Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 51, Issue 7 - Dec 2006
Volume 51, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 51, Issue spc1 - Nov 2006
Volume 51, Issue 5 - Sep 2006
Volume 51, Issue 4 - Sep 2006
Volume 51, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 51, Issue 2 - Jun 2006
Volume 51, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Anticancer Activity and Toxicity of Tocotrienol Extracted from Rice Bran
Lee, Young-Sang ; Kim, Yong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 1~6
Rice is the most important crop in Korea and its annual production of 5.2 million ton is followed by over 0.5 million ton of bran as by-products of milling process. Although rice bran contains various nutritious and pharmaceutical compounds, rice brans are rarely utilized as functional food sources in Korea. In recent, tocotrienols are well known having distinctive pharmaceutical effectiveness. So tocotrienols extracted from rice bran oil were evaluated about Pharmaceutical function. The
of tocotrienols products against liver cancer, HepG2 cells were
, indicating anticancer activity of final products. By animal feeding tests, the final products containing tocotrienols did not induce any toxicity signs in mortality, Incidence of clinical signs, body weight, etc. after a single oral administration, which proved safety of the tocotrienol products. In conclusion, tocotrienol extracted from rice bran has pharmaceutical activity without any toxic effects, which is also suggested tocotrienol products may be a good fortifying nutrition far the health and medical care.
Grain Quality of Imported Steamed-Rice
Chun, A-Reum ; Jeong, Eung-Gi ; Choi, Yoon-Hee ; Kim, Kee-Jong ; Lee, Jeom-Sig ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 7~11
The grain quality of imported steamed-rice was investigated to improve the competitiveness of domestic .ice (Oryza sativa L.) in low price market. Eight samples of imported steamed-rice were collected during 2004 and 2005, and they were examined in appearances, physicochemical, pasting, cooking qualities and palatability. In the appearance of grain, there were many cracks, which were easily classified, on the surface of steamed-rice. And they had high protein contents, low moisture contents and very low glossiness. We could certain that there was often decolorization process after boiling according to the wide range of whiteness in steamed-rice samples. Amylograms and thermo-grams of the steamed-rice represented that they were at-ready gelatinized. Thus, we could concluded that the steamed-rice absorbed water with meager endothermic reaction and eluted more soluble solid with many breaks of the grain than milled rice during cooking process. From the sensory preference evaluation, the steamed-rice had the lowest scores among milled rice, long stored rice, and broken rice samples on all evaluation items.
Effects of Moisture Contents of Rough Rice and Storage Temperatures on Rice Grain Quality
Choi, Yoon-Hee ; Jeong, Eung-Gi ; Choung, Jin-Il ; Kim, Deog-Su ; Kim, Sun-Lim ; Kim, Jung-Tae ; Lee, Choon-Gi ; Son, Jong-Rok ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 12~20
This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between each quality characteristics and changes of grain quality according to storage temperature and moisture contents of rough rice of Dongjin 1 and Siodongjinbyeo. Respiration rate of rough rice and fat acidity of brown rice were increased with moisture contents of rough rice and storage temperature. Germination rate of rough rice was the highest at
moisture contents of rough rice stored at low temperatures for 12 months. Germiation rate of the stored at low temperature after 16 months was up to 80% however the rate of
moisture contents of rough rice stored at room temperature was severely decreased to below the 10%. Gloss value of cooked rice was increased with moisture contents of rough rice and the lower storage temperature. Fat acidity of brown rice was lower in Sindongjinbyeo than Dongjin 1 at the lower storage temperature. Sensory score of cooked rice of Sindongjinbyeo which stored at low temperature for 16 months was better than Dongjin 1 and excllent at
moisture contents of rough rice. Correlations between sensory score of cooked rices and color b value of brown rice, gloss value of cooked rice and color L value of brown rice were significant 0.731**, 0.625*, and 0.615*, resectively, and were also positively significant correlated with break down, peak viscosity, pasting temperature, and fat acidity of brown rice -0.864**, -0.795**, -0.786**, and -0.779**, respectively.
