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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 48, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 48, Issue 5 - Dec 2003
Volume 48 - Dec 2003
Volume 48, Issue 4 - Sep 2003
Volume 48, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 48, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Selecting the target year
Changes of Endogenous Gibberellins in Tubers of Chinese Yam(Dioscorea opposita) during Storage Period
Lee, In-Jung ; Kim, Sang-Kuk ; Lee, Sang-Chul ; Lee, Bong-Ho ; Jeong, Hyung-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 281~285
For storage periods of tubers in Chinese yam, the levels of
was constant, meanwhile both
level were always higher than that of
content as precursor of
was not changed during storage.
content was low to below 0.2 ng for 90 days after storage,
content as precursor of
was about 6-8 fold higher than that of
during storage. GA contents of the two gibberellin biosynthetic pathways were gradually increased when storage periods were progressed. Bioactive GA
content as the GA members of an early C-13 hydroxylation was always constant, and its content was very low as below 0.1ng per dry weight, meanwhile, bioactive
content as the GA members of non C-13 hydroxylation was drastically increased, also, its content was highest at 90 days after storage, and then decreased at 120 days after storage. Consequently, we suggest that
may be involved in controlling tuber sprouting in Chinese yam.
Effective Herbicides for Control of Sulfonylurea-Resistant Monochoria vaginalis in Paddy Field
Kuk, Yong-In ; Kwon, Oh-Do ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 286~291
Monochoria vaginalis is one of the most troublesome resistant weeds in Korean rice culture. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the response of M. vaginalis resistant to sulfonylurea(SU) herbicides and to determine alternative herbicides for the control of resistant M. vaginalis in direct seeded and transplanted rice culture in Korea. In greenhouse studies, the resistant biotype was 31-, 38-, 3172-, and 7-fold more resistant to ben-sulfuron-methyl, cyclosulfamuron, imazosulfuron, and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, respectively, than the susceptible biotype, indicating cross-resistance to the SU herbicides used in this study. Non-SU herbicides, butachlor, carfentrazone-ethyl, mefenacet, pretilachlor, pyrazolate, and thiobencarb, several SU herbicide-based mixtures, ethoxysulfuron plus fentrazamide, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl plus pyrazolate plus simetryn, and non-SU herbicide-based mixtures, pyrazolate plus butachlor, pyrazolate plus pretilachlor, simetryn plus molinate, carfentrazone-ethyl plus butachlor, and carfentrazone-ethyl plus thiobencarb can be used to control both the resistant and susceptible biotypes of M. vaginalis when applied before the second leaf stage. In the field experiment, the resistant biotype of M. vaginalis that survived from the paddy fields treated with a SU herbicide-based mixture could effectively be controlled by using mixtures of bentazone plus MCPA, bentazone plus mecoprop-P, and bentazone plus 2,4-D when applied at 2 or 4 main leaves. Our results suggest that the SU-resistant M. vaginalis had not developed multiple resistances to herbicides with different modes of action. In particular, bentazone plus MCPA and bentazone plus mecoprop-P were effective control measures after failure to control resistant M. vaginalis in Korean rice culture.
Effect of Fluorescent Light Treatment during Imbibition and Culture on Growth of Soybean Sprout
Kang, Jin-Ho ; Park, A-Jung ; Jeon, Byung-Sam ; Yoon, Soo-Young ; Lee, Sang-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 292~296
The lateral root formation in soybean sprout culture declines its quality. This study was done to measure the effect of fluorescent light treatment during 24 hour imbibition and 6-day culture on seed germination and growth of soybean sprout. After 6 day culture, the sprouts were sorted as normal (＞4cm), abnormal (＜4cm) and non-germination by their hypocotyl lengths, and lateral roots, fresh and dry weights were measured. Lateral roots were less formed in the fluorescent light treatment lasted during the whole period of the imbibition than in the treatment for 50 minutes a day during the culture. The fluorescent light treatment during the imbibition mainly affected the germination and growth compared to the treatment done during the culture. Compared to the dark imbibition, the light treatment during the imbibition resulted in more normal sprouts, thicker diameters of hypocotyl and hook, and more fresh weights in cotyledon, hypocotyl, whole sprout, and economic yield. However, these results were reverse in lengths of hypocotyl and root, and fresh and dry weights of roots. It is concluded that the fluorescent lamp mainly irradiating red and blue lights can be used for the sprout production as an alternative light replacing blue and red lights treated during the imbibition because it blocked the lateral root appearance and stimulated growth of the sprout.
