maturity and size. This study was carried out to determine the effect of seed maturity and size on seed germination, seedling emergence and growth of burcucumber, Seeds collected from a native site were divided into small, medium and large ones after sorted to mature and immature ones. Their germination, seedling emergence and growth were done in indoor and a green house. Mature seeds showed higher germination and seedling emergence rate than immature ones. Regardless of their maturity, medium. and small seeds showed higher germination rate than large ones. Medium and large seeds, however, had the greatest and the least seedling emergence, respectively. Seedling height, number of true leaves areas of cotyledons and true leaves except hypocotyl length were increased with increased seed size although were not affected by the maturity. Cotyledon, leaf, hypocotyl, root and their total dry weights were greater in large mature seeds than large immature ones while increased with increased seed size in both maturities.
Effect of Climatic Factors on Disease Incidence of Barley fellow Mosaic Virus (BaYMV)
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 156~159
Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) cause severe damage in barley cropping field especially yield reduction about 40% to 100% depend on climatic conditions and varieties. The correlations between disease incidence (DI) and changes of climatic conditions were analyzed. The average temperature affected on the DI in early barley growing stage before wintering. However any factors was not correlated with DI during wintering season that means barley growth was closely related to virus reproduction. Significant correlation between the highest temperature and DI during barley regeneration time that temperature, especially the highest, has to be considered to set appropriate time for DI investigation.
Growth Characteristics of Barley Seedlings in Hydroponic Culture Conditioned Artificial Wet Injury
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 160~168
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of induced wet-injury conditions on barley seedling growth. Barley seedlings at the three leaf stage were grown in culture solutions with various combinations of dissolved oxygen (DO), nutrients and citric acid (CA) concentrations. Seedling growth was reduced by hypoxia. Root length and root fresh weight were most severely reduced under 1 ppm DO. Shoot growth was slightly reduced but not root growth under low nutrient condition. Seedling growth was reduced by CA in a concentration-dependant manner, Response of seedling growth was efficiently differentiated in a solution containing 1 ppm DO, one tenth of the normal P, K and Mg concentration and 3 mM CA. Under this induced wet-injury condition, overall seedling growth of 6 cultivars was reduced by 11 to 19% compared to the control condition. The results suggest that the induced wet-injury condition can be used for the screening of resistant genotypes at the seedling stage.
Pre-sowing Treatments to Improve Germination of Intact Seeds in Burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.)
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 169~172
Intact seeds of burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) are not nearly germinated so that the farmers remove their arils before sowing. The study was carried out to measure the effort of aging, chilling, washing, chemical treatment, drying, and their sequential treatments on the germination of ones with arils and the seedling emergence. The seeds extruding over 1mm of their radicles and the seedlings with fully expanded cotyledons were counted daily for calculating the germination and the seedling emergence rates. Seedcoat softening using 10% NaOH solution somewhat enhanced their germination rate of the intact seeds harvested in the current year, but aging treatment done on 6 days at
after NaOH treatment increased the germination rate more than only NaOH treatment. A day washing after the NaOH treatment and a day chilling after the washing increasingly elevated the rates as well. Irrigation of 0.2%
solution, moreover, showed the greatest germination rate of the priming treatments done during all the 7 day chilling. Drying the seeds after the combined treatment of chilling and priming more inclined the germination rate than nondrying ones, but red light treated during 24 hour desiccation was more effective in the germination rate increment than dark condition. The seeds done the sequential treatments of aging, NaOH, washing, combining chilling and priming and drying under red light illumination were germinated up to 80% but seedlings were emerged to 60%, lower than ones removed their arils.
