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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 48, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 48, Issue 5 - Dec 2003
Volume 48 - Dec 2003
Volume 48, Issue 4 - Sep 2003
Volume 48, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 48, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Selecting the target year
Weed Occurrence, Rice Growth, and Soil Temperature as Affected by Different Biodegradable Mulching Materials in Wet Seeded Rice
Yang, Woon-Ho ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Kim, Je-Kyu ; Han, Hee-Suk ; Shin, Jeong-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 1, 2003, Pages 1~7
In spite water direct seeding cultivation of rice has advantages in terms of laborsaving and cost-down, it demonstrates uneven seedling establishment and difficult weed management. To select an applicable mat for mulching system of water seeded rice, weed occurrence, growth and yield performances of rice, and soil temperature were evaluated in several kinds of biodegradable mulching material. Field studies were conducted at the experimental farm of National Crop Experiment Station in 1999 and 2000. Among the mats tested in 1999, Safer-mat had the greatest effect on inhibiting weed occurrence and Lawn-mat demonstrated the least efficacy of weed control (EWC) value. In Safer-mat treatment, Ludwigia prostrata was the dominant weed species but Echinochloa crus-galli was not observed. Different kinds of mulching material from the mats studied in 1999 were tested in 2000. Biodegradable polyester (PES) coated on the recycled paper for newspaper press (RP) treatments showed similar or higher EWC values than non-mulched broadcast seed rice with 2 times of herbicide application (BC-herbicide) and Safer-mat that was the most effective mat on preventing weed appearance in 1999. Immediately after mat mulching on the surface of paddy soil, five pregerminated rice seeds were manually sown in each 3cm-hole formerly punctured at 30
14 cm spacing in 2000. All the 3 kinds of mulching material tested in 2000 had better seedling stand than BC-herbicide treatment. Rice yield in PES coated with 10 thickness on RP (PES10
＋RP) was a little higher than in BC-herbicide treatment but the former produced less panicles in unit land area than the latter. PES10
＋RP demonstrated a great effect on raising soil surface temperature than non-mulching treatment throughout the period of seedling establishment.
Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Cereal Grains
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, 2003, Pages 1~12
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that exists in eight different forms, which are
tocotrienol. Tocopherols and tocotrienols are important antioxidant in foods, feeds and their raw materials, where they scavenge lipid radicals. Each form has its own biological activity, the measure of potency or functional use in the body. Antioxidants such as vitamin E act to protect cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of the body's metabolism. Free radicals can cause cell dam-age that may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer, The content of tocopherols and tocotrienols vary depending on the environmental condition such as growing regions, temperature, crops and varieties. This report deals with chemical and physical properties and extends to their nutritional and health effect on the tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereal grains.
Relationship between Pod Development and Endogenous Cytokinin Content of the Floral Organ in Peanut
Cheong, Young-Keun ; Doo, Hong-Soo ; Park, Ki-Hun ; Cho, Sang-Kyun ; Ryu, Jeom-Ho ; Lee, Moon-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 1, 2003, Pages 8~12
To find out the relationship between pod development and cytokinin contents during reproductive stage of peanut, the cytokinin contents, trans-zeatin ribo-side (t-ZR) and dihydrozeatin riboside (diZR), were investigated at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after flowering (DAF). The amounts of t-ZR and diZR in cotyledon and first branch among primary branches were 3, 448 pmol/g (FW) and 4, 824 p/g (FW), respectively, which were higher than those of other branches. The t-ZR and diZR contents of lower parts on the branch from cotyledon node at 7 DAF were 579 pmol/g (FW) and 2, 028 pmol/g (FW), respectively, which were higher than those of upper parts. The cytokinin contents of reproductive organs as flowering progressed were increased at 0 and 14 DAF on branch and position of node. The cytokinin contents of upper part with pruning the lower part on the branch from cotyledon node were high 112-337% at 7 DAF and 14 DAF compared with those of the control. In case of remove the upper part of the first internode on main axis, t-ZR contents was 4.7 times higher than diZR contents at 7 DAF. The pod setting rate of flower and position on the branch from cotyledon node was closely related to the cytokinin contents during floral reproductive stage.
Enhancement of Seed Germination by Aging, Cold-stratification, and Light Quality during Desiccation in Burcucumber (Sicyos Angulatus L.)
Kang, Jin-Ho ; Jeon, Byong-Sam ; Lee, Sang-Woo ; Choe, Zhin-Ryong ; Shim, Sang-In ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 1, 2003, Pages 13~16
Seeds of burcucumber were treated with accelerated aging, cold-stratification, and light quality illuminated during desiccation to enhance their germination and seedling emergence. The germination was increased by aging and cold-stratification although the latter treatment showed greater effectiveness than the former one. In the combined treatment of aging 6 days at
and cold-stratification, the germination was promoted under longer period of cold-stratification to reach nearly 100% in 3 week cold-stratification on the ninth day from sowing. In the sequentially combined treatment of aging, cold-stratification, and light quality during 24 hour desiccation at
, no-stratified seeds showed the highest rate in red light treatment but the lowest in far-red light. This implies that the phytochrome action run during the desiccation of imbibed seeds. The red light exposure during drying for the cold-stratified seeds after aging accelerated the germination even more than the dark treatment and germinated 100% on the next day of sowing. It is concluded that the sequential treatment of aging, cold-stratification, and red light illumination during desiccation can highly promote percentage and speed of burcucumber seed germination.
Review on the Selenuium, an Essential Trace Mineral
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, 2003, Pages 13~23
The trace mineral, selenium (Se), is an essential nutrient of fundamental importance to human health. It is also very toxic and can cause Se poisoning (selenosis) in human and animals when its intake exceeds a suitable amount. Se functions within mammalian systems primarily in the form of solenoprotein. About 35 selenoproteins have been identified, though many have not yet been fully elucidated. Selenoproteins contain Se as selenocyseine (Sec) and perform variety of structural and enzymic roles; the enzymic roles are best-known as the antioxidants for hydrogen peroxides and lipid peroxides, and the catalysts for production of activity thyroid hormone. Glutathione peroxidases (
) among the selenoproteins prevent the generation of free radicals and decrease the risk of oxidative damage to tissues, as does thioredoxin reductase (TR). TR also provides reducing power for several biochemical processes. Selenoproteins P and W are involved with oxidant defense in plasma and muscle, respectively, A selenoprotein is also required for sperm motility and may reduce the risk of miscarriage. Some epidemiological studies have revealed an inverse correlation between Se status and cardiovascular disease, and there is considerable evidence 1mm population com-parison data and animal studies that Se is anticarcinogenic. It is also suggested that Se should be needed for the proper functioning of the immune system, and appear to be a key nutrient in counteracting the development of virulence and inhibiting HIV progression to AIDS. As research continues, the role of selenium in the etiology of chronic diseases like appropriate medical nutrition therapy can be delivered and its effectiveness assessed. Se status in individuals is affected by diet and the availability of the Se. The Se content of plants is affected by the content and availability of the element in the soil in which they are grown, and so greatly varies from country to country, while the Se composition of meat reflects the feeding patterns of livestock. This paper provides an overview on Se as an essential trace mineral for human.
Screening of Insecticide to Control Rhophalosiphum nymphaeae for Alisma plantago as Second Crop in Paddy Field
Kwon, Byung-Sun ; Lim, June-Taeg ; Shin, Jeong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 1, 2003, Pages 17~19
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides on insect pest control of Rhophalosiphum nymphaeae, growth characteristies and dry root yield from the cultivated after early maturing rice cropping. All pesticides treated had no effect on the growh period, flowering rate of Alisma plantago. The major pesticides were methomyl-Lf, 24.1 %, imidacloprid-Wp, 10%, carbosulfan-Wp, 20%, and methomyl-Wp, 45%. Dry yield of root were increased largely with imidacloprid-Wp, 10% (10g/20
), pesticide than the other pesticides and control. All pesticides were had no injury with recommended concentration. On the other hand all pesticides were slightly harmful in the double dosage level for the Alisma plantago.
Proline Accumulation and P5CS (
-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase) Gene Expression in Response to Salt Stress in Zoysiagrasses
Lee, Dong-Joon ; Hwang, Cheol-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 1, 2003, Pages 20~24
Proline is known as an osmotrotectant to enhance tolerance against both salt and dehydration stresses. A P5CS (
-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase) plays a major role in regulation of synthesis of proline. An overexpression of the mothbean P5CS gene in transgenic tobacco plant increased the levels of proline and osmotolerance. In an attempt to look for the possibility to use content of proline as well as a level of P5CS gene expression as molecular markers for salt tolerance, the amounts of proline and transcript levels of P5CS were measured as functions of either concentration of NaCl or length of treatment period among different species of zoysiagrass. Hybridzoysia showed the highest level of proline (
/g.f.w.) among five different species of zoysiagrass at 250 mM NaCl in 24 hours. The level of P5CS transcript was also the highest in the hybridzoysia at 250 mM NaCl in 24 hours. The transcriptions of P5CS gene were induced at the rates of 1.2, 1.2, 1.8, and 1.8, upon treatment of 250 mM NaCl in Z. japonica, Z. matrella, Z. sinica and hybridzoysia respectively. Based on a correlation between the level of P5CS transcript and the proline content among different species of zoysiagrass, a comparative structural analysis of the gene for P5CS from either Z. sinica or hybridzoysia may lead to an understanding of mechanism for salt tolerance shown differently among zoysiagrasses.
Biological Activities of Phytosterols and Their Variations in Crops
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, 2003, Pages 24~30
Plant fats and oils contain phytosterols as naturally occurring constituents, which are present in pure or esterified form, or conjugated as glycosides. The predominant phytosterol is sitosterol and minor components are campesterol, stigmasterol,
-avenasterol and brassicasterol. They play a key role in cell membrane function of plants as cholesterol in animals. Phytosterols have been known for many years for their properties for reducing blood cholesterol levels, as well as their other beneficial health effects for cancer preventive biological-active substances. The objective of this paper is to present a description of the recent advances in phytosterols for future research.
Varietal Difference of Dry Matter Production and Photosynthetic of Middle and Lower Leaves in Soybean
Cho, Jin-Woong ; Kim, Choong-Soo ; So, Jung D. ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 1, 2003, Pages 25~30
This research was conducted to compare the dry matter production and the yield productivity among nine soybean cultivars by measuring the photosynthetic ability of the middle and lower leaves at the flowering and the seed development stages. The leaf greenness(SPAD value) were ranged as 32-42 at the flowering stage. Also, They were ranged as 25-40 and 38-51 at the fifth leaf and the seventh leaf, respectively. The photosynthetic ability at the flowering and the seed development stage showed significant differences among soybean cultivars, and the photosynthetic ability at the seed development stage showed higher difference among cultivars than the flowering stage. The variation of the photosynthetic ability at the flowering and the seed development stage also was significant among cultivars. The light saturation point at the flowering stage was about 1500
PAR, and the seed development stage was about 1000
PAR. The photosynthesis showed the high negative correlation with the leaf area and the positive correlation with the leaf area ratio. Also, photosynthesis at seed development stage showed positive correlation with grain yields but there was not significant between photosynthesis and yields at flowering stage..
Genetic Distance of Allium Section Cepa by DNA Fingerprint
Kim, Haeng-Hoon ; Cho, Eun-Gi ; Baek, Hyung-Jin ; Kim, Chang-Yung ; Chae, Young-Am ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 1, 2003, Pages 31~37
Identification of compatible parental line is of great importance in introduction of useful characters to onion breeding program, beyond the severe hybridization barrier. Phylogenic analysis of Allium section Cepa was conducted through PCR by URPs, repeated sequences of A. fistulosum, and microsatellite markers. Totally 76 accessions originated from 21 countries were clustered into five groups at a 0.84-similarity level: group I;A. cepa and its wild relatives and A. cepa ssp. ascalonicum, group II; A. cepa ssp. wakegii, A. cepa ssp. proliferum and Samcheung-pa group III; A. fistulosum and A. altaicum, group IV; A. galanthum, group V; Soeckkori-pa. Samcheung-pa and Soekkori-pa, Korean local varieties, shared band type of both Cepa group and Altaicum group, indicating that those are derived from interspecific hybridization between A. fistulosum and A. cepa.
Biological Activities of Phytoestrogens in Plant and Foodstuff
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, 2003, Pages 31~40
Phytoestrogens are oestrogenic compounds found in plants and consist of isoflavones, lignans, and coumestans. The structural similarity of phytoestrogens to endogenous oestrogens has promoted the hypothesis that phytoestrogens exert hormonal or anti-hormonal effects relevant to the risk of hormone-dependent disease and/or their suitability as a dietary alternative to hormone replacement therapy. Epidemiological studies suggest that food stuffs containing phytoestrogens may have a beneficial role in protecting against a number of chronic disease and conditions. It is thought that these estrogen-like compounds may protect against chronic diseases, such as hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Furthermore, phytoestrogens are used as a natural alternative to hormone replacement therapy and to reduce menopausal symptoms. Phytoestrogens are considered good candidates for use in natural therapies and as chemopreventive agents in adults. However safe and efficacious levels have yet to be established
Efficient Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Immature and Mature Embryo Culture of Korean Wheat Genotypes
Lee, Byung-Moo ; Moon, Jung-Hun ; Lee, Sang-Kyu ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Kang, Moon-Seok ; Heo, Hwa-Young ; Kwon, Young-Up ; Nam, Jung-Hyun ; Seo, Yong-Weon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 1, 2003, Pages 38~43
Immature and mature embryos of 18 Korean wheat genotypes were cultured in vitro to develop an efficient method of callus formation and plant regeneration, and to compare the responses of both embryo cultures. Immature and mature embryos were placed on a solid agar medium containing the MS salts and vitamins, 30g/l maltose, 2 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and amino acids. The developed calli were maintained on regeneration medium containing MS salts and B5 vitamins, 20 g/l sucrose, and the combination of two plant growth regulators, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Immature embryos in most genotypes showed high efficiency of callus induction except three genotypes; Eunpamil, Chunggemil, and Namhaemil, and significant differences among the genotypes. Plant regeneration of calli induced from immature embryos showed high efficiency in Geurumil (56.5%), Tapdongmil (50.5%), Gobunmil (45.5%), and Urimil(42.2%). The analysis of variance showed significant differences for regeneration frequency among the genotypes. Mature embryos showed low callus induction frequency compared with that in immature embryos, and significant differences among the genotypes. Plant regeneration of calli induced from mature embryos showed high efficiency in Keumkangmil (33.33%), Tapdongmil(28.13%), and Geurumil (27.78%). The analysis of variance showed significant differences for plant regeneration frequency among the genotypes.
Review of Functional Volatile Component in Essential Oil of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, 2003, Pages 41~48
The number of natural products obtained from plants has now reached over 100,000 and new chemical compounds are being discovered ever year. Medicinal and Aromatic plants and their extracts have been used for centuries to relieve pain, aid healing, kill bacteria and insects are important as the antifungal and anti-herbivore agents with further compounds being involved in the symbiotic associations. Although their functions in plants have not been fully established, it is Known that some substances have growth regulatory properties while others are involved in pollination and seed dispersal. The complex nature of these chemicals are usually produced in various types of secretory structures which is an important character of a plant family and also influenced and controlled by genetic and ecological factors. Detailed anatomical description of these structures ave relevant to the market value of the plants, the verification of authenticity of a given species and for the detection of substitution or adulteration. Volatile oils are used for their therapeutic action for flavoring of lemon, in perfumery of rose or as starting materials for the synthesis of other compounds of turpentine. For therapeutic purposes they are administered as inhalations of eucalyptus oil, peppermint oil, as gargles and mouthwashes of thymol and transdermally many essential oils including those of lavender, etc. With these current trend for using volatile components in essential oil will be increasing in the future in Korea and in the world as well.
Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Grain Fill in vitro Culture of Rice Panicle
Lee, Seung-Hun ; Lee, Ho-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 1, 2003, Pages 44~49
In vitro culture of panicle has been the method to accumulate starch and protein in immature grains by providing nutrients after florets crossed between remote genotypes artificially. Grain filling means embryo development and sucrose translocation from photosynthetic source, and starch manufacture in endosperm. The concentrations of sucrose used to culture immature rice panicle were 5, 10, 15, 20% and glutamine was 20 mM. When immature rice panicles at 5 days after flowering were cultured in distilled water with different concentrations of sucrose, glutamine 20 mM and MS medium with different concentrations of sucrose, glutamine 20 mM for 30 days the later was effective on grain filling. The optimal concentration of sucrose on grain filling in vitro culture of rice panicle was 10% and the weight of grain cultured was 10.14 mg that was corresponded to 57% of intact plant. In the method of treating plant growth regulators, the culture of immature rice panicle adding in MS medium with Kinetin, IAA,
were effective on grain filling than the culturing of immature rice panicle after submerging in solutions of Kinetin, IAA,
for 1day. When immature rice panicle was cultured in MS medium with sucrose 10% and Kinetin 46.47
M it was effective on grain filling, respectively. The weight of grain cultured was 13.1mg that was corresponded to 75% of intact and germination rate was 51 %. When immature rice panicles were cultured in medium with different concentrations combined with Kinetin 4.65, 46.47, 464.7
, IAA 5.71, 57.08, 570.80
for 30 days and in medium with IAA 5.71, 57.08, 570.80
for 15 days after culturing in medium with Kinetin 4.65, 46.47, 464.70
for 15 days the effect on grain filling was similar.
Biological Activities of Soyasaponins and Their Genetic and Environmental Variations in Soybean
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, 2003, Pages 49~57
There is much evidence suggesting that compounds present in soybean can prevent cancer in many different organ systems. Especially, soybean is one of the most important source of dietary saponins, which have been considered as possible anticarcinogens to inhibit tumor development and major active components contributing to the cholesterol-towering effect. Also they were reported to inhibit of the infectivity of the AIDS virus (HIV) and the Epstein-Barr virus. The biological activity of saponins depend on their specific chemical structures. Various types of triterpenoid saponins are present in soy-bean seeds. Among them, group B soyasaponis were found as the primary soyasaponins present in soybean, and th e 2, 3-dihydro-2, 5-dihydroxy-6- methyl-4H-pyran-4-one(DDMP)-conjugated soyasaponin
a were the genuine group B saponins, which have health benefits. On the other hand, group A saponins are responsible for the undesirable bitter and astringent taste in soybean. The variation of saponin composition in soybean seeds is explained by different combinations of 9 alleles of 4 gene loci that control the utilization of soyasapogenol glycosides as substrates. The mode of inheritance of saponin types is explained by a combination of co-dominant, dominant and recessive acting genes. The funtion of theses genes is variety-specific and organ specific. Therefore distribution of various saponins types was different according to seed tissues. Soyasaponin
was detected in both parts whereas
a was detected only in hypocotyls and cotyledons, respectively. Soyasaponins
were minor saponin constituents in soybean. In case group A saponins were mostly detected in hypocotyls. Also, the total soyasaponin contents varied among different soy-bean varieties and concentrations in the cultivated soy-beans were 2-fold lower than in the wild soybeans. But the contents of soyasaponin were not so influenced by environmental effects. The composition and concentration of soyasaponins were different among the soy products (soybean flour, soycurd, tempeh, soymilk, etc.) depending on the processing conditions.
Herbicidal Activity of
-aminolevulinic Acid on Several Plants as Affected by Application Methods
Chon, Sang-Uk ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 1, 2003, Pages 50~55
Herbicidal activity of
-aminolevulinic acid(ALA), an intermediate for the biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles such as chlorophyll, heme, bacteriochlorophyll, and vitamin
analogues, was examined to determine the variation in phytotoxic potential against different plant species as affected by different application methods. Seed-soaking treatment, ALA at low concentrations did not affect shoot and root lengths of test plants while at highest concentration reduced them by 20 to 30%. Alfalfa showed the most tolerant response to ALA in both pre- and post-emergence application, and followed by rice. When applied with pre-emergence, cotyledons of Chinese cabbage were severely bleached with 0.5 mM of ALA at 24 hrs after application, and root growth of rice, barnyard grass, and alfalfa was significantly inhibited with increasing of concentration. With post-emergence application, ALA at 2 to 4 mM reduced shoot and root growths of Chinese cabbage and barnyard grass completely. Herbicidal effects of ALA were more enhanced in the treatment combined with 2,2-dipyridyl sthan single application in barnyard grass and Chinese cabbage. The results suggest that alfalfa was the most tolerant to ALA among the tested plants, and that post-emergence application of ALA exhibited greatest photodynamic activity against tested plants.
Evaluation of QTL Related SSR Marker Universality in Korean Rice Breeding Populations
Song, Moon-Tae ; Lee, Jeom-Ho ; Lee, Sang-Bok ; Ku, Ja-Hwan ; Cho, Youn-Sang ; Song, Myung-Hee ; Park, Sung-Ho ; Hwang, Hung-Goo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 1, 2003, Pages 56~64
If a quantitative trait loci (QTL) marker identified in a population is applicable to different populations (marker universality), this will not only reduce the labor and cost in marker assisted selection (MAS), but accelerate the application of molecular markers to real breeding programs. Present study aims to evaluate the defined QTL related markers from a population to a different breeding population for the MAS. Four rice breeding populations were subjected to seventy-five simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers which were already identified for their polymorphism information content (PIC) in the parents of the crossings. Among them, eight markers were evaluated for their correlation between presence of marker alleles and phenotypic expression in breeding populations. A reasonable level of polymorphism for the mapped markers originated from any sources of rice accessions was observed between crosses of any sources (marker repeatability). However, correlation between presence of markers and expression of the traits in rice breeding populations was not significant except for minor portion of traits and markers examined (failure of marker universality). In the present study, various strategies were discussed to develop new markers with universality of breeding application.
Functional Characteristics of Soybean Oligosaccharide
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, 2003, Pages 58~64
To enjoy a healthy life, it is important to have a well-balanced diet. However, in today's society, there is an increase in the consumption of preprocessed foods and frequency of eating out. Also the western diet, which is becoming move popular worldwide, contains relatively high levels of protein and fat, and a low amount of fiber, Furthermore, the increased availability of favorite foods has created a condition were the individual diet is less variable. With these conditions, it is difficult to maintain a diet that is nutritionally balanced. With these unbalanced diets, which are difficult to change, there has been an increase in adult disease and health problems, such as colon and breast cancer, It is speculated that metabolites for carcinogens are produced from diet components and that intestinal bacteria contribute to the production of these metabolites. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the relationships between health, diet, and intestinal microflora. Soybean oligosaccharide is composed of water-soluble saccharides that have been extracted from soybean whey, a by-product from the production of soy protein. This is mainly a mixture of mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasac-charides, with the principle components being the oligosaccharide raffinose and stachyose. When consumed by humans, the oligosaccharides cannot be digested in the human duodenal and small intestinal mucosa, and these are selectively utilized by beneficial bifidobacteria in intestines. The results of acute and subacute toxicity tests, soy-bean oligosaccharides were nonpoisonous. Soybean oligosaccharides promote the growth of indigenous bifido-bacteria in the colon which by their antagonistic effects, suppress the activity of putrefactive bacteria. Also, they reduce toxic metabolites, detrimental enzymes and plasma lipid, and increase in the frequency of bowel evacuation and fecal quantities. Consequently, soybean oligosaccharides as functional foods components have potential roles in the prevention and medical treatment of chronic adult diseases. The study of processing property and physiological function of soybean oligosacchavides and development of high oligosaccharide variety allow the creation of new and exciting foodstuffs that aye functional healthy.
Genotype-by-Environment Interaction in Yield of Sesame
Shim, Kang-Bo ; Kang, Churl-Whan ; Kim, Dong-Hee ; Park, Jang-Whan ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 2, 2003, Pages 65~67
This study was conducted to analyze the effects of genotypes, environments and interaction of G
E on yields of sesame grown in seven different environments by AMMI analysis. Environments accounted for the largest (91 %) proportion of the sums of squares, followed by G
E (8%) and genotypes (1%) Therefore, G
E effects are theoretically eight times as important as G effects. G2 (Yanghukkae) has the largest IPCAI scores indicating higher G
E interaction. G3 (Suwon 171) was near zero score of IPCAI suggesting higher stability than others in yield component. Most of environments except for Iksan area shows different G
E effects by years, which means Iksan is optimal area for multi-environmental adaptation evaluation in sesame breeding programs. According to this experiment, it is concluded that maximization of grain yield through environments can be achieved by specific genotypes in specific environments.
Chemical Structure and Physiological Activity of Lignan Component in Sesame
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, 2003, Pages 65~71
Sesame seed are one of the oldest oil-bearing crops known to man. Not only are they nutritious, they are physicologically beneficial. Because of these properties, the promotion of sesame as a crop is set to increase from now on. The lignan component of sesame, which has an antioxidative function, varies considerably. In addition, the seeds remain viable for longer than other crops. At low temperature, it has been reported that the seed remain viable for up to thirty years. This is due to the lignan content of the seeds. In the last twenty years, the mysteries of the natural chemistry of sesame seeds have been unravelled one by one. Up to now, the lignan component has been found to have an
-tocopherol synergist effect, an anti-aging effect, a cancer suppressing effect, a hypertension reduction effect, an effect on the promotion of liver function, an effect on the control of the ration of unsaturated fat, and an effect on the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. The lignan component of sesame does not simply have an anti-oxidant function, but has diverse recently discovered physiological uses which make the study of lignan highly rewarding.
Identification of Endogenous Gibberellins by Feeding of [
in Chinese Yam, Dioscorea opposite
Lee, In-Jung ; Kim, Sang-Kuk ; Lee, Sang-Chul ; Lee, Bong-Ho ; Jang, Soo-Won ; Park, Tae-Shik ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 2, 2003, Pages 68~72
The metabolism of [
in the Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb. var. Tsukune) was examined to determine the identification of endogenous gibberellins. [
was metabolized to
. Radioactivity of GAs in non C-13 hydroxylation route was five-fold higher than that of early C-13 hydroxylation in analyzed GA-metabolites. Radioactivity of
was always four times higher than that of
at every feeding time.
radioactivity has always a lower level to below 200 DPM. The major pathway of endogenous GA metabolism in seedlings of the Chinese yam might be the non C-13 hydroxylation pathway.
Biological Activities and Analysis of Carotenoids in Plants
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, 2003, Pages 72~78
Carotenoids are the major pigment of pepper (Capsicum annuum) and tomato (Lycopersicon esulentum) which are very important foods in Korea. However the analysis of carotenoids is quite complicated because of their diversity and the presence of cis-trans isomeric forms of these compounds. The objective of this review is to collect the achievements on the field of the chromatographic separation of carotenoids in food and some vegetables, to describe and critically evaluate the techniques, And to compare the benefits and shortcomings of the various chromatographic methods such as adsorption and reversed-phase HPLC and thin-layer chromatography. HPLC equipped with ultra-violet or photodiode array detection is most often employed in routine use for the analysis of carotenoids. Here, the method to analyze carotenoids by HPLC separation after solvent extration and purification from pepper powder samples done in our laboratory is also mentioned.
Effect of Biofertilizers on Vegetative Growth of Okra
Ashrafuzzaman, M. ; Nuruzzaman, M. ; Islam, M.Zahurul ; Islam, M.Rafiqul ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 2, 2003, Pages 73~80
An experiment was carried out at the Field Laboratory of the Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh from March to July, 2001 to investigate the effect of biofertilizers on morpho-physiological characters of okra. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. There were nine treatments such as
(Azotobacter+Cowdung 5 ton
(Azospirillum+Cowdung 5 ton
(Azotobacter+Azospirillum+Cowdung 5 ton
(Cowdung 5 ton
(60% Nitrogen). The experimental results revealed that significant variations exist among the treatments regarding morphological characters e.g. plant height, number of leaves/plant, stem base diameter, tap root length, and physiological characters like, root dry weight, leaf area index and crop growth rate. Number of leaves/plant, stem base diameter, root length, root dry weight, leaf area index and crop growth rate were found higher in
than the others. In all the parameters,
gave the similar result with biofertilizers in combination with cowdung treatments and
showed identical with
(control). Biofertilizer treatments had insignificant effect on 1000-seed weight(g). Experimental results mentioned above revealed that morpho-physioligical characters of okra could be modified by the application of biofertilizer+cowdung. However, biofertilizers+Cowdung treatments were comparable to
(60% Nitrogen) in this study. This suggests that
were more benificial in environmentally friendly okra cultivation and may be used as an alternative of inorganic nitrogen by saving cost of production and sustaining productivity.
Review on Original Plane of Oriental Medicines Used in Korea
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, 2003, Pages 79~95
To clarify the botanical origins of oriental medicines which have been argued or confused for plant origins, species of original plants were investigated through the textural research for oriental medicines and the comparison of Chinese, Korean, Japanese and North Korean Pharmacopoeia. Twenty oriental medicines were studied; Angelicae Gigantis Radix, Rhei Rhizoma, Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata, Acanthopanacis Cortex, Osterici Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma, Saposhnikovae Radix, Magnoliae Cortex, Paeoniae Radix, Liriopis Tuber, Zanthoxyli Fructus, Achyranthis Radix, Sinomeni Caulis et Rhizoma, Polygonati Rhizoma, Cinnamomi Cortex, Visci Herba et Loranthi Ramulus, Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus, Pogostemonis Herba, and Curcumae Longae Radix.
Response of Leaf Water Potential and Growth Characteristics to Irrigation Treatment in Soybean
Lee, Jeong-Hwa ; Seong, Rak-Chun ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 2, 2003, Pages 81~88
Soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are frequently exposed to unfavorable environments during growing seasons and water is the most important factor limiting for the production system. The purpose of this study was to determine the leaf water potential changes by irrigation, and to evaluate the relationships of leaf water potential, growth and yield in soybeans. Three soybean cultivars, Hwangkeumkong, Shinpaldalkong 2, and Pungsannamulkong, were planted in growth chamber and field with irrigated treatments. Leaf water potential of three soybean cultivars was positively correlated with leaf water content during vegetative and reproductive growth stages in growth chamber and field experiments. Leaf water potentials measured for three soybean cultivars under growth chamber were higher than those of under field conditions. Higher leaf water potential with irrigated plots under field was observed compared to conventional plots during reproductive growth stages. Leaf water potentials of three soybean cultivars were continually decreased during reproductive growth stages under field and there was no significant difference among them. Number of leaves, leaf water content, pod dry weight, number of seeds and seed dry weight with irrigated plots were higher than those of conventional plots. The results of this study suggested that leaf water potential could be used as an important growth indicator during the growing season of soybean plants.
Effect of Bed Soil with Polypropylene Spunbonded Fabrics on Rice Seedling Production
Lee, Sang-Chul ; Lee, Ji-Ean ; Shon, Tae-Kwon ; Jeong, Ki-Po ; Daniel Acquah ; Kim, Sang-Kuk ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 2, 2003, Pages 89~95
The study of this experiment is focused on labor saving of healthy rice seedling production using PSF (polypropylene spunbonded fabrics) as thermal protection material. Several factors such as different compositions of nursery soil and PSF materials were tested to produce healthy rice seedlings. The inner thermal protection material in PE film (polyethylene film) showed
higher than that of PSF 40-100
. The light transmittance-ratio also showed similar trends. It is considered that the appropriate PSF material density was 40 gm
in accordance with economic values and healthy rice seedlings. Plant height and dry weight according to various nursery soil showed the rang-es of 8.5-14.2cm and 5.5-10.0mg, respectively. In composition of nursery soil, artificial soil combined with paddy soil was effective in producing healthy seedling for rice seedling production. The total sugar content also showed the difference between PSF 40, 60
PE film (0.43-0.52mg FW
) and PSF 80, 100
) and it showed the same tendency among varieties as well as various nursery soil. These results demonstrate that PSF 40
economically affordable, and can be recommended as thermal protection material for producing good healthy rice seedling.