Construction of Genetic Linkage Map for Korean Soybean Genotypes using Molecular Markers
Jong Il Chung ; Ye Jin Cho ; Dae Jin Park ; Sung Jin Han ; Ju Ho Oh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 297~302
Genetic linkage maps serve the plant geneticist in a number of ways, from marker assisted selection in plant improvement to map-based cloning in molecular genetic research. Genetic map based upon DNA polymorphism is a powerful tool for the study of qualitative and quantitative traits in crops. The objective of this study was to develop genetic linkage map of soybean using the population derived from the cross of Korean soybean cultivar 'Kwangkyo, and wild accession 'IT182305'. Total 1,000 Operon random primers for RAPD marker, 49 combinations of primer for AFLP marker, and 100 Satt primers for SSR marker were used to screen parental polymorphism. Total 341 markers (242 RAPD, 83 AFLP, and 16 SSR markers) was segregated in 85
population. Forty two markers that shown significantly distorted segregation ratio (1:2:1 for codominant or 3:1 for domimant marker) were not used in mapping procedure. A linkage map was constructed by applying the computer program MAPMAKER/EXP 3.0 to the 299 marker data with LOD 4.0 and maximum distance 50 cM. 176 markers were found to be genetically linked and formed 25 linkage groups. Linkage map spanned 2,292.7 cM across all 25 linkage groups. The average linkage distance between pair of markers among all linkage groups was 13.0 cM. The number of markers per linkage group ranged from 2 to 55. The longest linkage group 3 spanned 967.4 cM with 55 makers. This map requires further saturation with more markers and agronomically important traits will be joined over it.
Assessment of Allelopathic Potential and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extracts from Three Compositae Plants
Chon, Sang-Uk ; Park, Seong-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 303~307
Some Compositae plants are known to contain biologically active substances that are allelopathic to weeds species as well as antioxidant to foods. Aqueous extracts from leaves of 3 plant species, Cirsium japonica, Kalimeris yomena, and Lactuca saliva, were bioassayed against alfalfa (Medicago saliva) to determine their allelopathic effects. The extracts applied on filter paper in bioassay significantly inhibited root growth of alfalfa. Extracts of 20 g dry tissue
from Lactuca sativa showed the most inhibitory effect on alfalfa seedling growth and followed by Cirsium japonica and Kalimeris yomena. Oxidative stability by Rancimat method and antioxidant activity by TBA method for the ground samples were the greatest in Lactuca sativa although were less than that of a commonly used antioxidant, 1% ascorbic acid. Antioxidant activity of methanol extracts on storing meat was stably kept for 28days and was excellent compared to control. These results suggest that three Compositae plants have potent allelopathic and antioxidant effects, and that their activities differ, depending on plant species.
Nitrogen fixation, and growth characteristics of Three Legume cover crops in no-tillage paddy field
Cho, Young-Son ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 308~315
A field experiment was conducted to investigate the performance of three legume species in a zero-tillage, non-fertilized rice field in a temperate zone. Before the experiment for 5 years, from 1995 to 1999, plant growth patterns of three legume species grown as over-wintering (October-May) cover crops on a paddy field were maintained to study N balance and
fixation. Decrease in plant density accelerated from after winter to flowering from 1,090, 320, and 5 to 732, 232, and 6 plants
in Chinese milk vetch (CMV), white clover (WC), and hairy vetch (HV), respectively. Total dry weights of plants above-ground level were 0.05, 0.11, and 2.43 g
. in WC, CMV and HV respectively but steeply increased at ripening up to 0.77, 2.33, and 26 g
. The root dry weight of HV and CMV rapidly increased while in WC, root dry weight increased slightly towards flowering. The highest nodule numbers were recorded in CMV to April thereafter WC produced the highest. Nodule size was distributed within 7mm in CMV but it was larger in HV varying from 1 to 10mm. Shoot N (g
) greatly increased from over-wintering to flowering in CMV, HV and WC and it ranged from 1.66, 0.5 and 1.92 to 12.6, 3.1 and 13.02 g
, respectively. After wintering, the initial shoot N content (%) was more in CMV. Root N content (%) was constant or slightly decreased in HV and WC. Soil total N in the control plot (clean fallow) was the highest on Mar. 2 then decreased rapidly to flowering. Soil N content was constant in HV plots whereas it was low in WC plots for the entire growth period except just after winter. Maximum nitrogenase activities were 9, 37.8, and 131 mol
. in CMV, HV, and WC, respectively. Nitrogenase activity showed a direct correlation with nodule number, size and fresh weight. As a cover crop preceding a rice crop, CMV is more suited to colder regions due to its earlier ripening characteristics. Hairy vetch and WC are recommended for regions with a mild winter and a long summer owing to their late ripening and great N fixation activity.