Effect of Phosphorous Fertilizer Rate on Growth, Dry Matter Yield, and Phosphate Recovery in Achyranthes japonica
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 173~178
To determine the optimum
rate for dry matter production of Achyranthes japonica Nakai a medicinal plant, in Jeju island, plants were grown in 2001 under ten fertilizer treatments comprising of two N (90, and 180kg/ha) and five
(0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 kg/ha) levels. Plant height leaf length and width, stem diameter, and main root length and diameter were not significantly affected by
fertilization of 100 kg/ha increased the number of branches, spikes, and roots per hill by 18,38 and 43%, respectively, compared with the unfertilized
treatment and decreased with further increases in
rate. The number of roots per hill was greatest with the application of 200kg
. The highest utricle dry matter yield (2.92 t/ha) was obtained with the application of 100kg
. However, as
rate increased from 0 to 100 and 200kg/ha, root dry matter yield increased from 2.36 to 3.55, and 3.80 t/ha, and then decreased to 3.14, and 2.86 t/ha at 300, and 400kg
rates, respectively. As
rate increased from 100 to 400 kg/ha,
recovery in aboveground parts decreased from 34.1 to 7.1%.
Effect of Nursery Soil Made of Expanded Rice Hull on Rice Seedling Growth
Kim, Je-Youn ; Kim, Kyung-Min ; Sohn, Jae-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 179~183
In comparison of physicochemical properties between expanded rice hulls (ERH) and a commercial nursery soil (Bunong), the pH and content of organic matters were higher in ERH than those of Bunong soil. However, the content of available phosphate,
were lower in ERH as compared with Bunong soil. The growth characteristics of seedlings were evaluated for 15-day old seedlings grown in five different nursery soils including ERH. The plant height was the tallest (22.8cm) in Bunong soil and shortest (12.8cm) in ERH. There was no difference in number of leaves among five types of nursery soils. The best results based on the seedling quality and root intensity was obtained from the seedlings grown in the nursery soil which ERH was used for bedding and Bunong soil for covering in the seed tray. The weight of a seed tray with Bunong soils was 27% heavier than that of 'ERH + Bunong soil'.
Quality Characters and Identification of Breeding Materials in Malting Barley
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 184~190
Germplasms and breeding lines of malting barley at National Yeongnam Agricultural Experiment Station (NYAES) were evaluated for malting barley quality improvement. Among the numerous malting barley quality parameters, the mean of protein content was 12.3% between 10.7% to 14.0% and range of the
-glucan content was from 3.5% to 5.8%, the mean was 4.6 percent. The length of acrospire, non-germination rate, friability, the speed of filtration, extract yield, kolbach index, diastatic power were significantly different between the individual varieties, however the other traits were not significantly different. The results of correlation analysis among 15 quality parameters showed significant positive correlation between crude protein content and malt protein content. However, other quality parameters such as sugar content, fiablity, extract yield, and kolbach index had negative correlation with crude protein content. Therefore, crude protein content could be one of the major factors that deteriorate quality. The varieties of Viva, Nishino-chikara, Kinukei 9, Kinukei 12, Sacheon 6 and Jinyangbori that showed over the 80% in extract yield and the higher diastatic power, will be used by crossing parents for improve the quality of malting barley.
Growth and Yield According to Wick Number Under Wick Culture System of Potato Plug Seedlings
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 191~195
This study was conducted in 2001 to develop a technique for mass production of superior seed tuber by using a wick culture system as an alternative plan to solve problems in hydroponic culture of potato. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Dejima) plug seedings were planted on a styrofoam bed (volume
) containing two different media (Jeju scoria + peatmoss and perlite + peatmoss, (1:2, v/v) mixture, respectively). Each bed was equipped with various number of wicks (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ea/bed). After harvest, the total porosity of both media was 83-85%. Bulk density of Jeju scoria + peatmoss was higher compared to that of perlit + peatmoss. However, the number of wicks did not influence to the bulk density. Conversely, moisture capacity of Jeju scoria + peatmoss was remarkably greater than that of perlite + peatmoss and was increased from 55 to 70% as elevating number of wicks. Although the number of wicks resulted in the areal growth of plants, the total yield and the weight of tuber were highest at the bed equipped with six wicks in both media.