Effect of Appearance, Viscosity and Texture Characteristics on Rice Palatability in Some Rice Varieties
Ha, Ki-Yong ; Choi, Yoon-Hee ; Choung, Jin-Il ; Noh, Gwang-Il ; Ko, Jae-Kwon ; Ree, Jae-Kil ; Kim, Chung-Kon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 21~24
We analyzed factors which related with rice quality at seven varieties. The whiteness of Daeyabyeo, Hopyeongbyeo and Koshihikari were higher than those of other rice varieties. In the hardness of brown rice, Ilpumbyeo was the lowest, and Sindongjinbyeo was the highest among varieties. The hardness cooked rice of Hopyeongbyeo were significantly low, and cohesiveness of those were significantly high. but adhesiveness, viscosity and gumminess of Ko-shihikari was high than other cooked rice varieties. The palatability of Daeyabyeo and Hopyeongbyeo were higher than those of Ilpunbyeo and Ungwangbyeo. Varieties which were known as having good palatability were higher in the breakdown, while setback and consistency were low. In those varieties, factors of upper were correlated with palatability, so this were supposed to determine palatability.
Effect of Storage Period and Temperature on the Characteristics Related with Rice Quality
Ha, Ki-Yong ; Park, Hong-Kyu ; Ko, Jae-Kwon ; Kim, Chung-Kon ; Choi, Yoon-Hee ; Kim, Ki-Young ; Kim, Young-Doo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 25~29
This study was carried out to investigate physiochemical properties and factors related with eating quality in the rice and paddy rice with different storage methods. As storage period was longer and temperature was higher, the b values of chromaticity and degree of fatty acid were increased, and the b value of room temp. was higher than that of low temp. In the varieties, the b value of Samcheonbyeo was the highest among varieties. also b value of Gancheokbyeo and Sae-gyehwabyeo were more increased than those of Dongjinbyeo and Hojinbyeo. Toyo meter values were significantly different according to storage temperature and period. Toyo meter values in storage of low temp. small decreased from 8 month after storages and that of loom temp. was severe decreased from 2 month after storages. In storage of low temp, Toyo meter values in storage of low temp.
was the lowest, and those of the early varieties were the most decreased. Degree of fatty acid of brown rice was increased from 2 month after storages and those of low temp. was severe increased. So, they made rice quality and eating quality to be deteriorated.
Optimum N-fertilization Level for Quality Rice Production in the Southern Alpine Area of Korea
Kim, Sang-Su ; Choi, Weon-Young ; Nam, Jeong-Kwon ; Lee, Jun-Hee ; Back, Nam-Hyun ; Park, Hong-Kyu ; Choi, Min-Kyu ; Kim, Chung-Kon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 30~34
The effect of N-fertilization on yield, milling characteristics and quality of Samcheonbyeo, an early maturing rice variety, was investigated in 2002 to 2004. The study was carried out in the southern alpine area of Un-bong Sub-Station, Honam Agricultural Research Institute. Higher nitrogen levels increased number of panicle and grain per unit area, but lowed ripening rate and decreased 1,000-grain weight. Higher nitrogen levels of up to 90 kg/ha also increased head rice yield. A nitrogen level of 90 kg/ha was found optimal for increasing ripening rate and head rice yield, and rice palatability.
The Rice Quality and Chemical Characteristics Affected by Moisture Content and Drying Delay Time after Harvest in Rice
Kwon, Suk-Ju ; Song, Eun-Ju ; Kwon, Young-Rip ; Choi, Dong-Chil ; Choi, Yeong-Geun ; Kwon, Tae-Oh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 35~41
This study was conducted to establish the post-harvest management system in rice. Harvested hulled rice was gathered into large-scale bag and combine bag, in which the rice quality and the influence on quality change were investigated on various storage periods and moisture contents. Moisture content of hulled rice ranged from 23.7% to 28.8% on different harvest times, which grew lower as harvesting time was delayed. When desiccation was retarded hulled rice in large scale bag was changed in color and emitted an of offensive odor in 3 days and that in combine bag showed similar symptom in 4 days. Inner temperature in large scale bag was changed a lot when the storage period was prolonged and also the moisture content was higher while that in combine bag increased regularly corresponding to the moisture content at the time of harvest. Moisture content of hulled rice stored in large-scale bag increased 2 days after harvest and the more moisture content showed the more increased tendency, while in the case of combine bag the moisture content was not changed much whether the hulled rice contained low or high moisture content in harvesting. As desiccation was delayed fatty acid increased much more in large-scale bag than in combine bag even though protein and amylose contentwere not changed. As desiccation was delayed more and hulled rice contained moisture more in harvesting head rice ratio of brown rice decreased and green-kerneled rice and damaged grain ratio increased and quality of milled rice also became deteriorated. As a result, desiccation day to minimize the deterioration of rice quality was estimated 1-2 days in large scale bag and 2-3 days in combine bag after harvesting.