Comparison of Breeding and Cultural Contribution to Yield Gains of Korean Rice
Song, Moon-Tae ; Heu, Mun-Hue ; Moon, Huhn-Pal ; Kang, Yang-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 316~321
Analysis of breeding gains in grain yield has been intensively conducted in wheat, barley, oat, maize, and soybean. Such information is limited in rice. The objective of this study was to compare the breeding gains and cultural gains contributed to yield gains of Korean rice varieties since early 1900s. Two sets of yield data were used for analysis; the historical yield data of 1908 for old japonica cultivars, and present yield data in the years from 1996 to 1998 for the six cultivars, consisting of previous two old cultivars and four contemporary cultivars. The old cultivars were two native cultivars, Jodongi and Damageum, while contemporary cultivars were two premium quality japonica cultivars, Hwaseongbyeo and Dongjinbyeo, and two Tongil-type cultivars, high yielding cultivars developed from indica/japonica hybridization, Milyang23 and Dasanbyeo. The yield differences of old cultivars between the experiments in 1908 and the experiments from 1996 to 1998 were estimated as cultural gains (1.84 tons
) due to the improvement of cultivation technology. Yield differences between the old cultivars and contemporary cultivars were considered total yield gains during the periods. These were 2.51 tons
for japonica cultivars and 3.81 tons
for Tongil-type cultivars. From these data, the genetic gain of 0.67 tons
and 1.97 tons
were estimated for japonica cultivars and Tongil-type cultivars respectively. The ratio between cultural gain and genetic gain appeared to be 2.7:1 for japonica cultivars and 1:1 for Tongil-type cultivars. This analysis clearly showed the higher genetic contribution in Tongil-type cultivars than in japonica cultivars, suggesting a guideline to be used when planning new yield improvement programs. Additional implication has emerged when a better yield response to modem cultivation technology was found in one of the old cultivars, suggesting the combined improvement between breeding and cultural improvement is necessary for attaining the maximum yield capacity of a crop.
Effect of Controlled Hydration on Germination of Tobacco Seeds
Min, Tai-Gi ; Yoon, Hyo-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 322~325
Controlled hydration treatment of tobacco seeds enhanced seed performance greatly without additional materials associated with conventional osmotic or solid matrix priming technique. The seeds were hydrated by adding water to a level from 10 to 60% by 5% increments and incubated for 8 days at
. After the treatment, the seeds were dried to the original seed moisture content under
for 72 hours. The moisture content of tobacco seeds equivalent to 35% by the hydration treatment gave the greatest improvement in germination rate and speed compared to untreated or polyethylene glycol (PEG) primed seeds, especially at low temperature of
Growth and Yield Response of Transgenic Rice Plants Expressing Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Gene from Bacillus subtilis
Kuk, Yong-In ; Chung, Jung-Sung ; Sunyo Jung ; Kyoungwhan Back ; Kim, Han-Yong ; Guh, Ja-Ock ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 326~333
Transgenic rice plants expressing a Bacillus subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox), the last shared enzyme of the porphyrin pathway in the expressed cytoplasm or the plastids, were compared with non-trangenic rice plants in their growth characteristics such as tiller number, plant height, biomass, and yield. Transgenic rice plants of
generation had 8 to 15 % and 25 to 43% increases in tiller number compared to non-transgenic rice plants at 4 and 8 weeks after transplanting(WAT); similar values were observed for
generation at 4 and 8 WAT. However, the plant height in both
generations was similar between transgenic rice plants and non-transgenic rice plants at 4 and 8 WAT. Transgenic rice plants had 13 to 32% increase in above-ground biomass and 9 to 28% increase in grain yield compared to non-transgenic rice plants, demonstrating that biomass and yield correlate with each other. The increased grain yield of the transgenic rice plants was closely associated with the increased panicle number per plant. The percent of filled grain, thousand grains and spikelet number per panicle were similar between transgenic and non-transgenic rice plants. Generally, the growth and yield of transgenic generations (
) and gene expressing sites (cytoplasm-expressed and plastid-targeted transgenic rice plants) were similar, although they slightly varied with generations as well as with gene expressing sites. The transgenic rice plants had promotive effects, indicating that regulation of the porphyrin pathway by expression of B. subtilis Protox in rice influences plant growth and yield.