Topping Effect on Growth and Yield of Soybean Growth in Paddy Field
Cho, Jin-Woong ; Park, Moon-Soo ; Lee, Jung-Joon ; Lee, Mi-Ja ; Jung D. So ; Kim, Tae-Soo ; Lee, Sang-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 2, 2003, Pages 96~102
This study was conducted to determine the effects of two plant populations (28 and 14 plants per
) and two toppings in conventional plant population (28 plants per
) on soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Pungsannamulkong) cultivated in the paddy field. The two topping time were taken at 6
trifoliolate leaf stages in the conventional plant population. Experimental design for growth data was a randomized complete block with three replications, and samples were taken at R1 (July 31), R3 (August 19), R5 (September 2) and R7 (September 23) growth stages. The branch number of soybean was relatively higher in the low plant population (14 plants per
) and with the topping at the 6
leaf stage, in the conventional plant population (28 plants per
), and with topping at the 8
trifoliolate leaf stage in descending order. The highest average branch length of soybean was observed in the low population and the longest branch length was observed from the soybean with topping at the 6
leaf stage. The leaf number per plant was decreased in order of in the low population, with the topping at 6
trifoliolate leaf stage, with the topping at 8
trifoliolate leaf stage, and in the conventional population. The leaf area was high in the low population and with topping at 6
trifoliolate leaf stage and was relatively low in the conventional population and with the topping at 8
trifoliolate leaf stage in soybean. The dry weight of leaves and branches was high in the low population and with the topping at 6
trifoliolate leaf stage and was relatively low in the conventional population and with topping at 8
trifoliolate leaf stage. The leaf number per plant was high in the low population and with topping at 6
trifoliolate leaf stage and was relatively low in the conventional population and with topping at 8
trifoliolate leaf stage. The grain yield per 10a was high with the topping at 6
trifoliolate leaf stage.
Growth, Protein and Pigment Content of Rice Seedlings under Phosphorus Deprivation Condition
Yun, Song-Joong ; Park, Myoung-Ryul ; Kim, Young-Doo ; Kim, Key-Young ; Baek, So-Hyeon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 2, 2003, Pages 103~107
Phosphorus (P) is a macronutrient playing important roles in many plant processes. Significant interest has been devoted to search and utilize genotypic variations in P use efficiency in rice but with little effort to understand its physiological and biochemical bases. In this study, we examined responses to P deprivation of some primary and secondary traits in 3-week-old seedlings of the three genotypes, Sobi-byeo (japonica), Dasan-byeo (japonica
indica) and Palawan (indica). In general, percent weight due to root was increased up to 26%, but amounts of root protein and proteins secreted from roots were decreased by 11 to 19% and 31 to 51 %, respectively, by 3 to 21 days of P deprivation in the three genotypes. Interestingly, however, responses of Palawan to short-term P deprivation were contrasting to those of Dasan-byeo and Sobi-byeo in seedling weight and contents of shoot protein, chlorophyll and anthocyanin. Seedling weight was not decreased, but shoot protein content was decreased in P-deprived seedlings of Palawan. Contents of chlorophyll in leaves and anthocynin in roots were increased in Dasan-byeo and Sobi-byeo, but decreased in Palawan. The results suggest that responses of protein and pigment synthesis to P deficiency are different in modem and traditional varieties and the difference may at least in part be due to the selection for high yield under highly fertilized conditions.
Effect of Root Amount on Wind Damage in Rice
Chang, Jae-Ki ; Yeo, Un-Sang ; Oh, Byong-Geun ; Kang, Jung-Hoon ; Yang, Sae-Jun ; Kim, Soon-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 2, 2003, Pages 108~112
Foehn damage on rice plant is one of the important abiotic stresses in eastern costal area of Korea. To know the relationship between foehn impact and morphological traits of rice, wind tunnel method was used with 106 rice cultivars. Less influencing traits on foehn were short panicle, large panicle number per hill, thin panicle neck, and the flag leaf of narrow, short and thick. Leaf pubescence reduced the impact on foehn. 'Naepungbyeo' belong-ed to foehn tolerant varietal group, while 'Ansanbyeo' belonged to the opposite group. Three levels of root cutting treatment with two rice cultivars were conducted to evaluate the foehn impact using wind tunnel. The severity of wind damages was followed the sigmoidal curve duration of wind tunnel treatment were prolonged. Different responses of root cutting to wind tunnel treatment could be used to evaluate the severity of the foehn impact. 'Naepungbyeo' was one of the less implausible cultivars on foehn. 'Nae-pungbyeo' showed tolerant response to wind under 21% root removing treat-ment (20㎝ root cutting), however 'Ansanbyeo' was wilted under the same treatment. In case of 35 % root removing treatment(10㎝ root cutting), both rice cultivars failed to alive against foehn wind.
Pathogenic bacteria causing rot in commercial soybean sprout cultivation
Yun, Sung-Chul ; Kim, Yong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 2, 2003, Pages 113~119
Soybean sprout pathogenic bacteria were isolated from the large, deep containers of a commercial factory. Over a period of one year, 40 pathogenic-like bacteria were isolated among a total of 732 isolates. In addition to bacteria previously reported to be associated with rotting, such as Pseudomonas putida and Erwinia carotovora, several other genera were also identified: Acinetobacter spp., Chryseobacterium spp., Klebsiella sp., Pantoea agglomerans, Bacillus sp. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis using the Microbial ID (MIDI) system, and 16s rRNA sequence analysis, yielded identical results, confirming the identities of these microorganisms. Several types of selective media were not good for identification and determination of population structure in commercial environments, as colony type was not specific to the genus. There was no dominant bacterium, and we were not able to find the main bacterium responsible for soybean spout rot. Even though we did not identify a major target for controlling rot or screening for resistant cultivars, the results of this study indicated that bacterial rot of soybean sprout is endemic. In addition, it emerged that factory epidemics in summer are not caused by the bacteria isolated in this study.
Effects of Nitrogen Level and Seedling Number on Panicle Structure in Japonica Rice
Kim, Bo-Kyeong ; Kim, Ki-Young ; Oh, Myung-Kyu ; Shin, Mun-Sik ; Ko, Jae-Kwon ; Lee, Jae-Kil ; Kang, Hee-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 2, 2003, Pages 120~126
Four different rice varieties, Sindongjinbyeo, Dongjin #1, Saegyehwabyeo, and Iksan 467, were transplanted under three different nitrogen levels and two different seedling numbers per hill to obtain basic information on panicle traits under different cultural conditions and to propose the ideal panicle structure in Japonica rice. Sindongjinbyeo and Iksan 467 were characterized by more primary rachis branches (PRBs) per panicle and more grains on PRB than other cultivars. The two varieties also had fewer secondary rachis branches (SRBs) per PRB and fewer grains on SRB per PRB. These characteristics, consequently, resulted in higher ripened grain rate, contrary to that of Dongjin #1 and Saegyehwabyeo. In the correlation coefficient analysis, PRB number per panicle and grain number on PRB per panicle were positively correlated with ripened grain rate, while SRB number per panicle, number of grains on SRB per panicle, SRB number per PRB, number of grains on SRB per PRB and grain number per panicle were negatively correlated with ripened grain rate. Therefore, the number of grains on PRB per panicle, SRB number per PRB and the number of grains on SRB per PRB were the appropriate criteria for determining and achieving higher ripened grain rate in rice. High ripened grain rate over 90% was obtainable with over 12.5 PRBs per panicle and 63 grains on PRB per panicle, and with under 1.7 SRBs per PRB, 5 grains on SRB per PRB, 130 grains per panicle, and 14 panicles per hill. The study recommended that for over 90% high ripened grain rate, the critical limiting factors should be under 2 SRBs per PRB, 6 grains per PRB, and 130 grains per panicle, irrespective of the PRB number per panicle and the number of grains on PRB.
Effects of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid on Growth and Inhibition of Various Plant Species
Kuk, Yong-In ; Lim, Gyeong-Seob ; Chon, Sang-Uk ; Hwang, Tay-Eak ; Guh, Ja-Ock ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 2, 2003, Pages 127~133
The purpose of this study is to investigate the positive or negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid(ALA) on the growth of several crops and weeds, by applying a seed soaking treatment, foliar treatment, and application timing, while comparing biological activity between ALA produced by chemical synthesis (Synthetic-ALA) and extracellularly-accumulated ALA by overexpressing the hemeA gene isolated from Bradyrhizobium japonicum(Bio-ALA). Seed soaking treatment of ALA in barley (five cultivars) and wheat (five cultivars) had not shown positive effects at lower concentrations, 0.05 to 0.5 mM as well as negative effects at higher concentrations, 1 to 30 mM. In rice, there also was no positive effect by seed soaking treatment of ALA at lower concentrations, although the rice became damaged by an application of 5 and 10 mM ALA. Growth in barley cultivars, Ganghossalbori, Naehanssalbori, Songhakbori, Saessalbori, and Daehossalbori were increased up to 14%, 19-51 %, 17-64%, 18-23%, and 22-38% by ALA foliar application at lower concentrations, 0.05 to 0.5 mM, respectively. On the other hand, the growth in barley cultivars was inhibited by ALA foliar application at higher concentrations. Barley responded more positively to ALA foliar application than wheat and rice. The growth stimulation caused by ALA seed soaking treatment was less than by ALA foliar treatment. ALA treatment at the 1.5-leaf stage increased growth of barley by 19-58%, while pretreatment to seeds, post-emergence treatment at 3 days after seeding, 3-leaf stages, and 5-leaf stages had not shown positive effects. Thus, the positive effects of ALA on barley were dependent greatly upon the timing of application and its concentration. Monocots weeds were more sensitive to ALA foliar treatment than dicotyledonous weeds. A monocot weed, Setaria viridis L. was the most susceptible plant to ALA while a dicotyledonous weed, Plantago asiatica L. was the most tolerant. No significant difference in biological activity between bio-ALA and synthetic ALA on barley, wheat, rice, and weed, Ixeris dentate tested was observed. Thus, ALA produced by microorganisms would be a potent substance to be used effectively in agricultural production.
Congruency Analysis for Rice Direct Seeding Research Resource Allocation
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 135~138
Appropriate allocation of personal and financial resources of a research organization is important for the successful accomplishment of its goals. Direct-seeding of rice is a technology compatible with sustainable agriculturer and much research on the technology has been carried out in the research institutes of Rural Development Adminstration (RDA). We analyzed, with a special interest in research on rice direct-seeding technology, patterns of resource allocation in RDA by technology to evaluate congruency levels in research resource allocation. Research on direct-seeding technology had been focused on its fundamental field in the past. However, research to solve the practical difficulties encountered by farmers such as those in seedling establishment weed control, and water management practices, has been increased in recent years. Research resource allocation had largely been made to the projects for variety and seeding-technology development in the early years, however, allocation to the projects for the fertilization, weed control, and water management fields has been increased in recent years. Allocation of resources to the projects in soil management and seedling establishment categories was decreased, indicating that difficulties encountered by farmers in these fields were mostly solved. High congruency between economic outcome of research and allocation of resources by technology categories indicates a rational allocation of resources for research on direct-seeding of vice in RDA.
Disease Severity of Bacterial Blight in Mixed Plantings of Rice Near-Isogenic Lines
Mun Sik Shin ; Ki Young Kim ; Jae Kil Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 139~141
Disease severity, percent ripened grains, and yield were investigated in the seven mixtures by using near-isogenic lines having different resistant gene(s) to bacterial blight(BB) of rice. The seven mixtures including the four pure stands were inoculated with a 1:1:1 mixture of races
of BB. Among the seven mixtures-ML01, ML02, ML03, MLl2, MLl3, ML23 and ML0123-, disease severiety, percent ripened grains, and yield of ML01 and ML12, respectively did not show significant difference with those of mean values of their components. But degree of disease severity of the other mixtures, respectively -ML02, ML03, MLl3, ML23, and ML0123-was less than the mean of their components. Percent ripened grains and yield of them were higher than those of mean of their components. ML03, MLl3, ML23 and ML0123 comprised of the equal amount of two or four components having different resistant gene, these mixtures appeared to be a desirable combination for delaying spread of the pathogen, stabilizing of the race structure of the pathogen population, and extending durability of a cultivar with monogenic resistance.
Inheritance of Grain Weight and Size of a High Yielding Japonica cultivar, Sobibyeo
Tae Hwan Noh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 142~146
To obtain information on the inheritance of grain weight and grain size of japonica cultivar, Sobibyeo which has high yielding potential and large grain in rice, the genetic variation, heritability and phenotypic correlation of 1,000 grain weight, grain length, width and thickness were investigated in two crosses, Iksan 429/Sobibyeo and Iksan 430/Sobibyeo. The gram characteristics of
hybrids exceeded mid-parental values, while grain length: width ratio was intermediate between the parents. In
populations, the average grain length, width and thickness were intermediate as mid-parental values, but grain weight exceeded the mid-parental values. In
populations of Iksan 429/Sobibyeo and Iksan 430/Sobibyeo, mean 1,000 grain weights were 24.86g and 25.04 g on the average, and ranged 18.4g-32.2g and 19.5g-33.4g, respectively. The segregation mode for grain weight was regarded as a nearly normal distribution in two crosses of
populations. Estimates of broad sense heritabilities for grain weight in Iksan 429/Sobibyeo and Iksan 430/Sobibyeo were high as 89.00% and 89.06%, and grain length showed the highest heritability among grain characteristics as 97.45% and 97.35%, respectively. Grain weight was highly correlated with grain length, width and thickness, and grain length was highly correlated with grain width and thickness. These grain characteristics were apparently controlled by polygenes. Accordingly, these traits will be readily improved through selection in the early segregating generations.
Influence of Polyethylene Film Mulch and Seedling Types on Growth and tuber Yield of Fall-Grown Potato
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 147~151
Normal seed tubers and plug seedlings raised from stem cutting and mini-tubers (
g) were planted or transplanted on August 20,2001 in bare soil or under transparent and black polyethylene film mulches to evaluate the effects of mulch material and seedling type on the growth and tuber yield of fall-grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Dejima) in Jeju region. Total tuber number per plant was 4.6 regardless of mulch treatment, and direct planting seed potatoes resulted in the greatest tubers (5.14)/plant and followed by transplanting seedlings raised from cutting and mini-tubers (4.15 and 5.15 tubers/plant). Transparent and black polyethylene film mulches increased total tuber yield by 16 and 8%, respectively, and average tuber weight by 14 and 12%, respectively, compared with no mulch (21.16 t/ha and 72.2 g/tuber). Transplanting plug seedlings raised from cutting resulted in the greatest tuber yield, followed by transplanting plug seedlings raised from mini-tubers and direct planting seed potatoes.
Germination, Seedling Emergence, and Growth of Burcucumber Affected by Maturity and Size
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 152~155
Burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.), used as a medicinal or rootstock for cucurbitaceous crops have shown high variation in seed maturity and size. This study was carried out to determine the effect of seed maturity and size on seed germination, seedling emergence and growth of burcucumber, Seeds collected from a native site were divided into small, medium and large ones after sorted to mature and immature ones. Their germination, seedling emergence and growth were done in indoor and a green house. Mature seeds showed higher germination and seedling emergence rate than immature ones. Regardless of their maturity, medium. and small seeds showed higher germination rate than large ones. Medium and large seeds, however, had the greatest and the least seedling emergence, respectively. Seedling height, number of true leaves areas of cotyledons and true leaves except hypocotyl length were increased with increased seed size although were not affected by the maturity. Cotyledon, leaf, hypocotyl, root and their total dry weights were greater in large mature seeds than large immature ones while increased with increased seed size in both maturities.
Effect of Climatic Factors on Disease Incidence of Barley fellow Mosaic Virus (BaYMV)
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 156~159
Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) cause severe damage in barley cropping field especially yield reduction about 40% to 100% depend on climatic conditions and varieties. The correlations between disease incidence (DI) and changes of climatic conditions were analyzed. The average temperature affected on the DI in early barley growing stage before wintering. However any factors was not correlated with DI during wintering season that means barley growth was closely related to virus reproduction. Significant correlation between the highest temperature and DI during barley regeneration time that temperature, especially the highest, has to be considered to set appropriate time for DI investigation.
