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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 49, Issue 6 - Dec 2004
Volume 49, Issue 5 - Dec 2004
Volume 49, Issue spc1 - Oct 2004
Volume 49, Issue 4 - Sep 2004
Volume 49, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 49, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 49, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
Selecting the target year
Yield and Nitrogen Uptake under Reduced Nitrogen Fertilizer during Early Growth of Rice in the Rice-Barley Double Cropping System
Seo, Jong-Ho ; Cho, Hyeon-Suk ; Kim, Chung-Guk ; Lee, Jin-Mo ; Park, Seong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 49, issue 1, 2004, Pages 1~6
N fertilizer required by rice could be reduced greatly in the rice-barley double cropping system than in the rice single cropping system. This study was conducted to investigate how much of the N fertilizer during the early stage of rice in the rice-barley double cropping system, could be saved compared to that in the rice single cropping system. This experiment was carried out at the paddy field of the National Crop Experiment Station in Suwon, Korea during three years from 1999 to 2001. Amounts of soil mineral nitrogen (SMN) and SPAD values of rice leaf during rice growing season in the rice-barley double cropping system were higher than those in the rice single cropping system under the same amount of N application during two years. Yield and N uptakes of rice at harvesting time were also higher in the rice-barley double cropping system than in the rice single cropping system during two years. Yield and N uptake of rice in the rice single cropping system were decreased when basal N fertilizer was omitted, but those reductions were not found by either omitting basal N fertilizer or omitting N fertilizer at tillering stage in the rice-barley double cropping system during 2000 and 2001. But yield and N uptakes of rice were decreased by 70 kg/10a and 2kgN/10a by the omission of both N application at basal and tillering stages in the rice-barley double cropping system in 2002. It was concluded that N fertilizer as much as tillering N fertilizer could be saved in the rice-barley double cropping system.
Allelopathic and Autotoxic Effects of Alfalfa Plant and Soil Extracts
Chon, Sang-Uk ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 49, issue 1, 2004, Pages 7~11
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants have been reported to be autotoxic as well as allelopathic. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments through petri-dish and pot test were conducted to determine autotoxic effects of alfalfa leaf and soil extracts on the germination or early seedling growth of alfalfa, and to evaluate allelopathic effects of alfalfa leaf residues on alfalfa, barnyard grass, com, eclipta and soybean. Alfalfa seed germination was delayed depending on aqueous extract concentration, with no difference in final germination after 48 hours. Alfalfa root length was more sensitive to the autotoxic chemicals from leaf extracts than was germination or shoot length. Root growth of alfalfa was significantly inhibited at extract concentration of more than 1 g dry tissue/L (g
). Hypocotyl growth, however, was not affected by all the concentrations of leaf extracts. Soil extracts from 4-yr-old alfalfa stand significantly reduced alfalfa root length by 66%, while soil extracts from 0,1, and 3yr-old stand stimulated root length up to 14-32% over the control. Residue incorporation with dry matters of alfalfa leaf at 100 g
reduced seedling length of several crop and weed species, ranging from 53 to 87% inhibition. Addition of nutrient solution into alfalfa leaf extracts alleviated alfalfa autotoxic effect. This result indicates alfalfa leaf and soil extracts or residues could exert autotoxic as well as allelopathic substances into soil environments during and after establishment.
Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes during Senescence in Rice Seedlings
Lee, Cheol-Ho ; Lee, Shin-Woo ; Chun, Hyun-Sik ; Moon, Byoung-Yong ; Lee, Byeong-Seok ; Koo, Jeung-Suk ; Lee, Chin-Bum ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 49, issue 1, 2004, Pages 12~18
Activity of senescence-induced antioxidant enzymes in the detached rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. Dongjin) was examined. The levels of
content and peroxidase (POD) activity were gradually increased during leaf senescence, whereas catalase activity was decreased. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were slightly increased until 3d and 4d of dark induced-senescence, and thereafter were decreased. The activation of all SOD isoforms showed a significant decrease after 6d and 7d. After 4d to 7d of dark senescence, there was a significant effect in enhancing the activity of APX-12 and -13 isoforms as compared with light, despite similar levels in total APX activity. GR-8 and -10 isoforms were more effective in leaf senescence at 4d to 7d, particularly with respect to dark-induced senescence. These results suggest that the metabolism of active oxygen species such as
is dependent on various functionally interrelated antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, SOD, APX and GR.
Ecophysiology of Seed Germination in Chinese Milk Vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.)