Alterations in Seed Vigour and Viability of Soybean Related with Accelerated Seed Aging and Low Dose Gamma Irradiation
Hwangbo, Jun-Kwon ; Kim, Jae-Sung ; Lim, Ji-Hyeok ; Baek, Myung-Hwa ; Chung, Byung-Yeoup ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 334~338
The objective of this study was to demonstrate whether or not the deleterious effects of accelerated aging on seed vigour and viability are alleviated by interaction with gamma irradiation. Seeds of soybean (Glycine max L.) were artificially aged and subsequently irradiated with 4 and 8 Gy of gamma irradiation. Germination rate was negatively affected by accelerated aging and positively by gamma irradiation, with a positive interaction of a 3day-seed aging treatment occurring with 4 Gy, possibly suggesting that 4 Gy of gamma irradiation partially offset the adverse effects of seed aging on germination. However, 5-day aged seeds did not gain any benefits from the gamma irradiation. Electrolyte leakage from the seeds increased with the duration in days aged. Irradiation, however, did not impose any effects on the leakage. Respiration rate of the seed with hypocotyl and primary root was significantly low for the aged seeds, but not for the seeds with both irradiation and aging treatments. Accelerated aging decreased the dry weight of the hypocotyl and primary root of the seeds without any measurable effects of irradiation.
-Amylase activity decreased with seed aging and positively responded to gamma irradiation. The data is discussed with regard to the possible roles of gamma irradiation for improving the seed vigour and viability of aged seeds.
Evaluation and classification of selected rice varieties for salinity tolerance at seedling stage
Lee, Seung-Yeob ; Ahn, Jeong-Ho ; Kwon, Tae-Oh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 339~344
To identify the new source of breeding materials for rice salt tolerance, the salinity tolerance of thirty-four varieties was evaluated under 0.5% saline condition at seedling stage. The salinity score showed highly significant correlations to dry weight and dead leaf ratio. The tested varieties were classified into three groups by visual score, reduction ratio of dry weight, and dead leaf ratio. Eighteen varieties were classified as the highly tolerant group (salinity scores of 1.3-3.7), seven varieties were fallen into the tolerant group (salinity scores of 4.2-5.8), and others were susceptible (salinity scores of 6.7-9.0). In highly tolerant group, most indica varieties including Getu, Dikwee and Kuatic Putic, didn't exsert a panicle under the Korean climate. But six varieties, Xiangcho V, Annapuruna, HP 3319-2wx-6-3-1, Giza 175, and GZ 2447-S-17, GZ 4255-6-3 were suitable to the Korean climate, and their heading date (6-16, August) and culm length (65-78㎝) were similar to the Korean varieties. Accordingly, these varieties can be utilized as crossing materials for the salt tolerance in japonica rice.
An Assessment of Allelopathic Potential of Korean Black Soybean Plant Parts
Chon, Sang-Uk ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 345~350
A series of aqueous extracts and residues from leaves, stems, roots, pods and seeds of Korean black soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) were assayed against alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) to determine their allelopathic activities through petri-dish and greenhouse experiments, and the results showed highest inhibition in the extracts or residues from the seeds, and followed by pods. The extracts of 40g dry tissue
applied on filter paper in petri-dish bioassay significantly inhibited root growth of alfalfa, and especially extracts from seeds and pods reduced root length of alfalfa more than those from leaves, stems, or roots. Plant height, root length, shoot and root dry weights of barnyard grass were reduced significantly by residue incorporation of seeds and pods as the incorporated amount increased. These results suggest that black soybean plants had herbicidal potential, and their activities were exhibited differently depending on plant parts.