Growth Characteristics of Barley Seedlings in Hydroponic Culture Conditioned Artificial Wet Injury
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 160~168
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of induced wet-injury conditions on barley seedling growth. Barley seedlings at the three leaf stage were grown in culture solutions with various combinations of dissolved oxygen (DO), nutrients and citric acid (CA) concentrations. Seedling growth was reduced by hypoxia. Root length and root fresh weight were most severely reduced under 1 ppm DO. Shoot growth was slightly reduced but not root growth under low nutrient condition. Seedling growth was reduced by CA in a concentration-dependant manner, Response of seedling growth was efficiently differentiated in a solution containing 1 ppm DO, one tenth of the normal P, K and Mg concentration and 3 mM CA. Under this induced wet-injury condition, overall seedling growth of 6 cultivars was reduced by 11 to 19% compared to the control condition. The results suggest that the induced wet-injury condition can be used for the screening of resistant genotypes at the seedling stage.
Pre-sowing Treatments to Improve Germination of Intact Seeds in Burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.)
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 169~172
Intact seeds of burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) are not nearly germinated so that the farmers remove their arils before sowing. The study was carried out to measure the effort of aging, chilling, washing, chemical treatment, drying, and their sequential treatments on the germination of ones with arils and the seedling emergence. The seeds extruding over 1mm of their radicles and the seedlings with fully expanded cotyledons were counted daily for calculating the germination and the seedling emergence rates. Seedcoat softening using 10% NaOH solution somewhat enhanced their germination rate of the intact seeds harvested in the current year, but aging treatment done on 6 days at
after NaOH treatment increased the germination rate more than only NaOH treatment. A day washing after the NaOH treatment and a day chilling after the washing increasingly elevated the rates as well. Irrigation of 0.2%
solution, moreover, showed the greatest germination rate of the priming treatments done during all the 7 day chilling. Drying the seeds after the combined treatment of chilling and priming more inclined the germination rate than nondrying ones, but red light treated during 24 hour desiccation was more effective in the germination rate increment than dark condition. The seeds done the sequential treatments of aging, NaOH, washing, combining chilling and priming and drying under red light illumination were germinated up to 80% but seedlings were emerged to 60%, lower than ones removed their arils.
Effect of Phosphorous Fertilizer Rate on Growth, Dry Matter Yield, and Phosphate Recovery in Achyranthes japonica
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 173~178
To determine the optimum
rate for dry matter production of Achyranthes japonica Nakai a medicinal plant, in Jeju island, plants were grown in 2001 under ten fertilizer treatments comprising of two N (90, and 180kg/ha) and five
(0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 kg/ha) levels. Plant height leaf length and width, stem diameter, and main root length and diameter were not significantly affected by
fertilization of 100 kg/ha increased the number of branches, spikes, and roots per hill by 18,38 and 43%, respectively, compared with the unfertilized
treatment and decreased with further increases in
rate. The number of roots per hill was greatest with the application of 200kg
. The highest utricle dry matter yield (2.92 t/ha) was obtained with the application of 100kg
. However, as
rate increased from 0 to 100 and 200kg/ha, root dry matter yield increased from 2.36 to 3.55, and 3.80 t/ha, and then decreased to 3.14, and 2.86 t/ha at 300, and 400kg
rates, respectively. As
rate increased from 100 to 400 kg/ha,
recovery in aboveground parts decreased from 34.1 to 7.1%.
Effect of Nursery Soil Made of Expanded Rice Hull on Rice Seedling Growth
Kim, Je-Youn ; Kim, Kyung-Min ; Sohn, Jae-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 179~183
In comparison of physicochemical properties between expanded rice hulls (ERH) and a commercial nursery soil (Bunong), the pH and content of organic matters were higher in ERH than those of Bunong soil. However, the content of available phosphate,
were lower in ERH as compared with Bunong soil. The growth characteristics of seedlings were evaluated for 15-day old seedlings grown in five different nursery soils including ERH. The plant height was the tallest (22.8cm) in Bunong soil and shortest (12.8cm) in ERH. There was no difference in number of leaves among five types of nursery soils. The best results based on the seedling quality and root intensity was obtained from the seedlings grown in the nursery soil which ERH was used for bedding and Bunong soil for covering in the seed tray. The weight of a seed tray with Bunong soils was 27% heavier than that of 'ERH + Bunong soil'.
Quality Characters and Identification of Breeding Materials in Malting Barley
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 184~190
Germplasms and breeding lines of malting barley at National Yeongnam Agricultural Experiment Station (NYAES) were evaluated for malting barley quality improvement. Among the numerous malting barley quality parameters, the mean of protein content was 12.3% between 10.7% to 14.0% and range of the
-glucan content was from 3.5% to 5.8%, the mean was 4.6 percent. The length of acrospire, non-germination rate, friability, the speed of filtration, extract yield, kolbach index, diastatic power were significantly different between the individual varieties, however the other traits were not significantly different. The results of correlation analysis among 15 quality parameters showed significant positive correlation between crude protein content and malt protein content. However, other quality parameters such as sugar content, fiablity, extract yield, and kolbach index had negative correlation with crude protein content. Therefore, crude protein content could be one of the major factors that deteriorate quality. The varieties of Viva, Nishino-chikara, Kinukei 9, Kinukei 12, Sacheon 6 and Jinyangbori that showed over the 80% in extract yield and the higher diastatic power, will be used by crossing parents for improve the quality of malting barley.
Growth and Yield According to Wick Number Under Wick Culture System of Potato Plug Seedlings
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 191~195
This study was conducted in 2001 to develop a technique for mass production of superior seed tuber by using a wick culture system as an alternative plan to solve problems in hydroponic culture of potato. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Dejima) plug seedings were planted on a styrofoam bed (volume
) containing two different media (Jeju scoria + peatmoss and perlite + peatmoss, (1:2, v/v) mixture, respectively). Each bed was equipped with various number of wicks (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ea/bed). After harvest, the total porosity of both media was 83-85%. Bulk density of Jeju scoria + peatmoss was higher compared to that of perlit + peatmoss. However, the number of wicks did not influence to the bulk density. Conversely, moisture capacity of Jeju scoria + peatmoss was remarkably greater than that of perlite + peatmoss and was increased from 55 to 70% as elevating number of wicks. Although the number of wicks resulted in the areal growth of plants, the total yield and the weight of tuber were highest at the bed equipped with six wicks in both media.
Changes in Physicaochemical Properties of Soil, Yield, and Milling Quality of Rice Grown under the Long-term No-till Rice System
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 196~199
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the differences in physicochemical properties of soil, grain yield and milling recovery ratio and grain appearance of rice grown in long-term no-till and ordinary till systems. The paddy in no-till rice system was unploughed but straw-mulched for 15 years from 1988 to 2002 at the Experimental Paddy of Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services, while the paddy in ordinary till system was ploughed and puddled every crop year, A 5cm organic layer was formed in 11-year no-till rice system, in which exchangeable cation and phosphate were accumulated. In no-till paddy organic matter, bulk density and solid phase of surface soil significantly increased, while pH, exchangeable cation, phosphate, liquid and gaseous phase decreased. Tillage made the very top soil soft, but made deep soil below 5cm significantly hard. In the 1st year of no-till, topsoil showed hard, but in the process of the time in no-till system, the top- and sub-soil showed softer, Yield and yield components of rice showed no differences between till- and no-till rice systems. Milling recovery ratio and grain appearance were not significantly different between no-till and till-rice systems.
Effects of Initial EC Values on Seedling Growth and Utilization of Minerals in Hydroponic Rice Seedling Raising
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 200~204
This study was conducted to develop a technology for raising seedlings hydroponically using the bed in which the seedlings grew in nutrient solution without soil. In order to establish the optimum EC value of nutrient solution, six initial EC values (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 dS/m and control) of Yoshida's hydroponic solution were examined. Seedling height and dry weight increased with increasing below EC up to 3.0 dS/m, but showed no significant increase at higher than EC 3.0 dS/m. Nutrient solution with initial EC of 3.0 dS/m was good to be dropped down nearly to 1 dS/m after 15-day seedling culture. But those with initial EC of 4.0 and 5.0 dS/m were judged not appropriate because of high EC value in waste nutrient solution. Utilization efficiency of minerals of nutrient solution and rice endosperm was higher on the whole at initial EC of 2.0-3.0 dS/m. Considering seedling growth and utilization efficiency of supplied nutrient solution, initial EC is judged to be suitable at 3.0 dS/m.
Effects of Nutrient Solutions and Their Supplying Frequency on Seedling Growth and Utilization of Minerals in Hydroponic Rice Seedling Raising
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 205~208
This study was conducted to develop a technology for raising rice hydroponically seedlings using the bed in which the seedlings grew in nutrient solution without soil. In Hydroponic rice seedlings, two nutrient solutions (Yashida and Wonsi) were evaluated with four supplying methods
3 times (2 days, 8 days and 12 days after seeding), 2 times (5 days and 10 days after seeding), and 1 time (5 days and 10 days after seeding)
1, Seedling growth was not different between the two solutions. However, tensile strength of root-mat was higher in Yoshida solution than in Wonsi solution. The more frequent supply of solution resulted in the better seedling growth but in the weaker root mat. Utilization efficiency of the solution minerals was not different in N content regardless of supplying frequencies, but higher in r, K, Ca and Mg when supplied only once on the 5 days after seeding.
Varietal Difference in Heading Date of Rice by Night Illumination
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 209~215
This experiment was conducted to study the varietal and ecological difference of rice in heading date by night illumination. The degree of delay in heading date and days from heading initiation to full heading (DHIF) of rice were in the order of mid-late maturing cultivars (MLC)＞ medium maturing cultivars (MEC) ＞early maturing cultivars (EAC) ＞very early maturing cultivars (VEC). However, the MEC showed significant variation in days to heading; Kwanganbyeo delayed significantly, but Ansanbyeo did not. The comparative sensitivity of different rice ecotypes per lux in delayed heading was 0.09-0.10, 0.14-0.26, 0.16-0.58, and 0.35-0.54 day in VEC, EAC, MEC, and MLC, respectively; the shortest ion Odaebyeo (0.09 day), moderate in Daeanbyeo (0.35 day), and the longest in Kwanganbyeo (0.58 day). Difference of DHFI was 0.-1 day in VEC, -l-2 days in EAC, 0-l6 days in MEC and 6-18 days in MLC under 50-70 lux compared to 2 lux; Daejinbyeo (-1 day), Hwaseongbyeo (6 days), Chucheongbyeo (9 days), Kwanganbyeo (16 days), and Ilpumbyeo (18 days).
Photosynthetic Characteristics of Rice Cultivars with Depending on Leaf Senescence during Grain Filling
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 216~223
This study was conducted to investigate the varietal differences in leaf senescence and the relationship between leaf senescence and photosynthesis during ripening stage of rice. During grain filling period, leaf senescence was evaluated by SPAD readings (an indirect indicator of chlorophyll content) for 3 rice varieties (SNU-SG1, Hwaseongbyeo, Nampungbyeo). SPAD value of flag leaf and 2nd leaf of SNU-SG1 were much higher than the other varieties and the leaves of SNU-SG1 also showed a tendency of delayed senescence as compared to the other varieties. Photosynthesis at light saturation (Pmax) of flag, 2nd and 3rd leaf in SNU-SG1 during grain filling period were much higher than Hwaseongbyeo and Nampungbyeo. The Pmax of the flag leaf in SNU-SG1 was especially higher over 20% than the other varieties. It was due to its higher mesophyll conductance and stomatal conductance as compared to the other varieties. Pmax, stomatal conductance and mesophyll conductance had positive correlation with SPAD value and nitrogen concentration of leaves. In conclusion, the stay green characteristics of SNU-SG1 would contribute to increasing the grain yield through the improved photosynthesis during grain filling.
Genotypic Difference in Leaf Senescence during Grain Filling and Its Relation to Grain Yield of Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 224~231
This study was conducted to investigate the varietal differences in leaf senescence during ripening stage and its relation to grain yield of rice. During grain filling period leaf senescence was evaluated by SPAD readings (an indirect indicator of chlorophyll content) for 74 varieties including local, improved domestic, and introduced varieties in the field condition. Leaf senescence was varied greatly among 74 varieties. Jodongji and Dadajo known as local rice varieties had significantly lower SPAD value than the other varieties and became senescent rapidly. However, SPAD value of the flag leaf and 2nd leaf of SNU-SG1 were much higher than the other varieties and leaves of SNU-SG1 also showed a tendency of delayed senescence compared to the other varieties. There were significantly positive correlation between cumulated SPAD value of upper leaf(flag leaf and 2nd leaf) during 35 days after heading and grain yield divided by sunshine hour during 40 days of grain filling and compensated for temperature effect, and cumulated SPAD value of the 4th leaf showed negative correlation with the yield. That is, the delayed senescence of the upper leaves and the rapid senescence of lower leaves were positively associated with grain yield increase.
Effect of Benzyladenopurine Treatment Time during Imbibition on Growth of Soybean Sprouts and its Cost
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 232~237
Benzyladenopuyine (BA) commonly used for soybean sprout production is of high price. The study was carried out to determine the effect of BA treatment time during seed imbibition on growth and development of soybean sprouts and to analyse its treatment cost. The soybean seeds of 4 cultivars were soaked in 4 ppm BA solution during the first 5.5 hour imbibition (EFHI), the second 5.5 hour imbibition (SFHI) immediately after 0.5 hour aeration, or whole 11.0 hour imbibition (WFHI) intervened by aeration. On the 6th day after culture, the soybean sprouts were classified into 4 categories on the base of hypocotyl length; ＞ 7cm, 4 to 7cm, ＜ 4 cm and not germinated, and their morphological characters, fresh and dry weights were measured. Water absorption of the seeds was sharply reduced after it was almost done for the first 5.5 hours. The percentage of sprouts with hypocotyls of longer than 4cm was higher in FFHI treatment than in the other two ones. Regardless of BA imbibition time and periods, the lateral roots were not observed. WFHI treatment showed shorter hypocotyl and root lengths but thicker hypocotyl and hook diameters than FFHI and SFHI treatments. All component fresh and dry weights except cotyledon fresh weight were nearly same. Treatment cost of BA was the lowest in SFHI treatment. It is concluded that BA treatment during SFHI is the best time because its treatment time did not affect sprout growth but its treatment cost.
Critical Saline Concentration of Soil and Water for Rice Cultivation on a Reclaimed Saline Soil
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 238~242
Reclaimed tidal areas for rice cultivation are irrigated with salt mixed water when there is severe drought. Therefore, we identified the critical concentration of saline water for rice growth on a reclaimed saline soil in Korea. The experiment was conducted at the Kyehwado substation of the National Honam Agricultural Experiment Station (NHAES) during 2001-2002. Two experimental fields with 0.1-0.2% for low soil salinity and 0.3-0.4% for medium soil salinity levels were used. The experiment involved four levels of salt solution mixed with sea water (at 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7%) compared with a control using tap water in a split-plot design with three replicates. Saline solution was applied only two times at seedling stage (10 DAT and 25 DAT) for 5 days. Gyehwabyeo and dongjinbyeo, japonica rice varieties, were used in this experiment. Plant height and number of tillers sharply decreased in the 0.5% saline water in low soil salinity level and 0.1% in medium soil salinity level. For yield components, panicle number per unit area and percentage of ripened grain dramatically decreased in the 0.5% saline water in low soil salinity and 0.1% in medium soil salinity level. But 1,000-grain weight of brown rice decreased sharply in the 0.5% saline water in low soil salinity and 0.3% in medium soil salinity, indicating that this component was not much affected unlike other yield components. Milled rice yield decreased significantly with saline water level in both low and medium soil salinity. In the 0.7% low saline soil, the yield index was only 36% compared with the control. In medium soil salinity, even the control plot showed only 62% yield index compared with the control in the low soil salinity treatment. Results indicated that the critical concentration of saline water for rice growth in terms of economical income of rice production was 0.5% in low soil salinity and tap water in medium soil salinity.
Ideal Leaf Type on Leaf Shape and
Use Efficiency of Different Seed Size Cultivar in Soybean
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 243~247
To examine ideal leaf types with higher
assimilates and different seed sizes, 12 soybean varieties were planted on the pot in a plastic house covered with glass. Leaf function based on stomatal conductance and
assimilation in soybean is different in seed size and leaflet shape. Mean
assimilation of a single leaf was 19.66
and showed higher in small seed cultivars with narrow leaflet than that of small seeds with wide leaflet (18.29
), but within large seed groups, it was higher in wide leaflets (19.17
) than narrow leaflet cultivars (17.45
). In small seed and narrow leaflet cultivars, stomatal conductance ranged from 0.14 to 0.15
assimilation ranged from 19 to 20
. The Photosynthetic rate was closely related to stomatal conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency.