Shim, Sang-In ; Kang, Byeung-Hoa ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 49, issue 1, 2004, Pages 19~24
Germination and emergence habits of Chinese milk vetch (CMV) were examined to obtain the basic information for the effect of environmental conditions and cultural practices on the seedling density. Seed germination tests with different water potentials, temperatures, and soil and water depths showed the environmental effects on the characters related to seed germination in CMV. Imbibition under different temperatures reflects that initial velocity was rapid at higher temperature, however, the times to full imbibition were not different between 15 and
. The optimal germination temperature for CMV germination was ranged from 15 to 20 and the germination was highly affected by water potential of media at relatively high temperature above
. When the seeds were sown in flooded condition the germination was not proportionally affected by water depth. In addition, there was no correlation between water depth and oxygen concentration. The germination of seeds flooded by 2cm water depth were poorly germinated compared to other depths. Results indicated that the germination of submerged seeds was more highly influenced by flooding depth than the temperature, it was also affected more strongly at 10 than
. Emergence of CMV depending on the thickness of covered soil was poor when the soil layer was greater than 5cm. In the experiment with seeds collected between 22 days after flowering (OAF) and 52 DAF, the highest germination ability of CMV seeds was observed at 39 DAF and germinability was decreased subsequently as seeds became mature. The lower germinability may be due to the enhanced seed dormancy.
Early Germination Response of Soybean Seed to Accelerated Aging and Low Dose Gamma Irradiation
Hwangbo, Jun-Kwon ; Kim, Jae-Sung ; Lim, Ji-Hyeok ; Baek, Myung-Hwa ; Chung, Byung-Yeoup ; Kim, Jin-Hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 49, issue 1, 2004, Pages 25~29
The responses of soybean seeds were evaluated to accelerated aging and gamma irradiation with regard to germination, seed leakage, seed leachate component and dry weight of hypocotyl and primary root of the germinating seed. Accelerated aging significantly reduced the final germination rate while gamma irradiation increased the final germination rate. Furthermore, the interactive effects occurred that the final germination rate of 5-day aged seeds increased considerably in response to 4 Gy of gamma irradiation. The extent to which the electrolyte was leaked from the seeds (conductivity) was significantly affected by accelerated aging and showed a close negative correlation with the germination rate. Gamma irradiation, however, did not significantly affect the electrical conductivity of seed leachate. The accelerated aging significantly increased the concentrations of the particular electrolytes leaked from the seeds while the gamma irradiation did not affect those concentrations. Of the electrolytes leaked from the seeds, Ca and Mg showed relatively lower concentrations while K showed greater concentrations than others. Moreover, N and P showed similar responses to aging treatment. Aging treatment significantly affected dry weight (DW) of hypocotyls and primary root. Also, gamma irradiation decreased DW of hypocotyls and primary root, particularly for 8 Gy associated with 5 days aging treatment. The data were discussed in terms of the relationships of seed vigor with aging treatment and gamma irradiation.
Phytotoxic Effect of Xanthium occidentale Leaf Extract on Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Alfalfa and Barnyard Grass
Chon, Sang-Uk ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 49, issue 1, 2004, Pages 30~35
Compositae plants are known to contain biologically active substances that are allelopathic to agricultural crops as well as weed species. Aqueous extracts from leaves of Xanthium occidentale were assayed against alfalfa (Medicago sativa) to determine their allelopathic effects, and the result showed that the extracts applied onto filter paper significantly inhibited seed germination as well as root growth of alfalfa. Untreated seeds germinated in 60h, but extract concentrations greater than 30g
delayed seed germination. The extracts significantly inhibited seed germination of alfalfa, and
-amylase activity of alfalfa and barley seeds during 24-36 hours after treatment. Aqueous extracts of 40 g
from X. occidentale were completely inhibited the hypocotyl and root growth of alfalfa. Aqueous leaf extracts showed the highest inhibitory effect and followed by root and stem extracts. Early seedling growth of both alfalfa and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) was significantly reduced by methanol extracts. By means of high-performance liquid chromatography, chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid were quantified as the highest amounts from water and EtOAc fractions, respectively. BuOH and EtOAc fractions of X. occidentale reduced alfalfa root growth more than did hexane and water fractions. The findings of the bioassays for aqueous or methanol extracts reflected that the inhibitory effect of extract was closely related to the level of responsible allelochemicals found in plant extracts.