Changes in Physicaochemical Properties of Soil, Yield, and Milling Quality of Rice Grown under the Long-term No-till Rice System
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 196~199
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the differences in physicochemical properties of soil, grain yield and milling recovery ratio and grain appearance of rice grown in long-term no-till and ordinary till systems. The paddy in no-till rice system was unploughed but straw-mulched for 15 years from 1988 to 2002 at the Experimental Paddy of Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services, while the paddy in ordinary till system was ploughed and puddled every crop year, A 5cm organic layer was formed in 11-year no-till rice system, in which exchangeable cation and phosphate were accumulated. In no-till paddy organic matter, bulk density and solid phase of surface soil significantly increased, while pH, exchangeable cation, phosphate, liquid and gaseous phase decreased. Tillage made the very top soil soft, but made deep soil below 5cm significantly hard. In the 1st year of no-till, topsoil showed hard, but in the process of the time in no-till system, the top- and sub-soil showed softer, Yield and yield components of rice showed no differences between till- and no-till rice systems. Milling recovery ratio and grain appearance were not significantly different between no-till and till-rice systems.
Effects of Initial EC Values on Seedling Growth and Utilization of Minerals in Hydroponic Rice Seedling Raising
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 200~204
This study was conducted to develop a technology for raising seedlings hydroponically using the bed in which the seedlings grew in nutrient solution without soil. In order to establish the optimum EC value of nutrient solution, six initial EC values (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 dS/m and control) of Yoshida's hydroponic solution were examined. Seedling height and dry weight increased with increasing below EC up to 3.0 dS/m, but showed no significant increase at higher than EC 3.0 dS/m. Nutrient solution with initial EC of 3.0 dS/m was good to be dropped down nearly to 1 dS/m after 15-day seedling culture. But those with initial EC of 4.0 and 5.0 dS/m were judged not appropriate because of high EC value in waste nutrient solution. Utilization efficiency of minerals of nutrient solution and rice endosperm was higher on the whole at initial EC of 2.0-3.0 dS/m. Considering seedling growth and utilization efficiency of supplied nutrient solution, initial EC is judged to be suitable at 3.0 dS/m.
Effects of Nutrient Solutions and Their Supplying Frequency on Seedling Growth and Utilization of Minerals in Hydroponic Rice Seedling Raising
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 205~208
This study was conducted to develop a technology for raising rice hydroponically seedlings using the bed in which the seedlings grew in nutrient solution without soil. In Hydroponic rice seedlings, two nutrient solutions (Yashida and Wonsi) were evaluated with four supplying methods
3 times (2 days, 8 days and 12 days after seeding), 2 times (5 days and 10 days after seeding), and 1 time (5 days and 10 days after seeding)
1, Seedling growth was not different between the two solutions. However, tensile strength of root-mat was higher in Yoshida solution than in Wonsi solution. The more frequent supply of solution resulted in the better seedling growth but in the weaker root mat. Utilization efficiency of the solution minerals was not different in N content regardless of supplying frequencies, but higher in r, K, Ca and Mg when supplied only once on the 5 days after seeding.
Varietal Difference in Heading Date of Rice by Night Illumination
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 209~215
This experiment was conducted to study the varietal and ecological difference of rice in heading date by night illumination. The degree of delay in heading date and days from heading initiation to full heading (DHIF) of rice were in the order of mid-late maturing cultivars (MLC)＞ medium maturing cultivars (MEC) ＞early maturing cultivars (EAC) ＞very early maturing cultivars (VEC). However, the MEC showed significant variation in days to heading; Kwanganbyeo delayed significantly, but Ansanbyeo did not. The comparative sensitivity of different rice ecotypes per lux in delayed heading was 0.09-0.10, 0.14-0.26, 0.16-0.58, and 0.35-0.54 day in VEC, EAC, MEC, and MLC, respectively; the shortest ion Odaebyeo (0.09 day), moderate in Daeanbyeo (0.35 day), and the longest in Kwanganbyeo (0.58 day). Difference of DHFI was 0.-1 day in VEC, -l-2 days in EAC, 0-l6 days in MEC and 6-18 days in MLC under 50-70 lux compared to 2 lux; Daejinbyeo (-1 day), Hwaseongbyeo (6 days), Chucheongbyeo (9 days), Kwanganbyeo (16 days), and Ilpumbyeo (18 days).