Photosynthesis and Leaf Anatomical Morphology on Different Leaf Shape of Soybean
Moon-Hee Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 248~251
To find ideal leaf types for soybean breeding program, we examined the relationships among leaf anatomical and morphological characteristics and
assimilation on the different leaflet shape of soybean (Glycine max). In anatomical characters of leaf, palisade and spongy cells were thicker in both small seed cultivars with narrow leaflet and large seed cultivars with wide leaflet than others.
uptake per plant and leaf thickness were significantly associated with seed yield per plant, showing difference among the soybean cultivars. Although the leaf area was lower for narrow leaflet cultivars, which had a significantly higher photosynthetic rate per plant comparable to the wide leaflet cultivars.
Classification for Types of Damages Caused by Cold Stress at Different Young Spike Development Stages of Barley and Wheat
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 252~261
Although the young spike of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is known as the most susceptible part to spring cold injury, the risk of cold injury is apt to be ignored in most breeding program due to the importance of early maturity. Based on these aspects, the types and inducing time, temperature conditions for induction and effects of cold injury on growth and yield in this study were investigated under greenhouse and field conditions through three years (1997-1999). In natural condition, low temperature around -2.4∼
caused the death of plant. Several cold injury types such as partial degeneration of spike, partial discoloration of leaf, spike and awn, discoloration of culm and white spike were observed at low temperature around
. Low temperature around -2.4∼
caused degeneration and sterility of spike, respectively. Most materials were prepared to the spikelet foundation stage, spikelet differentiation stage, development stage of flower organ, booting stage and heading stage, which were known having risk for cold injury in field condition. Although most of the controlled stages were sensitive to the induced low temperature, booting stage was the most sensitive stage for cold injury. All of growth stages which were treated-heading stage, booting stage, development stage of flower organ, spikelet differentiation stage, spikelet foundation stage-were responded to low temperature treatment but the symptoms revealed were very specific according to the growth stages. Ears of plant in heading stage were discolored to white. Ears of plant in booting stage were degenerated in all or part of one. Plants in spikelet differentiation stage were sterile in all or part of one. When tried to detect the specific differences between normal and cold injured plants in appearance, spike length, distance between spike and flag leaf and the first internode length could be the critical points for occurrence of spike death caused by cold injury. In barley, the elongation of spike was stopped on 3.2cm after occurrence of spike degeneration, 4.7cm after occurrence of partial degeneration of spike, 5.0cm after occurrence of white spike. In wheat, it was stopped on 1.6cm after occurrence of stem death, 3.3cm after occurrence of spike degeneration, 8.3cm after occurrence of partial degeneration of spike, 8.1cm after occurrence of white spike, 7.5cm after partial discoloration of leaf and 9.3cm after partial discoloration of spike. The obtained results from low temperature treatment induced in growth chamber were similar to the field experiment, Beacuse the death of spikes was more when low temperature was treated two times than one times, the temperature should be upgrade to -3
in order to get the same condition with field test.
Effect of Interillage and Muddying by Free-Ranging Ducks on pH and Dissolved Oxygen of Stagnant Water, and Soil Physicochemical Properties in Paddy field Soil
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 262~266
The present study was carried out to investigate the relationships among intertillage and muddying by free-ranging ducks (Chinese native ducks) and pH, dissolved oxygen of irrigation water, and physicochemical properties of soil. Two paddy fields comprised of the muddying (muddy water without physical stimulation to a rice plant by the ducks) and the control plots (no ducks) were used for this study. As a muddying plot, 50 hills were randomly selected and each hill was fenced with a wire net in order to prevent from stimulating physically by the ducks. The variation in irrigation pH was smaller in the muddying plot than the control plot, and the pH was around 7.4. Dissolved oxygen was significantly higher (P＜0.01) in the muddying plot than the control plot during the first half period after the ducks were introduced. Then it decreased rapidly as the rice plants grew in all plots. The contents of the suspended soil and turbidity in irrigation water were not changed over the free-ranging period, but
were decreased by intertillage and muddying by the ducks. There were no differences in both the soil physics and chemistry between the muddying plot and the control plot during and after finishing of the free-ranging period. These results indicate that intertillage and muddying by the ducks resulted in a small variation in stagnant water pH, and reduced the dissolved oxygen and
, although the physiochemical properties of soil were not changed.
Germinability and Physiological Properties of Maize Seeds Affected by Matriconditioning
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 267~275
To observe the effects of seed matriconditioning on the emergence, plumule growth, and seed physiological properties of normal and aged seeds of three corn(Zea mays L.) genotypes (dent, sugary, and shrunken-2), normal and artificially aged seeds were matriconditioned at 50, 75, 100, and 125% moisture contents of vermiculite at
for 24 hours and the germinability was examined at
and in cold test (7 days at 1
). Emergence rate, emergence speed, and plumule growth were smaller in the order of dent＞sugary＞shrunken-2. Matriconditioning did not affect the emergence rate of normal dent and sugary seeds, while it enhanced emergence speed and plumule growth. In contrast, the emergence rate, emergence speed, and plumule growth of normal shrunken-2 and aged seeds of all genotypes were enhanced as the moisture content of vermiculite increased up to 125% both at
and in cold test. Matriconditioning promoted
-amylase activity and DNA and soluble protein contents, while it reduced the leakage of total sugars and electrolytes from the seeds when soaked in water.
Difference of Major Characters by Spring Sowing of Forage Rape
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 3, 2003, Pages 276~280
To select the most suitable variety of forage rape for growth in the southern part of Korea, Seven introduced varieties were grown from Mar, 1999 to August 2000. Velox was shown to have the highest dry matter yield in comparison to other varieties used in this experiment. It showed relatively high content of crude protein and in virto dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and low content of NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin. Therefore, it was concluded that Velox was the most suitable variety with high yield and high nutrient quality for spring in the southern part of Korea. The heritabilities of all the observed characters were estimated to be high.
Changes of Endogenous Gibberellins in Tubers of Chinese Yam(Dioscorea opposita) during Storage Period
Lee, In-Jung ; Kim, Sang-Kuk ; Lee, Sang-Chul ; Lee, Bong-Ho ; Jeong, Hyung-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 281~285
For storage periods of tubers in Chinese yam, the levels of
was constant, meanwhile both
level were always higher than that of
content as precursor of
was not changed during storage.
content was low to below 0.2 ng for 90 days after storage,
content as precursor of
was about 6-8 fold higher than that of
during storage. GA contents of the two gibberellin biosynthetic pathways were gradually increased when storage periods were progressed. Bioactive GA
content as the GA members of an early C-13 hydroxylation was always constant, and its content was very low as below 0.1ng per dry weight, meanwhile, bioactive
content as the GA members of non C-13 hydroxylation was drastically increased, also, its content was highest at 90 days after storage, and then decreased at 120 days after storage. Consequently, we suggest that
may be involved in controlling tuber sprouting in Chinese yam.
Effective Herbicides for Control of Sulfonylurea-Resistant Monochoria vaginalis in Paddy Field
Kuk, Yong-In ; Kwon, Oh-Do ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 286~291
Monochoria vaginalis is one of the most troublesome resistant weeds in Korean rice culture. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the response of M. vaginalis resistant to sulfonylurea(SU) herbicides and to determine alternative herbicides for the control of resistant M. vaginalis in direct seeded and transplanted rice culture in Korea. In greenhouse studies, the resistant biotype was 31-, 38-, 3172-, and 7-fold more resistant to ben-sulfuron-methyl, cyclosulfamuron, imazosulfuron, and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, respectively, than the susceptible biotype, indicating cross-resistance to the SU herbicides used in this study. Non-SU herbicides, butachlor, carfentrazone-ethyl, mefenacet, pretilachlor, pyrazolate, and thiobencarb, several SU herbicide-based mixtures, ethoxysulfuron plus fentrazamide, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl plus pyrazolate plus simetryn, and non-SU herbicide-based mixtures, pyrazolate plus butachlor, pyrazolate plus pretilachlor, simetryn plus molinate, carfentrazone-ethyl plus butachlor, and carfentrazone-ethyl plus thiobencarb can be used to control both the resistant and susceptible biotypes of M. vaginalis when applied before the second leaf stage. In the field experiment, the resistant biotype of M. vaginalis that survived from the paddy fields treated with a SU herbicide-based mixture could effectively be controlled by using mixtures of bentazone plus MCPA, bentazone plus mecoprop-P, and bentazone plus 2,4-D when applied at 2 or 4 main leaves. Our results suggest that the SU-resistant M. vaginalis had not developed multiple resistances to herbicides with different modes of action. In particular, bentazone plus MCPA and bentazone plus mecoprop-P were effective control measures after failure to control resistant M. vaginalis in Korean rice culture.
Effect of Fluorescent Light Treatment during Imbibition and Culture on Growth of Soybean Sprout
Kang, Jin-Ho ; Park, A-Jung ; Jeon, Byung-Sam ; Yoon, Soo-Young ; Lee, Sang-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 292~296
The lateral root formation in soybean sprout culture declines its quality. This study was done to measure the effect of fluorescent light treatment during 24 hour imbibition and 6-day culture on seed germination and growth of soybean sprout. After 6 day culture, the sprouts were sorted as normal (＞4cm), abnormal (＜4cm) and non-germination by their hypocotyl lengths, and lateral roots, fresh and dry weights were measured. Lateral roots were less formed in the fluorescent light treatment lasted during the whole period of the imbibition than in the treatment for 50 minutes a day during the culture. The fluorescent light treatment during the imbibition mainly affected the germination and growth compared to the treatment done during the culture. Compared to the dark imbibition, the light treatment during the imbibition resulted in more normal sprouts, thicker diameters of hypocotyl and hook, and more fresh weights in cotyledon, hypocotyl, whole sprout, and economic yield. However, these results were reverse in lengths of hypocotyl and root, and fresh and dry weights of roots. It is concluded that the fluorescent lamp mainly irradiating red and blue lights can be used for the sprout production as an alternative light replacing blue and red lights treated during the imbibition because it blocked the lateral root appearance and stimulated growth of the sprout.
Construction of Genetic Linkage Map for Korean Soybean Genotypes using Molecular Markers
Jong Il Chung ; Ye Jin Cho ; Dae Jin Park ; Sung Jin Han ; Ju Ho Oh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 297~302
Genetic linkage maps serve the plant geneticist in a number of ways, from marker assisted selection in plant improvement to map-based cloning in molecular genetic research. Genetic map based upon DNA polymorphism is a powerful tool for the study of qualitative and quantitative traits in crops. The objective of this study was to develop genetic linkage map of soybean using the population derived from the cross of Korean soybean cultivar 'Kwangkyo, and wild accession 'IT182305'. Total 1,000 Operon random primers for RAPD marker, 49 combinations of primer for AFLP marker, and 100 Satt primers for SSR marker were used to screen parental polymorphism. Total 341 markers (242 RAPD, 83 AFLP, and 16 SSR markers) was segregated in 85
population. Forty two markers that shown significantly distorted segregation ratio (1:2:1 for codominant or 3:1 for domimant marker) were not used in mapping procedure. A linkage map was constructed by applying the computer program MAPMAKER/EXP 3.0 to the 299 marker data with LOD 4.0 and maximum distance 50 cM. 176 markers were found to be genetically linked and formed 25 linkage groups. Linkage map spanned 2,292.7 cM across all 25 linkage groups. The average linkage distance between pair of markers among all linkage groups was 13.0 cM. The number of markers per linkage group ranged from 2 to 55. The longest linkage group 3 spanned 967.4 cM with 55 makers. This map requires further saturation with more markers and agronomically important traits will be joined over it.
Assessment of Allelopathic Potential and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extracts from Three Compositae Plants
Chon, Sang-Uk ; Park, Seong-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 303~307
Some Compositae plants are known to contain biologically active substances that are allelopathic to weeds species as well as antioxidant to foods. Aqueous extracts from leaves of 3 plant species, Cirsium japonica, Kalimeris yomena, and Lactuca saliva, were bioassayed against alfalfa (Medicago saliva) to determine their allelopathic effects. The extracts applied on filter paper in bioassay significantly inhibited root growth of alfalfa. Extracts of 20 g dry tissue
from Lactuca sativa showed the most inhibitory effect on alfalfa seedling growth and followed by Cirsium japonica and Kalimeris yomena. Oxidative stability by Rancimat method and antioxidant activity by TBA method for the ground samples were the greatest in Lactuca sativa although were less than that of a commonly used antioxidant, 1% ascorbic acid. Antioxidant activity of methanol extracts on storing meat was stably kept for 28days and was excellent compared to control. These results suggest that three Compositae plants have potent allelopathic and antioxidant effects, and that their activities differ, depending on plant species.
Nitrogen fixation, and growth characteristics of Three Legume cover crops in no-tillage paddy field
Cho, Young-Son ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 308~315
A field experiment was conducted to investigate the performance of three legume species in a zero-tillage, non-fertilized rice field in a temperate zone. Before the experiment for 5 years, from 1995 to 1999, plant growth patterns of three legume species grown as over-wintering (October-May) cover crops on a paddy field were maintained to study N balance and
fixation. Decrease in plant density accelerated from after winter to flowering from 1,090, 320, and 5 to 732, 232, and 6 plants
in Chinese milk vetch (CMV), white clover (WC), and hairy vetch (HV), respectively. Total dry weights of plants above-ground level were 0.05, 0.11, and 2.43 g
. in WC, CMV and HV respectively but steeply increased at ripening up to 0.77, 2.33, and 26 g
. The root dry weight of HV and CMV rapidly increased while in WC, root dry weight increased slightly towards flowering. The highest nodule numbers were recorded in CMV to April thereafter WC produced the highest. Nodule size was distributed within 7mm in CMV but it was larger in HV varying from 1 to 10mm. Shoot N (g
) greatly increased from over-wintering to flowering in CMV, HV and WC and it ranged from 1.66, 0.5 and 1.92 to 12.6, 3.1 and 13.02 g
, respectively. After wintering, the initial shoot N content (%) was more in CMV. Root N content (%) was constant or slightly decreased in HV and WC. Soil total N in the control plot (clean fallow) was the highest on Mar. 2 then decreased rapidly to flowering. Soil N content was constant in HV plots whereas it was low in WC plots for the entire growth period except just after winter. Maximum nitrogenase activities were 9, 37.8, and 131 mol
. in CMV, HV, and WC, respectively. Nitrogenase activity showed a direct correlation with nodule number, size and fresh weight. As a cover crop preceding a rice crop, CMV is more suited to colder regions due to its earlier ripening characteristics. Hairy vetch and WC are recommended for regions with a mild winter and a long summer owing to their late ripening and great N fixation activity.
Comparison of Breeding and Cultural Contribution to Yield Gains of Korean Rice
Song, Moon-Tae ; Heu, Mun-Hue ; Moon, Huhn-Pal ; Kang, Yang-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 316~321
Analysis of breeding gains in grain yield has been intensively conducted in wheat, barley, oat, maize, and soybean. Such information is limited in rice. The objective of this study was to compare the breeding gains and cultural gains contributed to yield gains of Korean rice varieties since early 1900s. Two sets of yield data were used for analysis; the historical yield data of 1908 for old japonica cultivars, and present yield data in the years from 1996 to 1998 for the six cultivars, consisting of previous two old cultivars and four contemporary cultivars. The old cultivars were two native cultivars, Jodongi and Damageum, while contemporary cultivars were two premium quality japonica cultivars, Hwaseongbyeo and Dongjinbyeo, and two Tongil-type cultivars, high yielding cultivars developed from indica/japonica hybridization, Milyang23 and Dasanbyeo. The yield differences of old cultivars between the experiments in 1908 and the experiments from 1996 to 1998 were estimated as cultural gains (1.84 tons
) due to the improvement of cultivation technology. Yield differences between the old cultivars and contemporary cultivars were considered total yield gains during the periods. These were 2.51 tons
for japonica cultivars and 3.81 tons
for Tongil-type cultivars. From these data, the genetic gain of 0.67 tons
and 1.97 tons
were estimated for japonica cultivars and Tongil-type cultivars respectively. The ratio between cultural gain and genetic gain appeared to be 2.7:1 for japonica cultivars and 1:1 for Tongil-type cultivars. This analysis clearly showed the higher genetic contribution in Tongil-type cultivars than in japonica cultivars, suggesting a guideline to be used when planning new yield improvement programs. Additional implication has emerged when a better yield response to modem cultivation technology was found in one of the old cultivars, suggesting the combined improvement between breeding and cultural improvement is necessary for attaining the maximum yield capacity of a crop.