Surface Imaging of Barley Aleurone Cell by Atomic Force Microscopy
Kim, Tae-Wan ; Huh, Kwang-Woon ; Kim, Seung-Hwan ; Ku, Hyun-Hwoi ; Lee, Byung-Moo ; Kim, Jae-Yoon ; Seo, Yong-Won ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 49, issue 1, 2004, Pages 36~40
To observe and analysis ultra-microscopically barley aleurone cell surface, atomic force microscope (AFM) was used. Seed coat of early maturing germplasm, eam9, was dehulled and scanned by non-contact mode. We have obtained the high resolution topographic 3-dimensional image of barley aleurone layer with high resolution. These images showed the membrane proteins in barley aleurone cell. One channel protein and numerous peripheral or integral proteins were detected in a area of 100
. Furthermore, we found that their widths were ranged from 50 to 750nm and lengths from 0 to 66
. The thickness of aleurone layer was measured by scanning electron microscope. The thickness at early developmental stage was about 16 and then the aleurone cell enlarged upto 57
at least until 42 days after anthesis. In this study, we firstly reported on the ultrastructural AFM analysis of living aleurone cell as a biological specimen. It was clearly suggested that AFM will become an powerful tool for probing both the structural properties of biological samples.
Nondestructive and Rapid Estimation of Chlorophyll Content in Rye Leaf Using Digital Camera
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 49, issue 1, 2004, Pages 41~45
We have developed and tested a new method for nondestructive estimation of chlorophyll- and nitrogen-contents in rye leaf. It was found that the relation-ships among nitrogen, chlorophyll content and fresh weight were significantly positive correlated. Nitrogen and chlorophyll content were positively correlated whereas correlation coefficients among R, G, R-B and G-B on the basis of photo-numerical values were negative. We have found that R/(R-B) obtained from data of digital camera is the best criterion to estimate the chlorophyll content of leaves. The regression curves of the relation between R/(R-B) and chlorophyll content were also calculated from the data collected on cloudy days. The coefficients of determination (
) were ranged from 0.33 to 0.99. In this study, the accuracy in estimating chlorophyll content from the color data of digital camera image could be improved by correcting with R, G, and B values. It is suggested that, for practical purposes, the image values estimated with sufficient accuracy using a portable digital camera can be applied for determining chlorophyll content and nitrogen status in plant leaves.
Germinability of Film-Coated Snap Bean Seed as Affected by Oxygen Diffusion Rate under Different Soil Moisture Contents
Kim, Seok-Hyeon ; Alan G. Taylor ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 49, issue 1, 2004, Pages 46~51
The film coated snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds with five different coating materials treated with 3% increase in seed weight were planted at sandy loam soil controlled moisture content of 18, 19, 20 and 21 %. The oxygen diffusion rate (ODR) was calculated from the different moisture content soil. The number of normal seedlings, seedling vigor, and seedling capability in field (seed vigor x dry matter weight) were observed at 9 days after planting and compared to the changes of ODR. The germination rate and ODR were sharply decreased simultaneously in the seeds planted at 21 % soil moisture content. Seedling emergence did not occur at all as the soil moisture content increased above 22 %. Hence this value should be considered as the threshold of soil moisture content for seedling emergence. An ODR value under 20% did not influence the percent emergence significantly. The certain difference observing in the emergence at the same ODR was not related clearly to the condition of soil. So it can be assumed that the limit of soil moisture content for the emergence of snap bean was approximately 20%. The value of 18% soil moisture content may be considered as the optimum for snap bean emergence. There was close relationship between the mean value of ODR in different soil moisture contents and the emergence. The germination rates of the seeds coated with the different materials were quite different when the seeds were planted at 21 % soil moisture. Dry weight of the seedlings from film coated seeds was decreased slightly, but the germination rates were not much different from the non-treated control under relatively higher soil moisture content (21 %). Major factor lowering emergence rate was oxygen stress while film coating act as a minor constraint for snap bean sown in excess soil moisture condition.