Photosynthetic Characteristics of Rice Cultivars with Depending on Leaf Senescence during Grain Filling
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 216~223
This study was conducted to investigate the varietal differences in leaf senescence and the relationship between leaf senescence and photosynthesis during ripening stage of rice. During grain filling period, leaf senescence was evaluated by SPAD readings (an indirect indicator of chlorophyll content) for 3 rice varieties (SNU-SG1, Hwaseongbyeo, Nampungbyeo). SPAD value of flag leaf and 2nd leaf of SNU-SG1 were much higher than the other varieties and the leaves of SNU-SG1 also showed a tendency of delayed senescence as compared to the other varieties. Photosynthesis at light saturation (Pmax) of flag, 2nd and 3rd leaf in SNU-SG1 during grain filling period were much higher than Hwaseongbyeo and Nampungbyeo. The Pmax of the flag leaf in SNU-SG1 was especially higher over 20% than the other varieties. It was due to its higher mesophyll conductance and stomatal conductance as compared to the other varieties. Pmax, stomatal conductance and mesophyll conductance had positive correlation with SPAD value and nitrogen concentration of leaves. In conclusion, the stay green characteristics of SNU-SG1 would contribute to increasing the grain yield through the improved photosynthesis during grain filling.
Genotypic Difference in Leaf Senescence during Grain Filling and Its Relation to Grain Yield of Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 224~231
This study was conducted to investigate the varietal differences in leaf senescence during ripening stage and its relation to grain yield of rice. During grain filling period leaf senescence was evaluated by SPAD readings (an indirect indicator of chlorophyll content) for 74 varieties including local, improved domestic, and introduced varieties in the field condition. Leaf senescence was varied greatly among 74 varieties. Jodongji and Dadajo known as local rice varieties had significantly lower SPAD value than the other varieties and became senescent rapidly. However, SPAD value of the flag leaf and 2nd leaf of SNU-SG1 were much higher than the other varieties and leaves of SNU-SG1 also showed a tendency of delayed senescence compared to the other varieties. There were significantly positive correlation between cumulated SPAD value of upper leaf(flag leaf and 2nd leaf) during 35 days after heading and grain yield divided by sunshine hour during 40 days of grain filling and compensated for temperature effect, and cumulated SPAD value of the 4th leaf showed negative correlation with the yield. That is, the delayed senescence of the upper leaves and the rapid senescence of lower leaves were positively associated with grain yield increase.
Effect of Benzyladenopurine Treatment Time during Imbibition on Growth of Soybean Sprouts and its Cost
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 232~237
Benzyladenopuyine (BA) commonly used for soybean sprout production is of high price. The study was carried out to determine the effect of BA treatment time during seed imbibition on growth and development of soybean sprouts and to analyse its treatment cost. The soybean seeds of 4 cultivars were soaked in 4 ppm BA solution during the first 5.5 hour imbibition (EFHI), the second 5.5 hour imbibition (SFHI) immediately after 0.5 hour aeration, or whole 11.0 hour imbibition (WFHI) intervened by aeration. On the 6th day after culture, the soybean sprouts were classified into 4 categories on the base of hypocotyl length; ＞ 7cm, 4 to 7cm, ＜ 4 cm and not germinated, and their morphological characters, fresh and dry weights were measured. Water absorption of the seeds was sharply reduced after it was almost done for the first 5.5 hours. The percentage of sprouts with hypocotyls of longer than 4cm was higher in FFHI treatment than in the other two ones. Regardless of BA imbibition time and periods, the lateral roots were not observed. WFHI treatment showed shorter hypocotyl and root lengths but thicker hypocotyl and hook diameters than FFHI and SFHI treatments. All component fresh and dry weights except cotyledon fresh weight were nearly same. Treatment cost of BA was the lowest in SFHI treatment. It is concluded that BA treatment during SFHI is the best time because its treatment time did not affect sprout growth but its treatment cost.