Relationship between Near Infrared Reflectance Spectra and Mechanical Sensory Score of Commercial Brand Rice Produced in Jeonbuk
Song, Young-Ju ; Song, Young-Eun ; Oh, Nam-Ki ; Choi, Yeong-Geun ; Cho, Kyu-Cha ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 42~46
The purpose of this study was to assess whether mechanical sensory score by Toyo Midometer can be substituted by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method in whole-grain milled rice samples. Toyo values of collected commercial brand rice (n=127) had comparatively wide ranges from 62.9 to 84.2 (Mean=70.5; S.D.=4.0). Calibration equation was developed using 73 samples. Standard error of calibration (SEC) for sensory score equation and
were 0.95, and 0.94, respectively, however, percentage of variation in the reference method values (1-VR) which give a true indication of equation performance was slightly lower (1-VR=0.81) than calibration equation. It was demonstrated that, even though NIRS has potential as a rapid tools to predict rice sensory score, the prediction of sensory score in rice by NIRS needs to be further investigation on a large number of sample with different varieties and growing locations.
Optimum Seeding Rate in Different to Soil Salinity for Broadcasting on the Rice Flooded Paddy Surface at South-western Reclaimed Saline Land of Korea
Back, Nam-Hyun ; Choi, Weon-Young ; Ko, Jong-Cheol ; Park, Hong-Kyu ; Nam, Jeong-Kweon ; Park, Kwang-Geun ; Kim, Sang-Su ; Kim, Bo-Kyeong ; Kim, Choung-Kon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 47~51
This study was conducted to establish the optimum seeding rate in different soil salinity level for yield stability of broadcasting on flooded paddy surface to the reclaimed saline land of south-western part at Gyehwado substation of the Honam Agricultural Research institute in
. Soeganbyeo was tested in the Munpo series (fine sand loam) the results obtained is as follows: As seeding rate was higher, the number of seeding stand was increased and the number of seeding stands in the low salinity field is sharply increased than those of the medium salinity field. The length of culm in medium salinity field tends to be shorter than that of the low salinity field and as seeding rate was increased, the lodging is severe. The milled rice yield was increased as up to 9 kg/10a in low and medium salinity soil. Complete rice was no significantly increased over 5 kg/10a seeding rate in low salinity field and over 7 kg/10a seeding rate in medium salinity field. Considering the yield of milled and complete rice, seeding stand and lodging, The proper seeding rate is
in low salinity and
in medium salinity for broadcasting on flooded paddy surface at the reclaimed saline land of southwestern part.
Effect of N-Application Level According to Seedling Density on Tiller Development, Yield and Quality in Direct-Seeded Rice on Flooded Paddy Surface
Chung, Nam-Jin ; Kim, Jeong-Il ; Park, Jeong-Hwa ; Kim, Je-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 52~57
This research was carried out to determine the effect of controlling nitrogen application on tiller development, yield, and quality of rice under scanty or excess seedling stands in direct-seeded rice on flooded soil surface. Seedling stand was set to 3 levels: scanty
, and excess
. In the scanty plot, additional 4 kg/10a nitrogen was applied at the 3rd leaf stage to promote tiller development. On the other hand, applying 3.3 kg/10a nitrogen at 5th leaf stage in the excess plot was omitted to suppress tillering. Maximum numbers of tillers per plant were 15.2 and 8.6 in scanty and excess plots, respectively, as compared with 9.8 in optimum plot. Productive tiller rate decreased with the increase in number of seedling stands. Regardless of seedling density, the first tiller developed on the 3rd node of rice stem from the bottom. The primary tillers developed at 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 nodes in scanty plot, 3, 4, 5 nodes in optimum plot, and 3, 4 nodes in excess plot. The secondary tillers developed only in some portion of plants in scanty and optimum plots. The order of tiller emergence was negatively correlated to stem length, panicle length, non-productive tiller number, grain number per panicle, and fertility in scanty plot, and to perfect grain ratio in excess plot. In the optimum plot, however, the order of tiller emergence was not correlated to any of the mentioned characteristics. The perfect grain ratio of scanty plot was the highest because green-kerneled rice was a very small portion in the primary tillers as compared with those of optimum and excess plots. Yield indexes of scanty and excess plots were 99%, and 97%, respectively, of the yield (494 kg/10a) in optimum plot. In conclusion, when seedling stands are not at optimum level, rice yield and quality similar to optimum planting density level can be obtained by means of controlling nitrogen application.