Effect of Controlled Hydration on Germination of Tobacco Seeds
Min, Tai-Gi ; Yoon, Hyo-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 322~325
Controlled hydration treatment of tobacco seeds enhanced seed performance greatly without additional materials associated with conventional osmotic or solid matrix priming technique. The seeds were hydrated by adding water to a level from 10 to 60% by 5% increments and incubated for 8 days at
. After the treatment, the seeds were dried to the original seed moisture content under
for 72 hours. The moisture content of tobacco seeds equivalent to 35% by the hydration treatment gave the greatest improvement in germination rate and speed compared to untreated or polyethylene glycol (PEG) primed seeds, especially at low temperature of
Growth and Yield Response of Transgenic Rice Plants Expressing Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Gene from Bacillus subtilis
Kuk, Yong-In ; Chung, Jung-Sung ; Sunyo Jung ; Kyoungwhan Back ; Kim, Han-Yong ; Guh, Ja-Ock ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 326~333
Transgenic rice plants expressing a Bacillus subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox), the last shared enzyme of the porphyrin pathway in the expressed cytoplasm or the plastids, were compared with non-trangenic rice plants in their growth characteristics such as tiller number, plant height, biomass, and yield. Transgenic rice plants of
generation had 8 to 15 % and 25 to 43% increases in tiller number compared to non-transgenic rice plants at 4 and 8 weeks after transplanting(WAT); similar values were observed for
generation at 4 and 8 WAT. However, the plant height in both
generations was similar between transgenic rice plants and non-transgenic rice plants at 4 and 8 WAT. Transgenic rice plants had 13 to 32% increase in above-ground biomass and 9 to 28% increase in grain yield compared to non-transgenic rice plants, demonstrating that biomass and yield correlate with each other. The increased grain yield of the transgenic rice plants was closely associated with the increased panicle number per plant. The percent of filled grain, thousand grains and spikelet number per panicle were similar between transgenic and non-transgenic rice plants. Generally, the growth and yield of transgenic generations (
) and gene expressing sites (cytoplasm-expressed and plastid-targeted transgenic rice plants) were similar, although they slightly varied with generations as well as with gene expressing sites. The transgenic rice plants had promotive effects, indicating that regulation of the porphyrin pathway by expression of B. subtilis Protox in rice influences plant growth and yield.
Alterations in Seed Vigour and Viability of Soybean Related with Accelerated Seed Aging and Low Dose Gamma Irradiation
Hwangbo, Jun-Kwon ; Kim, Jae-Sung ; Lim, Ji-Hyeok ; Baek, Myung-Hwa ; Chung, Byung-Yeoup ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 334~338
The objective of this study was to demonstrate whether or not the deleterious effects of accelerated aging on seed vigour and viability are alleviated by interaction with gamma irradiation. Seeds of soybean (Glycine max L.) were artificially aged and subsequently irradiated with 4 and 8 Gy of gamma irradiation. Germination rate was negatively affected by accelerated aging and positively by gamma irradiation, with a positive interaction of a 3day-seed aging treatment occurring with 4 Gy, possibly suggesting that 4 Gy of gamma irradiation partially offset the adverse effects of seed aging on germination. However, 5-day aged seeds did not gain any benefits from the gamma irradiation. Electrolyte leakage from the seeds increased with the duration in days aged. Irradiation, however, did not impose any effects on the leakage. Respiration rate of the seed with hypocotyl and primary root was significantly low for the aged seeds, but not for the seeds with both irradiation and aging treatments. Accelerated aging decreased the dry weight of the hypocotyl and primary root of the seeds without any measurable effects of irradiation.
-Amylase activity decreased with seed aging and positively responded to gamma irradiation. The data is discussed with regard to the possible roles of gamma irradiation for improving the seed vigour and viability of aged seeds.
Evaluation and classification of selected rice varieties for salinity tolerance at seedling stage
Lee, Seung-Yeob ; Ahn, Jeong-Ho ; Kwon, Tae-Oh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 339~344
To identify the new source of breeding materials for rice salt tolerance, the salinity tolerance of thirty-four varieties was evaluated under 0.5% saline condition at seedling stage. The salinity score showed highly significant correlations to dry weight and dead leaf ratio. The tested varieties were classified into three groups by visual score, reduction ratio of dry weight, and dead leaf ratio. Eighteen varieties were classified as the highly tolerant group (salinity scores of 1.3-3.7), seven varieties were fallen into the tolerant group (salinity scores of 4.2-5.8), and others were susceptible (salinity scores of 6.7-9.0). In highly tolerant group, most indica varieties including Getu, Dikwee and Kuatic Putic, didn't exsert a panicle under the Korean climate. But six varieties, Xiangcho V, Annapuruna, HP 3319-2wx-6-3-1, Giza 175, and GZ 2447-S-17, GZ 4255-6-3 were suitable to the Korean climate, and their heading date (6-16, August) and culm length (65-78㎝) were similar to the Korean varieties. Accordingly, these varieties can be utilized as crossing materials for the salt tolerance in japonica rice.
An Assessment of Allelopathic Potential of Korean Black Soybean Plant Parts
Chon, Sang-Uk ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 4, 2003, Pages 345~350
A series of aqueous extracts and residues from leaves, stems, roots, pods and seeds of Korean black soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) were assayed against alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) to determine their allelopathic activities through petri-dish and greenhouse experiments, and the results showed highest inhibition in the extracts or residues from the seeds, and followed by pods. The extracts of 40g dry tissue
applied on filter paper in petri-dish bioassay significantly inhibited root growth of alfalfa, and especially extracts from seeds and pods reduced root length of alfalfa more than those from leaves, stems, or roots. Plant height, root length, shoot and root dry weights of barnyard grass were reduced significantly by residue incorporation of seeds and pods as the incorporated amount increased. These results suggest that black soybean plants had herbicidal potential, and their activities were exhibited differently depending on plant parts.
Changes of Growth Characteristics and Yield according to the Cultivation Types of Waxy Corn, Chalok 1
Huh, Chang-Suk ; Kim, Jwo-Hwan ; Park, Hong-Jib ; Kim, Sung-Kook ; Lee, Seong-Pill ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 5, 2003, Pages 351~354
The appearances of growth and yield according to the cultivation types were investigated in chalok 1. The days to harvest under double vinyl house, open mulching and open cultivation were 87.7, 95.8, and 101.8 days, respectively and significantly different in each cultivation types. The branched ears of open mulching, double vinyl house and open cultivation were started at 7,8, and 13 days after silking, respectively. The frequency of branched ear per total plants to double vinyl house, open cultivation and open mulching were 10%, 13%, and 19%, respectively. The ear weight of open mulching and open cultivation was superior to branched ear weight. The yields (kg/10a) of double vinyl house, open mulching and open cultivation were 755.7kg, 740.7kg, and 530.0kg, respectively. The yields(kg/10a) of double vinyl house and open mulching were significantly different to that of open cultivation and LSD(5%) was 133.42. Thus, early cultivations in double vinyl house were more beneficial than other cultivation types because of the highest yield and the lowest branched ear.
Responses of Mungbean Varieties to Rhizobium Inoculation in respect of Nodulation, Nitrogenase Activity, Dry Matter Yield, and Nitrogen Uptake
A.R.M. Solaiman ; M.M. Haque ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 5, 2003, Pages 355~360
The responses of six mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] varieties to Rhizobium inoculation on number and dry weight of nodules, nitrogenase activity of root nodule bacteria, dry weight of shoot and root, nitrogen content, and uptake by shoot were investigated. The mungbean varieties were BARI Mung-2, BARI Mung-3, BARI Mung-4, BARI Mung-5, BINA Moog-2, and BU Mung-1. Two-third seeds of each variety were inoculated with Rhizobium inoculant and the remaining one-third seeds were kept uninoculated. Rhizobium strains TAL 169 and TAL 441 were used for inoculation of seeds. Inoculation of seeds with Rhizobium strains significantly increased nodulation, nitrogenases activity, dry matter production, nitrogen content, and uptake by shoot of the crop compared to uninoculated control. There was positive correlation among the number and dry weight of nodules, nitrogenase activity, dry weight of shoot and root, nitrogen content, and uptake by shoot of the crop. It was concluded that BARI Mung-4 in association with Rhizobium strain TAL 169 performed best in recording nodulation, nitrogenase activity, dry matter production, and nitrogen uptake by shoot of mungbean.
Responses of Pea Varieties to Rhizobium Inoculation: Nitrogenase Activity, Dry Matter Production and Nitrogen Uptake
Solaiman, A.R.M. ; Khondaker, M. ; Karim, A.J.M.S. ; Hossain, M.M. ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 5, 2003, Pages 361~368
The responses of five varieties and three cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum) to Rhizobium inoculation on nodulation, growth, nitrogenase activity, dry matter production and N uptake were investigated. The pea varieties were IPSA Motorshuti-l, IPSA Motorshuti-2, IPSA Motorshuti-3, BARI Motorshuti-l, BARI Motorshuti-2 and the cultivars were 063, Local small and Local white. Fifty percent seeds of each pea variety/cultivar were inoculated with a mixture of Rhizobium inoculants at rate of 15g/kg seed and the remaining fifty percent seeds were kept uninoculated. The plants inoculated with Rhizobium inoculant significantly increased nodulation, growth, nitrogenase activity, dry matter production and N uptake. Among the varieties/cultivars, BARI Motorshuti-l performed best in almost all parameters including nitrogenase activity of root nodule bacteria of the crop. There were positive correlations among the number and dry weight of nodules (r=
), nitrogenase activity of root nodule bacteria (r=
), dry weight of shoot (r=
), N content (r=
) and N uptake (r=
) by shoot both at flowering and pod filling stages of the crop, respectively. It was concluded that BARI Motorshuti-l in symbiotic association with Rhizobium inoculant performed best in recording nitrogenase activity, dry matter production and N uptake by pea.
Determination of C3G Content in Blackish Purple Rice using HPLC and UV-Vis Spectrophotometer
Ryu, Su-Noh ; Park, Sun-Zik ; Kang, Sam-Sik ; Han, Sang-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 5, 2003, Pages 369~371
Cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) content contained in the grains of blackish purple rice varieties, Heugjinjubyeo, Kilimheugmi, Heugnambyeo, Sanghaehy-anghyeolla, and the progenies derived from their crosses was evaluated by HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy. C3G content was higher in the range of 10-30% by using UV-Vis method compared to HPLC method. A significant linear relationship was, however, observed between two analytical methods. The correlation coefficient was 0.98. Thus, this results suggested that it would be able to use UV-Vis spectroscopy to determine C3G content which does not demanded precise value like selection.
Differences in Nutrient Quality among Rape Varieties for Oil Seed and Forage
Kwon, Byung-Sun ; Lim, June-Taeg ; Shin, Jeong-Sik ; Ahn, Gae-Soo ; Park, Hee-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 5, 2003, Pages 372~375
In order to examine the possibility that oil seed rape could be used as a forage fodder crop and to select the most suitable variety of forage rape at the southern area of Korea, two varieties of oil seed rape currently grown for oil production and six introduced varieties of forage rape with relatively high yield and high nutritional value were grown at the same condition and their nutritional value were observed. Generally, rape was considered as a useful forage fodder crop with high content of crude protein and low contents of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. Differences in mean values of the above characters between two groups of rape were not statistically significant. Velox showed significantly higher content of crude protein and significantly lower contents of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin compared with other varieties of forage rape. Rape was relatively high in IVDMD compared with other forage fodder crops, and forage rape was more or less higher in IVDMD and DDMM than oil seed rape. Velox was the highest in IVDMD and DDMM among the varieties of forage rape in this experiment.
Differences in Productivity among Rape Varieties for Oil Seed and Forage
Kwon, Byung-Sun ; Lim, June-Taeg ; Shin, Jeong-Sik ; Ahn, Gae-Soo ; Park, Hee-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 5, 2003, Pages 376~380
In order to examine the possibility that oil seed rape could be used as a forage fodder crop and to select the most suitable variety of forage rape at the southern area of Korea, two varieties of oil seed rape currently grown for oil production and six introduced varieties of forage rape with relatively high yield and high nutritional value were grown at the same condition their and yield components were observed. Forage rape was superior to oil seed rape in terms of yield components, plant fresh weight and plant dry mater weight. Velox was superior to any other variety of forage rape in these characters. When plant dry matter weight of the rape was subdivided into four components such as a main stem, branch stems, main stem leaves and branch leaves, contribution of these components to plant dry matter weight was in the order of branch stems, branch leaves, the main stem and main stem leaves. Dry matter percentage of the rape ranged from 9.32 to 11.08 percent, which was somewhat low value. There was no significant difference between two groups of the rape in terms of dry matter percentage. Velox showed somewhat higher value in dry matter percentage.
Soil Mineral Nitrogen Upteke and Com Growth from Hairy Vetch with Conventional and No-Tillage Systems
Seo, Jong-Ho ; Lee, Ho-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 5, 2003, Pages 381~387
Winter hairy vetch (HV) can be used as green manure with conventional tillage system (CT), in which chemical N fertilizer required for cultivation of sub-sequent com could be fully saved, or as cover crop with no-tillage system (NT) in which soil could be protected from erosion, control of weed, and the reduction of N fertilizer application. This experiment was carried out to compare the enrichment of soil mineral nitrogen (SMN) at corn root zone, and the changes of com growth and N uptake according to HV amounts (winter fallow, above-ground HV removed, intact HV, and HV added from aboveground HV removed) under two tillage systems in the upland field of National Crop Experiment Station, Suwon, Korea in 1996. HV cultivation during winter decreased SMN a little at com planting. HV incorporation with CT increased SMN rapidly during early growth stage according to rapid decomposition of Hv. SMN by HV cover with NT was increased slowly and its increase was higher in the surface soil (soil layer 0-7.5cm) compared to deep soil layer 7.5-22cm. Com growth and N status at corn silking stage, com yield and N uptake at harvest were increased in proportion to aboveground HV amounts regardless of tillage system. Average hairy vetch nitrogen (HV-N) uptake efficiency by com was 10% higher with CT than with NT in which average HV-N uptake efficiency was 43 %. Corn yields were not different between two tillage systems, but corn N uptake was increased by 33 kgN/ha more with CT than with NT due to the increase of corn N concentration. The increase of SMN and com N uptake from HV cover with NT could not be disregarded though those with CT were higher than with NT
Development of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) resistant Flue-cured
Chung, Yun-Hwa ; Keum, Wan-Soo ; Park, Sang-Ju ; Jung, Suk-Hum ; Kim, Yong-Am ; Kang, Yue-Gyu ; Chung, Youl-Young ; Cho, Soo-Heon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 5, 2003, Pages 388~391
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), TMV-common strain, causes severe damage at growth, yield and leaf quality on flue-cured tobacco in Korea. Controlling TMV outbreak with cultivating practices and chemicals are limited, thus, the best way would be developing TMV resistant variety. A new flue-cured hybrid, KF118, was developed from a cross of maternal parent MSTC175 and TC853 at the Agro-tech. Research Group, KT＆G Central Research Institute. KF118 exhibited more vigorous growth characteristics in early stage than that of NC82, standard variety in Korea, while other characters were favorable to those of NC82, It is highly resistant to TMV and bacterial wilt(Ral-stonia solanacerum), and black shank(phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae) is comparable to that of NC82. It should adapt well to the flue-cured production area, and can reduce premature flowering under unfavorable weather conditions. Yield of KF118 is 1 to 2% higher, and leaf quality is 4% higher than NC82. Fl hybrid, KF118, met acceptable standards for chemical and physical characteristics of cured leaf, and ranked high in good smoking taste by panel members in KT＆G.