Critical Saline Concentration of Soil and Water for Rice Cultivation on a Reclaimed Saline Soil
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 238~242
Reclaimed tidal areas for rice cultivation are irrigated with salt mixed water when there is severe drought. Therefore, we identified the critical concentration of saline water for rice growth on a reclaimed saline soil in Korea. The experiment was conducted at the Kyehwado substation of the National Honam Agricultural Experiment Station (NHAES) during 2001-2002. Two experimental fields with 0.1-0.2% for low soil salinity and 0.3-0.4% for medium soil salinity levels were used. The experiment involved four levels of salt solution mixed with sea water (at 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7%) compared with a control using tap water in a split-plot design with three replicates. Saline solution was applied only two times at seedling stage (10 DAT and 25 DAT) for 5 days. Gyehwabyeo and dongjinbyeo, japonica rice varieties, were used in this experiment. Plant height and number of tillers sharply decreased in the 0.5% saline water in low soil salinity level and 0.1% in medium soil salinity level. For yield components, panicle number per unit area and percentage of ripened grain dramatically decreased in the 0.5% saline water in low soil salinity and 0.1% in medium soil salinity level. But 1,000-grain weight of brown rice decreased sharply in the 0.5% saline water in low soil salinity and 0.3% in medium soil salinity, indicating that this component was not much affected unlike other yield components. Milled rice yield decreased significantly with saline water level in both low and medium soil salinity. In the 0.7% low saline soil, the yield index was only 36% compared with the control. In medium soil salinity, even the control plot showed only 62% yield index compared with the control in the low soil salinity treatment. Results indicated that the critical concentration of saline water for rice growth in terms of economical income of rice production was 0.5% in low soil salinity and tap water in medium soil salinity.
Ideal Leaf Type on Leaf Shape and
Use Efficiency of Different Seed Size Cultivar in Soybean
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 243~247
To examine ideal leaf types with higher
assimilates and different seed sizes, 12 soybean varieties were planted on the pot in a plastic house covered with glass. Leaf function based on stomatal conductance and
assimilation in soybean is different in seed size and leaflet shape. Mean
assimilation of a single leaf was 19.66
and showed higher in small seed cultivars with narrow leaflet than that of small seeds with wide leaflet (18.29
), but within large seed groups, it was higher in wide leaflets (19.17
) than narrow leaflet cultivars (17.45
). In small seed and narrow leaflet cultivars, stomatal conductance ranged from 0.14 to 0.15
assimilation ranged from 19 to 20
. The Photosynthetic rate was closely related to stomatal conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency.
Photosynthesis and Leaf Anatomical Morphology on Different Leaf Shape of Soybean
Moon-Hee Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 248~251
To find ideal leaf types for soybean breeding program, we examined the relationships among leaf anatomical and morphological characteristics and
assimilation on the different leaflet shape of soybean (Glycine max). In anatomical characters of leaf, palisade and spongy cells were thicker in both small seed cultivars with narrow leaflet and large seed cultivars with wide leaflet than others.
uptake per plant and leaf thickness were significantly associated with seed yield per plant, showing difference among the soybean cultivars. Although the leaf area was lower for narrow leaflet cultivars, which had a significantly higher photosynthetic rate per plant comparable to the wide leaflet cultivars.