Variability of Quality Related Characters in the Recombinant Inbred Lines from Milyang 23 and Gihobyeo
Kang, Hyeon-Jung ; Kim, Young-Doo ; Kim, Hyun-Soon ; Lee, Young-Tae ; Eun, Moo-Young ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 58~66
The rice quality related traits including physico-chemical traits were evaluated with one hundred sixty-four MG RILs derived from the cross between Milyang 23, Indica/Japonica hybrid type, and Gihobyeo, Japonica type. The variation distribution of all traits examined approximately fit normal distribution and transgressive segregants over parents were observed for all traits. The occurrence of such transgression could be associated with the interactions of complementary QTL alleles from two parents. However in this study, it could not be concluded that our results of segregation were due to either complementary gene effects or overdominance of a major gene. These factors should be verified by further studies. Correlations between traits were evaluated by regressing phenotypic values of one trait on those of another traits. There are highly significant correlation between grain thickness with grain width, white core and white belly. But between white belly and alkali digestion value showed highly negative significant correlation. Contents of protein showed highly negative correlation with amylose and Mg/K ratio but showed highly correlation with K and Fat contents. Hardness of cooked rice showed highly correlation with adhesiveness, elasticity, gumminess, chewiness.
Effect of N-fertilization on Rice Growth and Quality of Milled Rice
Kim, Se-Jong ; Won, Jong-Gun ; Ahn, Duok-Jong ; Park, So-Deuk ; Choi, Kyeong-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 67~72
This experiment was carried out to identify rice varieties suitable for growing under low N-fertilization levels. Eighteen rice varieties were grown at 5.5 kg and 11 kg/10a nitrogen levels in 2004-2005 in Taegu, Korea. Several varieties like Ilmibyeo, Nampyeongbyeo, Sindongjinbyeo, Dongjin 1 and Donganbyeo yielded more than 470 kg/10a. Low N-fertilization level (5.5 kg/10a) decreased yields of Junambyeo and Donganbyeo by more than 10%. However, the decrease in yield was not significant in Surabyeo and Hwayeongbyeo compared with the 11 kg/10a N-fertilizer treatment. Improved grain quality, chemical properties and palatability was noted in some rice varieties. In terms of rice yield and grain quality, Donganbyeo, Ilmibyeo, Ilpumbyeo, Dongjin 1, Saechoocheongbyeo and Saegyehwabyeo were selected as premising rice varieties for growing under low N-fertilization levels.
Effects of Damage by Brown Planthopper at Ripening Stage on Yield and Quality of Rice
Lee, Jong-Hee ; Yeo, Un-Sang ; Kwak, Do-Yeon ; Kim, Joon-Hwan ; Song, Yu-Cheon ; Kim, Choon-Song ; Shin, Moon-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 73~76
This study was carried out to investigate the change yield and grain quality in rice caused by damages of brown planthopper (Bph) on major agronomic traits at the ripening stage. A major agronomic traits such as culm length, panicle length, number of panicle and number of grain per panicles was no-significant difference compared hopperburn area (HBA) and moderately damaged area (MDA) by brown planthopper with non-damaged area (NDA). but, the ripeing ratio and yield in HBA and MDA was significantly decreased. The perfect rice of brown rice in HBA and MDA was also lowered than the NDA and the immatured grain among imperfect rice in damaged area by BPH was significantly increased than in the NDA. Among the traits related with palatability of cooked rice, the amylose content was not affected by damage of brown planthopper, whereas, the protein content was significantly increased in the HBA and MDA. additionally, Peak viscosity in HBA and MDA is lower than the NDA, and setback was increased. In most cases, there was negative on yield and grain quality by the damage of brown planthopper at the ripening stage. Thus, the rice product harvested in damaged area should be separated with that in non damaged area for grain market quality of milled rice.