Radical Scavenging Activity and Cytotoxicity of Maysin(C-glycosylflavone) isolated from Silks of Zea mays L.
Kim, Sun-Lim ; Snook, Maurice-E ; Lee, Jong-Ock ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 5, 2003, Pages 392~396
Maysin, a C-glycosylflavone, was isolated from the silks of maize, Zea mays L. The ESI mass spectrum indicates that molecular weight of maysin is
m/z, and the ether-linked sugar is rhamnose,
-146). The DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity of maysin was higher than that of rutin. However, as compared with its aglycon luteolin, maysin showed the relatively moderate DPPH scavenging activity mainly due to the glycosylation of two sugars moieties, keto-fucose and rhamnose. In the in vitro cytotoxicity test against the five human tumor cell lines such as lung (A549), ovarian (SK-OV-3), melanoma (SK-MEL-2), central nerve system (XF-489), and colon (HCT-15), maysin exhibited the relatively weaker activities than cisplatin. The
values of maysin were 62.24, 43.18, 16.83, 37.22, and 32.09/
, respectively. Result suggests that maysin is a potential cytotoxicity compound, particularly for human colon, central nerve system, and melanoma tumors.s.
Varietal Characteristics of Kernel Growth of Rice influenced by Different Temperature Regimes During Grain Filling
Kim, Deog-Su ; Shin, Jin-Chul ; Park, Kyung-Jin ; Lee, Chung-Kuen ; Kim, Je-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 5, 2003, Pages 397~401
This experiment was conducted to know the characteristics of kernel growth as affected by various temperature regimes during grain filling using the varieties Hwaseongbyeo, Ilpumbyeo and Chucheongbyeo. The rice plants tested were grown in the natural condition at 1/5000a Wagner pots until flowering. After flowering, the rice plants were moved to controlled temperature conditions in a phytotron. The minimum/maximum daily temperature in the phytotron was controlled by 12/18, 15/21, 18/24, 21/27, and 24/
, respectively. The grain weights were measured every three days after treatment. The mean daily kernel growth rate during active grain filling period showed different responses among varieties under various temperature regimes. The kernel growth rate of Chucheongbyeo was seriously reduced as temperature regimes were decreased. However, that of Ilpumbyeo was not influenced so critically. Ilpumbyeo showed some advantages in grain filling under low temperature regimes compared to Chucheongbyeo. The lag phase in grain filling of Chucheongbyeo was the longest among tested varieties, followed by Hwaseongbyeo under daily mean temperature regime of
. Kernel weight of Ilpumbyeo increased fast in early grain filling phase under low temperature. This characteristic may be favorable for grain filling in temperate zone where the daily mean temperature is drastically dropped during grain filling period. Regression analysis with kernel growth rate and temperature showed the estimated critical low temperature for grain filling among varieties were
in Ilpumbyeo, Hwaseongbyeo and Chucheongbyeo, respectively. Under moderate temperature the duration of grain filling of Ilpumbyeo was longer than that of Chucheongbyeo. However, Under low temperature that of Ilpumbyeo was more favorable than Chucheongbyeo.
Allelopathy and Quantification of Causative Allelochemicals in Sweet Potato
Chon, Sang-Uk ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 5, 2003, Pages 402~406
Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the allelopathic potentials of extracts or residues from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam). The extracts applied on filter paper in a Petri dish bioassay significantly inhibited root growth of alfalfa. Aqueous leachates at 40g dry tissue
) from leaves showed the highest inhibition against alfalfa, and followed by stems and roots. Alfalfa root growth was significantly inhibited by methanol extracts of the same plants as the concentration increased. The effect of residue incorporation into soil on seedling growth of com, soybean, barnyard grass and eclipta was examined in the greenhouse, and results showed that the leaf residues at 200g
by plant parts inhibited shoot dry and root dry weights of test plants by 60-80%. By means of HPLC, causative allelopathic substances present in plant parts of sweet potato "Sinyulmi" were identified as coumarin, trans-cinnamic acid, o-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, and chlorogenic acid. Total content of these compounds for leaves extracts were detected as the greatest amount in EtOAc fraction, especially trans-cinnamic acid was the greatest component. These results suggest that sweet potato plants have herbicidal potentials, and that their activities exhibit differently depending on plant parts.ant parts.
Immunological Assays of Freezing Tolerance in Barley using Antifreeze Proteins Antisera
Sung, Ha-Chang ; Kim, Dae-In ; Hwang, Cheol-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 5, 2003, Pages 407~412
In order to measure an antifreezing tolerance, antifreeze proteins accumulated upon cold acclimation in apoplast were analyzed. As Dongborilho were cold-acclimated for 3 to 74 days there was an abrupt increase in apoplastic proteins up to 30 days and then decrease to the similar levels. Among the known antifreeze proteins, CLP produced in E. coli. and TLP purified from apoplast were used to generate antisera that allow to measure and localize the proteins in leaves of barley. The CLP of 27.7 kDa and TLPs of 6, 26, 27, 30, and 31 kDa were increased in their amounts in apoplast as cold treatment being longer. There was a correlation among the amounts of those proteins accumulated in apoplast and freezing tolerance as shown in field and ion leakage tests for five cultivars. The deposit of CLP was localized in the marginal area and the area adjacent to leaf vescular bundle cells in an increasing manner according to duration of cold acclimation but no variation was observed in terms of it's distribution. Based on the close correlation between levels of antifreeze proteins and degrees of freezing tolerance, the immunological methods was to develop to estimate a freezing tolerance in barley.
Genetic Variation in Sprout-related Traits and Microsatellite DNA Loci of Soybean
Lee, Suk-Ha ; Kyujung Van ; Kim, Moon-Young ; Gwag, Jae-Gyun ; Bae, Kyung-Geun ; Oh, Young-Jin ; Kim, Kyong-Ho ; Park, Ho-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 5, 2003, Pages 413~418
Genetic diversity and soybean sprout-related traits were evaluated in a total of 72 soybean accessions (60 Glycine max, 7 Glycine soja, and 5 Glycine gracilis). 100-seed weight (SW) was greatly varied and ranged from 3.2g to 32.3g in 72 soybean accessions. Positive correlation was observed between GR and hypocotyl length (HL), whereas negative correlation was observed between SW and hypocotyl diameter (HD). Re-evaluation by discarding two soybean genotypes characterized with low GR indicated that much higher correlation of sprout yield (SY) with HD and SW. Based on the principal component analysis (PCA) for sprout-related traits, 57 accessions were classified. Soybean genotypes with better traits for sprout, such as small size of seeds and high SY, were characterized with high PCA 1 and PCA 2 values. The seed size in second is small but showed low GR and SY, whereas the third has large seed, high GR and more than 400% SY. In genetic similarity analysis using 60 SSR marker genotyping, 72 accessions were classified into three major and several minor groups. Nine of twelve accessions that were identified as the representatives of soybean for sprout based on PCA were in a group by the SSR marker analysis, indicating the SSR marker selection of parental genotypes for soybean sprout improvement program.
Mapping of RFLP Markers Linked to Bacterial Blight Resistant Genes (Xa-1, Xa-3) in Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 419~423
Bacterial blight caused by Xantomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is one of the most serious diseases of rice especially in southern area of Korea. Three races,
, are the most dominant species. lo improve rice breeding efficiency using marker assisted selection, some RFLP markers were surveyed for polymorphism between resistant and susceptible to
. And, 127 doubled-haploid (DH) lines derived from Milyang121/HRl1650-1-4-2 and 131 DH lines derived from Milyang123/HR10624-AC5 were evaluated to bacterial blight (
). Milyang121 and HR10624-AC5 have Xa-1, resistant to
race, and Milyang123 has Xa-3, resistant to
race. Three markers, RZ590, RZ536 and RG303, showing polymorphism between parents and resistance gene, Xa-1 and Xa-3, were analysed in the two combinations of DH lines. The segregation pattern of resistant DH population of Milyang123/HR10624-AC5 to susceptible showed 3:1 and 1:1 in
race. In three RFLP markers, RZ590 was linked to Xa-1 on chromosome 4, and RZ536 and RG303 were linked to Xa-3 on chromosome 11. The map distance between Xa-1 and RZ590 was 3.1cM on chromosome 4, and Xa-3 and RZ536/RG303 were 7.6/16.0cM on chromosome 11, respectively. The results of RFLP mapping will be useful for the selection and pyramiding of bacterial blight resistant genes.
Seed Production Method for Waxy Corn Hybrid, Chalok 2
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 424~428
This study was conducted to find out the optimum cultural method for hybrid seed production of Chalok 2. Higher seed yield was obtained when KW3 was used as a seed parent (female). KW7 was shown Higher barren stalk occurrence which caused significant seed yield reduction when it was used as a seed parent (female). The ratio of female (KW3) to male (KW7) rows with 4 to 1 had higher seed yield than that of 2:1 or 3:1. In case of using KW3 toy a seed parent, KW3 was susceptible to stem and ear rotting disease. The 35th day after silking was optimal period to harvest due to higher 100-grain weight, lower rotten grain, and higher germination rate.
tans-Resveratrol Content of Varieties and Growth Period in Peanut
Lee, Mi-Ja ; Cheong, Young-Keun ; Kim, Hyung-Soon ; Park, Ki-Hun ; Doo, Hong-Soo ; Suh, Duck-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 429~433
trans-Resveratrol(3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is phenolic compound present in grapes, wines, and peanuts, has been reported to have health benefits including anticarcinogenic effects, protection against cardiovascular diseases and reduced cancer risk. A simple method for the quantitative extraction of trans-resveratrol from peanut has been developed. Optimal conditions for extraction were investigated. Type of solvent, time, and temperature assayed influenced trans-resveratrol yield. Adequate extraction condition was decided to ethanol/water (80:20v/v) maintained at
for 45 min. After extraction, the protocol consists of sample preparation using a
solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge after concentrate with rotary evaporator and quantified by reversed phase HPLC using a
column at 308 nm. Analytical methods for measuring trans-resveratrol in peanut were adapted to isolate, identify, and quantify trans-resveratrol in 11 peanut varieties by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) with UV detector, The 11 peanut varieties content ranged from 0.018 to 1.125
with an average of 0.289
. The contents were higher in the seeds with than without testa, regardless of varieties. The trans-resveratrol content was Higher in 110, 130 days after sowing than that of other period.
Growth Characteristics of Dendropanax morbifera
in Wando Area of Korea
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 434~437
This study was carried out to obtain basic information for environment of native area and growth characteristics under various mulching materials in Dendropanox morbifera
, Dendropax c morbifera was grown wild at Wando area, particularly, distribution frequency was high at 20 to 280 meters above the sea level, and configuration of the ground of native area descended slowly toward the southeast. The soil characteristics of native area was pH 5.3-5.5, 8.8-9.5% in organic matter content and 19.8-22.0% in soil moisture. Growth of Dendropanox morbifera
, was accelerated by transparent polyethylene film and black polyethylene film mulched.
In vitro Propagation using Shoot Tip Culture of Curcuma longa L.
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 438~441
The present study was carried out to assess the possibility of rapid multiplication of Curcuma longa Linne through in vitro culture of shoot-apex. The factor investigated was effect of various growth regulators on shoot-apex culture. The shoot-apex cultured of MS(Murashige and Skoog) medium developed into plantlet in 16 Weeks. M.S. medium containing NAA at 0.5 ppm and BA 5.0 ppm was found to be optimal for growth of in vitro plantlet
Genetic Analysis of Quantitative Trait for Flowering Habits by Diallel Crosses in Sesame
Mun Sik Shin ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 442~446
The Gene action for eight quantitative characters related to the plant type was estimated using diallel cross among three different plant types of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in 2001. The parental varieties used for diallel cross were Ahnnam and Yangbaeck as indeterminate type, ksan22 as semi-determinate type, and dt-45 and Suwon131 as determinate type. In variance and covariance analysis (Wr-Vr) for eight characters the mean square of array except for capsule length, 1,000 seed weight were significant, which suggest that varieties involved in diallel set cross may have epitasis. Complete dominance was observed in the flowering periods, and ratio of matured grains while partial dominance was observed in the plant height, no. of capsules per plant, and no. of branch per plant. Broad sense heritability for flowering periods, plant height, no. of capsules per plant, and no. of branch per plant ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. Narrow sense heritability for flowering periods, capsule length, ratio of matured grain, 1,000 seed eight were 0.18 to 0.34, and plant height, no. of capsules per plant and no. of branch per plant were ranged 0.77 to 0.81.
Growth and Green Pod Yield by Sowing and Acclimation Dates in Autumn Green Pea
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 447~451
When sowing green peas in the autumn, proper seedling stands and growth quantity should be secured before winter begins. Also, for proper acclimatization, injuries caused by low temperatures, frost or high temperatures in the P.E. film during mulching, should be avoided during the regeneration period; that being early spring. The days required for growth in each stage in Yeosu are shorter than those in Naju because Yeosu has high temperatures during the growth period. Furthermore, in Yoesu, it was observed that there were more effective branches as well as effective and attached node positions on the branches. The first pods on the main stems and effective branches were observed to be higher than those in Naju. The number of pods per plant and the number of seeds per pod in Yoesu was greater than for those in Naju and the pod length was longer as well. Considering the missing plant rate, growth, and green pod yield, the optimum sowing date for the green pea was mid-November in both location. The stable acclimatizing date for the green pea was early March when the highest yield can be acquired due to a lot of effective branches and pods per plant and with the lowest missing plant rate and rate of injury in acclimatization.
Cropping Systems for Vegetable Peanut and Environmental Effect of Residue Incorporation in Soil
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 452~459
A new demand for vegetable peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Korea has increased farmers interest in growing vegetable peanut. Compared to grain peanut production, vegetable peanut production enables the growth period to be shortened by 20 or 30 days and farmers to adopt various cropping systems and to return crop residues in the soil. With the purpose of establishing desirable cropping systems for sustainable vegetable peanut production, three field experiments were conducted from 2000 to 2001 at Milyang, the southeastern part of Korea. Main focuses were given into the effect of cropping systems for vegetable peanut production on each crop's yield and soil sustainability. The cropping systems investigated were single vegetable peanut, peanut-radish-green barley, peanut-barley, and peanut-garlic cropping system, with or without crop residue incorporation in the soil. Among the cropping systems investigated for sustainable vegetable peanut production, peanut-only and peanut-radish-green barley cropping systems showed vulnerable to diseases and lodging while peanut-barley and peanut-garlic cropping systems showed higher stability in response to diseases and lodging, consequently leading to higher yield potential of vegetable peanut production. In the peanut-barley cropping system, both barley and peanut residues returned to the soil played an important role in soil improvement as well as in significantly increased grain yield of peanut and barley. A particular notice was taken to the pronounced increase in Trichoderma population and the amount of nitrogen mineralization induced by the returned barley residue. Soil structure, compactness, pH, and fertility were positively influenced by the returned crop residues, which apparently increased sustainability in vegetable peanut production systems.
Effect of Light Quality on Seedling Emergence, Growth and Photosynthesis of Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 460~464
White spunbonded fabrics has been utilized toy covering in rice seedling nursery. This study, therefore, was carried out to examine the effect of light quality on seedling emergence, growth, morphology, chlorophyll content and photosynthesis to get the information on the color of the fabrics. Blue, red and far-red lights were treated immediately after sowing seeds of three cultivars, Dongjinbyeo, Ilmibyeo and Daesanbyeo. Seedling emergence, growth and morphology, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate were measured. Seedling emergence rate of Dongjinbyeo and Daesanbyeo was low under far-red light treatment compared to those under blue and red light ones. Although the rate of Ilmibyeo was not different from three light treatments. Far-red light treatment showed similar response in plant height and leaf length, but yee light increased number of roots. Shoot and root dry weight was the highest in blue and red light treatments, respectively. Total dry weight, however, was the lowest under far-red light treatment. While chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of the three cultivars did not showed consistent response, those were the greatest under red light treatment, and were decreased in order of blue and far-red light treatment.