Classification for Types of Damages Caused by Cold Stress at Different Young Spike Development Stages of Barley and Wheat
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 252~261
Although the young spike of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is known as the most susceptible part to spring cold injury, the risk of cold injury is apt to be ignored in most breeding program due to the importance of early maturity. Based on these aspects, the types and inducing time, temperature conditions for induction and effects of cold injury on growth and yield in this study were investigated under greenhouse and field conditions through three years (1997-1999). In natural condition, low temperature around -2.4∼
caused the death of plant. Several cold injury types such as partial degeneration of spike, partial discoloration of leaf, spike and awn, discoloration of culm and white spike were observed at low temperature around
. Low temperature around -2.4∼
caused degeneration and sterility of spike, respectively. Most materials were prepared to the spikelet foundation stage, spikelet differentiation stage, development stage of flower organ, booting stage and heading stage, which were known having risk for cold injury in field condition. Although most of the controlled stages were sensitive to the induced low temperature, booting stage was the most sensitive stage for cold injury. All of growth stages which were treated-heading stage, booting stage, development stage of flower organ, spikelet differentiation stage, spikelet foundation stage-were responded to low temperature treatment but the symptoms revealed were very specific according to the growth stages. Ears of plant in heading stage were discolored to white. Ears of plant in booting stage were degenerated in all or part of one. Plants in spikelet differentiation stage were sterile in all or part of one. When tried to detect the specific differences between normal and cold injured plants in appearance, spike length, distance between spike and flag leaf and the first internode length could be the critical points for occurrence of spike death caused by cold injury. In barley, the elongation of spike was stopped on 3.2cm after occurrence of spike degeneration, 4.7cm after occurrence of partial degeneration of spike, 5.0cm after occurrence of white spike. In wheat, it was stopped on 1.6cm after occurrence of stem death, 3.3cm after occurrence of spike degeneration, 8.3cm after occurrence of partial degeneration of spike, 8.1cm after occurrence of white spike, 7.5cm after partial discoloration of leaf and 9.3cm after partial discoloration of spike. The obtained results from low temperature treatment induced in growth chamber were similar to the field experiment, Beacuse the death of spikes was more when low temperature was treated two times than one times, the temperature should be upgrade to -3
in order to get the same condition with field test.
Effect of Interillage and Muddying by Free-Ranging Ducks on pH and Dissolved Oxygen of Stagnant Water, and Soil Physicochemical Properties in Paddy field Soil
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 262~266
The present study was carried out to investigate the relationships among intertillage and muddying by free-ranging ducks (Chinese native ducks) and pH, dissolved oxygen of irrigation water, and physicochemical properties of soil. Two paddy fields comprised of the muddying (muddy water without physical stimulation to a rice plant by the ducks) and the control plots (no ducks) were used for this study. As a muddying plot, 50 hills were randomly selected and each hill was fenced with a wire net in order to prevent from stimulating physically by the ducks. The variation in irrigation pH was smaller in the muddying plot than the control plot, and the pH was around 7.4. Dissolved oxygen was significantly higher (P＜0.01) in the muddying plot than the control plot during the first half period after the ducks were introduced. Then it decreased rapidly as the rice plants grew in all plots. The contents of the suspended soil and turbidity in irrigation water were not changed over the free-ranging period, but
were decreased by intertillage and muddying by the ducks. There were no differences in both the soil physics and chemistry between the muddying plot and the control plot during and after finishing of the free-ranging period. These results indicate that intertillage and muddying by the ducks resulted in a small variation in stagnant water pH, and reduced the dissolved oxygen and
, although the physiochemical properties of soil were not changed.
Germinability and Physiological Properties of Maize Seeds Affected by Matriconditioning
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 267~275
To observe the effects of seed matriconditioning on the emergence, plumule growth, and seed physiological properties of normal and aged seeds of three corn(Zea mays L.) genotypes (dent, sugary, and shrunken-2), normal and artificially aged seeds were matriconditioned at 50, 75, 100, and 125% moisture contents of vermiculite at
for 24 hours and the germinability was examined at
and in cold test (7 days at 1
). Emergence rate, emergence speed, and plumule growth were smaller in the order of dent＞sugary＞shrunken-2. Matriconditioning did not affect the emergence rate of normal dent and sugary seeds, while it enhanced emergence speed and plumule growth. In contrast, the emergence rate, emergence speed, and plumule growth of normal shrunken-2 and aged seeds of all genotypes were enhanced as the moisture content of vermiculite increased up to 125% both at
and in cold test. Matriconditioning promoted
-amylase activity and DNA and soluble protein contents, while it reduced the leakage of total sugars and electrolytes from the seeds when soaked in water.
Difference of Major Characters by Spring Sowing of Forage Rape
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 276~280
To select the most suitable variety of forage rape for growth in the southern part of Korea, Seven introduced varieties were grown from Mar, 1999 to August 2000. Velox was shown to have the highest dry matter yield in comparison to other varieties used in this experiment. It showed relatively high content of crude protein and in virto dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and low content of NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin. Therefore, it was concluded that Velox was the most suitable variety with high yield and high nutrient quality for spring in the southern part of Korea. The heritabilities of all the observed characters were estimated to be high.