Physicochemical Properties of Sugary Rice
Kim, Se-Ri ; Song, You-Cheon ; Shin, Mal-Shick ; Lee, Seock-Young ; Cho, Jun-Hyeon ; Lee, Ji-Yoon ; Ha, Woon-Goo ; Kim, Young-Doo ; Ku, Yeon-Chung ; Kim, Ho-Yeong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 77~83
This study was carried out to investigate the agronomical and physicochemical properties of five newly bred sugary lines in YARI (Yeongnam Agricultural Research Institute) that developed from the cross of sugary and Hwayeongbyeo, Hwasambyeo and Seomjinbyeo. Culmlength of newly bred sugary lines were longer than that of Nampyeongbyeo as
. However the weight of 1,000 grains and yield were lower than that of Nampyeongbyeo by two to three times. According to physicochemical properties, most of the new bred sugary lines showed low contents of amylose and mineral compare to normal varieties. And all sugary lines showed much higher amount of the sucrose and glucose contents compare to Nampyeongbyeo. Especially the sucrose content of newly bred sugary line, 55413, was 5 times higher than that of Nampyeongbyeo nevertheless, fructooligosaccharide and isomaltooligsac charide were not detected. The amylopectin constitution of sugary lines showed more chairs of DP (Degree of Polymerization)<12 but fewer chains of DP
compare to Nampyeongbyeo. Newly bred sugary lines were lower viscosity in RVA (Rapid Viscosity Analysis).
Growth Characteristics of Six Rice Cultivars under Rice-Chinese Milk Vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) Cropping System
Lee, Byung-Jin ; Ahn, Jong-Woong ; Hwang, Dong-Yong ; Oh, Seong-Hwan ; Kim, Joon-Hwan ; Kim, Sang-Yeol ; Ku, Yeon-Chung ; Choi, Zhin-Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 84~91
This study was carried out to comparatively evaluate growth characteristics of rice cultivars under rice-mono (conventional) and rice-Chinese milk vetch (Vetch) cropping system. Six rice cultivars such as Geumobyeo, Pungmibyeo, Hwayeongbyeo, Sobibyeo, Junambyeo and Dongjinbyeo were tested in 2005. The results obtained are summarized as follows ; plant height and culm length of all the tested cultivars at heading and harvest time were shorter in rice-vetch cropping system than conventional, however, nitrogen content of rice plants at heading and harvesting time was higher in rice-vetch cropping system. The total amount of nitrogen of rice plants was higher in conventional than rice-vetch cropping system. Nitrogen content of rice plant and uptake of Pungmibyeo was the highest of all the tested cultivars in both cropping systems. Generally, grain yietd ef tested cultivars seemed to be higher in conventional than rice-vetch cropping system. And it was the highest in Junambyeo as compared to those of other cultivars. Head rice ratio and protein content were higher in rice-vetch cropping system.
A New Removal Method of Glutelin Storage Proteins for the Proteome Study of Non-Glutelin Proteins in Rice Seeds
Woo, Sun-Hee ; Kim, Se-Young ; Kim, Tae-Seon ; Cho, Seong-Woo ; Cho, Kun ; Chung, Keun-Yook ; Kim, Sun-Lim ; Cho, Yong-Gu ; Kim, Hong-Sig ; Song, Boem-Heon ; Lee, Chul-Won ; Jong, Seung-Keun ; Park, Young-Mok ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 92~102
Abundant proteins often cause problems in proteome study. Glutelin family proteins (hereafter referred to glutelin) are present in rice proteome sample as over-whelming constituents with very high abundance. In order to increase the number of identified proteins in rice proteome study, we developed a newly improved method for sample preparation through the removal of glutelin. When the protein samples from rice seed were extracted by the conventional trichloroacetic acid (TCA) extraction method, glutelin accounts for about 60% of total rice seed proteins in SDS gels. Using our new water extraction method, glutelin consists of only about 10% of total proteins. After analyzing on a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), 937 protein spots were detected using the conventional TCA extraction method. On the other hand, 1240 proteins could be seen using the new water extraction method. The selectivity for non-glutelin and less abundant protein by the water extraction method was also confirmed by ESI-Q/TOF mass spectrometry analysis. Thus, the new water extraction method developed here can be efficiently used to study the proteome analysis of rice storage seed.