Effect of NaCl Treatment on Absorption of Inorganic Nutrient and Growth in Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 465~468
In order to find out the basic information for salt tolerance in vice (Oryza sativa L.), effects of NaCl treatment on absorption of inorganic components and growth were investigated in 6 japonica and 5 tongil varieties and compared to the salt tolerance variety, Annapurna. The absorption of N and
was less repressed than that of
, MgO, CaO, and
which were a little affected by NaCl treatment.
was the most highly repressed component in the absorption of inorganic components, followed by MgO, CaO, total-N,
content was increased about twenty times to the control at 30days after NaCl treatment, and tonsil varieties more than absorbed japonica ones. Dry weight of japonica varieties by NaCl treatment was less reduced than that of tonsil varieties, followed by Seomjinbyeo, Sinseonchalbyeo, Nakdongbyeo, Daechoungbyeo, Dongjinbyeo and Chuchoungbyeo in japonica group, and Milyang30, Gayeabyeo, Jangseongbyeo, Chilseongbyeo and Taebackbyeo in tonsil group. The relationship between dry weight reduction and Na/K ratio showed positively significant correlation in rice.
Genotypic Difference in Tocopherol and Tocotrienol Contents of Rice Bran
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 469~472
The rice bran has been known to contain tocopherols and tocotrienols carrying antioxidant and cholesterol-lowing activities. The content of 8 isomers of vitamin E :
tocoperols (T) and tocotrienols (
) were extracted from 18 major rice varieties and quantified with an HPLC. Tested varieties exhibited T,
and total vitamin E (
) contents ranging 9.1-14.8, 22.4-37.1, 34.9-46.5 mg/100g with averages of 11.1, 28.0, 39.2 mg/100g, respectively. Among tested varieties, Seojinbyeo and Hwasungbyeo showed high T contents and Andabyeo, Damakum were high in
, and Andabyeo and Seojinbyeo were high in total
contents. Regardless of varieties, the average 8 isomer contents (in mg/100g) were in descending order of
T (7.8) ＞
T (0.1). In most varieties,
, a strong antioxidant and anticancer compound, consisted 64% of total tocotrienol and 46% of total vitamin E in vice bran.
Effect of Free-Ranging Time on Duck Behavior Patterns and Rice Yield in Integrated Rice and Duck Farming
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 473~478
This study was conducted to clarify the effects of duck free-ranging time on the growth and behavior patterns of duck, pH and dissolved oxygen of irrigation water, and growth and yield of the rice plants in paddy fields. Two paddy fields with each 5 aye were used for 12 hours duck free-ranging plot (12HFR) and 24 hours duck free-ranging plot(24HFR). Body weight gain of the duck was not different between 12HFR and 24HFR. Eating and feather grooming behavior in the 12HFR were significantly longer than those of 24HFR, but other behavior patterns were not so. Working behavior and activities of duck in paddy fields tended to be longer in the 12HFR than in 24HFR. However, any difference was not found on staying time of duck in paddy fields. Although it was not statistically significant, pH and dissolved oxygen of irrigation water tended to be higher in the 12HFR than in 24HFR. The plant height of rice in the 12HFR was significantly shorter than that of 24HFR during the latter half period. The number of tillers per hill was significantly increased in the 24HFR than in 12HFR. The shoot dry weight of rice in the 12HFR was significantly less than in the 24HFR during the heading stage of rice plant, but the root dry weight was not different. The number of spikelets per panicle was significantly less in the 12HFR than in 24HFR, however the percentage of ripened grains was significantly higher in the 12HFR. The yield of rice was not significantly different between the treatments. In conclusion, the free-ranging time of duck for 12 hours in paddy fields promoted eating and working behavior of the ducks. Free-ranging time did give effects on rice traits such as the number of tillers per hill, plant height, shoot dry weight of the rice plant, and spikelet number and percentage of ripened grain. However, the duck growth, pH and dissolved oxygen of irrigation water, and paddy rice yield were not affected by duck free-ranging time. These results might suggest that almost same effect as in 24 hours of free-ranging can be obtained with only 12 hours of free-ranging in daytime.
Varietal Differences and Time Course Changes in Greenness Values in Rice Leaf
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 479~483
Knowledge of N accumulation during the vegetative growth stage of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is useful for determining the need for topdressing fertilizer N at panicle initiation and booting stage. The chlorophyll content showing SPAD threshold values generated by a simple and portable diagnostic instrument, chlorophyll meter, enables implement the measures of greenness and/or relative chlorophyll contents of leaves. Two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the possible application of the chlorophyll meter for N diagnosis in transplanted paddy rice. The chlorophyll meter threshold values (SPAD reading) were taken from uppermost fully expanded leaves at 10days interval from 10 days after transplanting. SPAD readings and N contents of rice leaf blade were closely related at the maximum tillering stage. SPAD readings during growth period showed M-shaped distribution, sharply finished to drop at 20 days after heading date. As N fertilizer increased, the SPAD readings increased. The SPAD readings showed more critical and clear difference in immature paddy field than in ordinary paddy field, where the former soil showed higher response to N fertilizer topdressed. Based on the PAD readings for obtaining an optimum sink size bearing the maximum grain yield, N fertilizer to be dressed at the panicle initiation stage is to be adjusted within the SPA
tillers value range 888 in ordinary paddy, and 800 in immature paddy vice. Among the cultivars tested, Huckhyangbyeo, Jinpumbyeo, Ansungbyeo, Sobibyeo, Manpungbyeo, Sangmibyeo, Jinbongbyeo, showed high SPAD values, whereas the cultivars, Nonghobyeo, Saechuchungbyeo, Hwabongbyeo, Mananbyeo, did low values and others intermediate SPAD threshhold values.
Spatial Distribution of Rice Root under Long-term Chemical and Manure Fertilization in Paddy
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 484~489
It is well known that root distribution of rice is a crucial factor for nutrient absorbtion and affect by soil fertility management. However, the findings on root distribution are limited due to laborious and tedious work. The characteristics of root distribution were investigated in long-term fertilizer experiment plots that were established in paddy soil, a fine silty family of typic Hal-paqueps (Pyeongtaeg series) in 1967. fertilizer experiment plots of no fertilizer, compost, NPK and NPK+compost plot have been maintained consistently for the past thirty six year and Npk+silicate plot for the past twenty two years. In NPK plot, 150kg N (urea), 100kg -
(fused phosphate) and 100kg
(potassium chloride) per hectare have been applied. For NPK+silicate plot, 500kg
(silicate) was applied in addition to fertilizer in NPK plot. For the compost plot, 10,000kg rice straw compost per hectare were applied. Root samples were taken from the positions of hill-center (below hill) and mid-point of four adjacent rice hills at heading stage by cylinder monolith (CM) method. The soil cores were sampled 20cm depth from the soil surface and partitioned four into layers at an interval of 5cm. The soil particles surrounding roots were washed out with tap water, Length and weight of the roots in each soil layer were measured and root length density (RLD), root weight density (RWD), specific root length(SRL) and rooting depth index (RDI) were calculated. Total root length was measured by intersection method. Plant height, tiller and shoot dry weight were the highest in NPK+compost plot. But RLD of hill-center soil cores was the highest in no-fertilizer plots. In the soil cores from mid-point position of four adjacent hills, RLD at 15-20cm soil depth was higher in compost plot than NPK plot. RLD in compost plots showed even distribution compared to those in chemical- fertilizer plots. RWD was the highest in the NPK+compost plot. SRL was the lowest in the NPK+silicate plot. RDI was the highest in the compost plot. Also, in this experiment it was found that the distribution of roots was closely related to the physical properties of the soil as affected by fertilization management.
Flowering Response According to Different Seeding Dates and Day-length Treatment in Perilla
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 490~494
To understand flowering response under diverse day-length condition and the movement of floral stimulus, we used six perilla accessions which showed diverse days to flowering. Though the growth phase was reported as irreversible between vegetative and reproductive stage, perilla showed reversible growth phase according to day length increase in May and June. When it sowed in March, flowering response was started in early May and vegetative and reproductive phase was coexisted in late June. When a part of a perilla plant was treated under short day condition, only apical buds on main stem or branches were flowered but other long day conditioned apical buds were not flowered. With this result it is suggested that the floral stimulus can not be transferred to other part of perilla.
Practice in Dual-purpose Barley for Forage and Grain with Early-sown Barley having Different Winter Habits
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 495~500
To establish the dual-purpose barley cultivation for forage by clipping before overwintering and grain next year, an experiment was conducted to clarify the effect of clipping times and cultivars haying different winter habits in rice-barley cropping system at paddy field in southern Korea. Barley showed more forage yield by clipping once only on December 10 than that of twice-clipping on November 10 and December 10. Among experimented cultivars, Saegangbori (winter habit II) and Keunalbori (winter habit IV) produced higher forage yield in one time clipping than the others. On the contrary, higher total digestive nutrients(TDN) was gained from twice-cut plants. Barley clipped once or twice headed and matured without serious delay as compared to the conventionally sown barley. In spite of clipping in November and/or December, barley produced grain yield similar to that of the conventional. Conclusively, it was regarded that cultivars having II-III winter habit were suitable for dual-purpose barley cultivation for forage in winter season and grain harvest next year
Growth Characteristics and Grain Quality of Naked Barley Infected by Barley Yellow Mosaic Virus
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 501~505
The growth characteristics and damage of naked barley infected with barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) were investigated between resistant and susceptible varieties in habitual field plot of BaYMV BaYMV of the barley plants with typical disease symptom were identified by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The visual degree (0-9) based on disease symptoms of BaYMV was different as 9 and 1 between susceptible variety Baegdong and resistant variety Naehanssalbori, respectively. Susceptible variety, Baegdong showed significant damage in culm length, number of kernel per spike and tiller per square meter but not in 1,000 kernel weight, so these results caused yield reduction to only 80% comparing to the control. Seed germination did not affected by BaYMV infection both in susceptible and resistant variety. In grain quality test, abortive grain yale and crude protein content were significantly increased compared to the control. The relationships between BaYMV infection and growth characteristics showed the negative correlations in culm length, number of tiller, 1000 kernel weight and yield, but it showed the positive correlation in crude protein contents. These results implied that BaYMV can affect not only barley growth and yield but grain quality.
Changes in Physiological Characteristics of Barley Genotypes under Drought Stress
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 506~515
Six barley varieties that showed different degree of drought tolerance were grown with and without drought stress treatment (control), and investigated for the temporal changes in growth and several physiological traits after drought treatment. Soil water potential was -0.05 ㎫ at the initial stage of drought treatment and dropped to -0.29 ㎫ at 19 days after withholding irrigation. Soil water potential (SWP) maintained at -0.05 ㎫ in the control. The dry weight (DW) under the drought treatment were reduced compared to the control as follows: Dicktoo-S (short awn), 69% ; Dicktoo-L (long awn), 70%; Dicktoo-T (tetra), 86%; Dongbori-1, 69%; Suwonssalbori-365, 55% and Tapgolbori, ,37%. Dicktoo lines and Dongbori-1 were more tolerant than Suwonssalbori-365 and Tapgolbori. Leaf relative water contents (RWC) and leaf water potential (LWP) decreased obviously under the drought condition, the decrease being greater especially in the less drought-tolerant barley genotypes. Dongbori-1 and Dicktoo-L in drought treatment showed net photosynthesis of 38% and 17% compared to the control, respectively, and the other four genotypes much lower photosynthesis of 1.1% to 7.0%. Stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance, and the photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of PS II were reduced by drought treatment, the reduction being greater in drought-sensitive genotypes. The drought-tolerant genotypes had greater osmotic adjustment (OA) capacity under water stress. Thus, the decrease of RWC and LWP was lower and the turgor pressure conservation capacity was higher under water stress in drought-tolerant genotypes. Drought-tolerant genotypes showed less decrease of photosynthesis because stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance and the ratio (Fv/Fm) of the variable to maximal fluorescence of drought-resistant genotype was decreased less in the drought stress condition. In conclusion, the drought-tolerant genotypes had better water conservation capacity through efficient OA, and this led to the lower decrease of photosynthesis and growth in water stress condition.
Relationship between Drought-Tolerance and Physiological Parameters in Korean Barley Genotypes
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 516~526
Thirty-six barley varieties including Korean modern and local varieties were tested for drought-tolerance in the field of plastic rain shelter, Drought treatment was initiated at initial tillering stage (March 27, 2002) by withholding irrigation and lasted until harvest. Soil water potential maintained at around -0.05㎫ in the control plot and varied from -0.05㎫ (at the initial stage of drought treatment) to -0.29㎫ in the drought treatment plot. At forty days after drought treatment, relative water content (RWC), osmotic potential (OP), osmotic adjustment (OA), and
) were measured and then plants were sampled for leaf area index (LAI) and dry weight (DW). Barley was harvested at maturity for determining DW, grain yield, 1000 grains weight and number of spikelet. The tested varieties revealed wide spectrum of drought tolerance. Dongbori-1, Chalbori, Changyeongjaerae, Samdobori and Weolseong 87-31 showed strong drought-tolerance while Songhagbori and Suwonmaeg360 showed weak drought-tolerance. The drought injury indexes (drought/control ratio) of DW and yield revealed significant positive correlation with leaf RWC in drought treatment plot and
in the control plot, but obvious negative correlation with leaf OP and OA under drought condition. In addition, all the drought indexes of OP,
and RWC showed obvious positive correlation with the drought injury indexes of DW, 1000 grain weight and yield. Thus, OP and RWC under drought condition and
under well-watered condition would be used as the evaluation criteria for drought- tolerance of barley genotypes. However, further investigation is needed for the relationship between
and drought-tolerance as the other reports were not consistent with our result.
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on Quality Characteristics of Rice Grain and Aroma-active Compounds of Cooked Rice
Je-Cheon Chae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 527~533
This experiment was conducted in 2001 to investigate the effect of four nitrogen levels (0, 5.5, 11, 16.5kg/10a) on the yield and quality of vice especially with respect to eating quality. One early-maturing variety (Daejinbyeo) and two mid-late-maturing varieties (Ilpumbyeo and Chucheongbyeo) were used in this experiment. Rice yields of all varieties were increased by the higher rate of nitrogen application, mainly due to a larger number of panicles per m2. Head rice ratio was reduced significantly with an increased rate of nitrogen, while immature vice ratio was increased significantly. Increasing the nitrogen application rate, a considerable increase of protein content was found in all tested rice varieties. Palatability value of Daejinbyeo and Ilpumbyeo measured by rice taster was not affected by nitrogen application rate ranging from 0 to 11 kg/10a, but it was decreased significantly at the rate of 16.5kg/10a. In contrast, the palatability value of Chucheongbyeo was decreased significantly by increasing nitrogen application at the whole application rate. A positive correlation was found between nitrogen application rate and protein content (r=
), but head rice (r=
) and palatability value (r=
) showed a negative correlation with the nitrogen application rate. Regardless of the fact that eleven aroma-active volatile compounds were detected in cooked vice of Chucheongbyeo, it was concluded that the aroma-active volatile compounds of cooked rice was not affected by the different nitrogen application rate. The results of this study showed that the standard nitrogen fertilization rate of 11kg/10a could be appropriate considering both rice yield and palatability.
Effect of Transplant and Harvest Time on Grain Quality of Rice in Reclaimed Paddy Field
Je-Cheon Chae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 48, issue 6, 2003, Pages 534~539
The yield and quality characteristics of three rice varieties(Seojinbyeo, Ilpumbyeo, and Chuchungbyeo) in reclaimed saline paddy field were investigated under different cultural practices, three transplanting times (May 15, May 30 and June 15) and four harvest times (40, 50, 60 and 70days after heading) in order to obtain basic information for the production of high quality rice. Brown rice yield of three rice varieties were significantly higher in early and medium than late season cultivation. The protein content of milled rice showed high interaction effect between transplanting time and harvest time. Palatability values of Seojinbyeo and Ilpumbyeo were significantly higher in late than medium season cultivation, but Chucheongbyeo did not show any difference in its palatability value by different transplanting time. The palatability values of three rice variety was the highest in the harvest at 40 days after heading. The grain yield of three rice varieties were higher in early and medium than late season cultivation, whereas palatability values of three rice varieties were significantly higher in the early and late season cultivation than medium season cultivation. The palatability value measured by rice taster showed a highly negative correlation(r=
) with cumulative air temperature during ripening period.