Improvement of Shoot Regeneration from Scutella-Derived Callus in Rice
Kim, Yong-Wook ; Cho, Joon-Hyeong ; Lee, Jang-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 49, issue 1, 2004, Pages 52~60
The optimized in vitro culture system was investigated for improvement of regeneration efficiencies by observing the responses of scutella-derived callus of Korean rice (Oryza sativa L.). Large variations of callus induction (43.9-93.9%) and shoot regeneration (0-88.7%) were observed among the rice cultivars depending on medium. However, shoot regeneration was significantly improved by selected utilization of basal medium, growth regulators, and carbon sources. N6 basal medium was more efficient for embryogenic callus induction than MS or LS basal medium, while MS was superior to N6 for shoot regeneration. The calli of highly regenerative cultivars grew faster and showed higher rates of green tissue formation (GT) and shoot regeneration (SR) and lower rate of callus browning (CB) than those of recalcitrant cultivars. Although a higher level of kinetin stimulated the GT and SR in highly regenerative cultivars,
kinetin generally suppressed the GT and SR, while CB was accelerated compared to
kinetin. Additional benefits of sorbitol combined with maltose (or sucrose) under
kinetin were certainly confirmed on regeneration efficiencies compared to sucrose alone as carbon source and osmotic regulator. This combination showed high rate of GT and SR with multiple shoots while low rate of CB. With MSRK5SM-Pr medium (
kinetin, 3% sorbitol, 2% maltose,
proline), the regeneration efficiencies of total 17 out of 24 cultivars were practically improved 160% on average compared to MSRK2S (
kinetin, 3% sucrose) control medium. Especially, the medium was most effective to the cultivars showing a medium level of regenerability such as Daesanbyeo and Dongjinbyeo and Suwon477, enhancing efficiencies more than 300-600% compared to MSRK2S medium.
Improvement of Transformation Efficiencies using Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Korean Rice
Cho, Joon-Hyeong ; Lee, Jang-Yong ; Kim, Yong-Wook ; Lee, Myoung-Hoon ; Park, Seong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 49, issue 1, 2004, Pages 61~68
A reproducible transformation system via optimized regeneration media for Korean rice cultivars was established using Agrobacterium tumefeciens LBA4404 (pSBM-PPGN; gusA and bar). Although japonica rice genotypes were easier to produce transgenic plants compared to Tongil type cultivars, transformation efficiencies were not always correlated with regeneration efficiencies of non-transgenic callus on the control medium. Regeneration efficiencies of Donganbyeo, Ilmibyeo, and Manchubyeo were over 50% in non-transgenic control, however, transformation efficiencies were significantly low when only sucrose was added to the media as a carbon source. However, the medium, MSRK5SS-Pr (or MSRK5SM-Pr), that contains
NAA, 2 % sucrose (or maltose), 3% sorbitol, and
proline, was the most efficient not only for regeneration of non-transgenic callus but also for regeneration of transgenic callus in the presence of L-phosphinotricin (PPT). Average transformation efficiencies of 16 Korean rice cultivars were significantly enhanced by using the optimized medium from 1.5% to 5.8% in independent callus lines and from 2.9% to 19.4% in tromsgenic plants obained. Approximately 98.9% (876 out of 885) transgenic plants obtained on optimized media showed basta resistance. Stable integration, inheritance and expression of gusA and bar genes were continued by GUS assay and PCR and Southern analysis of the bar gene. With Pst1 digestion of genomic DNA of transgenic plants, one to five copies of T-DNA segment were observed; however, 76% (19 out of 25 transgenic plants) has low copy number of T-DNA. The transformants obtained from one callus line showed the same copy numbers with the same fractionized band patterns.
Identification of DNA Variations Using AFLP and SSR Markers in Soybean Somaclonal Variants
Lee, Suk-Ha ; Jung, Hyun-Soo ; Kyujung Van ; Kim, Moon-Young ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 49, issue 1, 2004, Pages 69~72
Somaclonal variation, defined as phenotypic and genetic variations among regenerated plants from a parental plant, could be caused by changes in chromosome structure, single gene mutation, cytoplasm genetic mutation, insertion of transposable elements, and DNA methylation during plant regeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate DNA variations among somaclonal variants from the cotyledonary node culture in soybean. A total of 61 soybean somaclones including seven
lines and seven
lines from Iksannamulkong as well as 27
lines and 20
lines from Jinju 1 were regenerated by organogenesis from the soybean cotyledonary node culture system. Field evaluation revealed no phenotypic difference in major agronomic traits between somaclonal variants and their wild types. AFLP and SSR analyses were performed to detect variations at the DNA level among somaclonal variants of two varieties. Based on AFLP analysis using 36 primer sets, 17 of 892 bands were polymorphic between Iksannamulkong and its somaclonal variants and 11 of 887 bands were polymorphic between Jinju 1 and its somaclonal variants, indicating the presence of DNA sequence change during plant regeneration. Using 36 SSR markers, two polymorphic SSR markers were detected between Iksannamulkong and its somaclonal variants. Sequence comparison amplified with the primers flanking Satt545 showed four additional stretches of ATT repeat in the variant. This suggests that variation at the DNA level between somaclonal variants and their wild types could provide basis for inducing mutation via plant regeneration and broadening crop genetic diversity.