Quantitative Analysis of Cyanidin-3-Glucoside from Purple-Colored Crops
Kim, Eun-Shil ; Shin, Jin-Chul ; Chung, Ha-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 103~106
Anthocyanins are water-soluble glycosides and acylglycosides of anthocyanidins, having different color variations due to its substitution patterns. Anthocyanins, present in various fruits, vegetables and crops as natural colorant, have been well characterized for its bioactive properties, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties. During extraction and purification, the factors, such as pH, temperature, oxygen, light, enzymes, nucleophilic agents, sugar derivatives and co-pigments, have affected on anthocyanin stability. For this reason, the extraction method should be thoroughly checked for the qualitative/quantitative analysis of anthocyanin in particular plant material. To identify the optimum extraction method of cyanidin-3-glucoside, major anthocyanin of dark purple-colored grains, Oryza sativa cv. Heugjinjubyeo, Phaselous vulgaris, Phynchosia gngularis, Sesamum indium, Rhynchosia nulubilis and Lablab purpureus, reversed-phase HPLC analysis using solvent system of acetonitrile, methanol and water were accomplished.
Free Radical Scavening and Inflammatory from the Rice Varieties Contained High C3G pigment
Park, Sun-Zik ; Ryu, Su-Noh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 107~112
Free Radical Scavening and inflammatory of the methanol extracts, which were prepared from 6 difffrent bran of rice, were evaluated to investigate bioactive substances. Among them, the extract of C3GHibyeo and Heugjinjubyeo showed strong DPPH scavening activities (73.25% and 50.38% at 0.4 mg/ml, respectively). The extract of C3GHibyeo and Heugjinjubyeo showed strong thrombin inhibition activities (258.76% and 243.52% inhibition at 5 mg/ml, respectively). The result of antibacterial activity by Zone assay showed that C3GHi rice extract
inhibited attachment of Helicobactor pylori on the ATCC48504 and COO1 cell line. But no effect on the SEO cell line. Cytotoxicity of blackish purple rice extract on the H. pylori doesn't showed. These result support a functional superiority of rice-base livelihood, and suggest that the development of healthy food using functional ingredients of rice is possible.
Varietal Difference of Chemical Composition in Pigmented Rice Varieties
Lee, Ho-Hoon ; Kim, Hong-Yeol ; Koh, Hee-Jong ; Ryu, Su-Noh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 113~118
The composition of fatty acids, minerals, total dietary fiber and vitamin
, in pigmented rice varieties were determined. Proximate composition and color were also compared among pigmented rice varieties. Crude protein contents of black rice were higher than those of red and white rice, especially, C3GHi line had the highest protein content. There were no significant differences in lipid and crude ash contents between pigmented and white rice. Black rice showed lower Hunter value L and b value compared with red, green and white rice. But, Green rice showed lower Hunter value a compared with black rice. Green rice showed the higher contents in total dietary fiber, vitamin
compared with white and black rice. The major fatty acids of pigmented rice were palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid. The contents of oleic acid was similar to that of linoleic acid in white rice. Oleic acid contents was lower than linoleic acid in black rice, but higher in red rice. Most mineral contents of pigmented rice except Fe, Zn and Mn were higher than those of white rice. Especially, Green rice had the highest mineral content.
Effects of Cold Water Irrigation on Quality Properties of Rice
Jeong, Eung-Gi ; Kim, Deog-Su ; Lee, Jeong-Il ; Kim, Sun-Lim ; Kim, Kee-Jong ; Yea, Jong-Doo ; Son, Jong-Rok ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 119~124
This study was carried out at the Chuncheon Substation, National Institute of Crop Science to determine the effect of cold water irrigation on the milling and polished quality of rice, as well as its physicochemical and amylogram characteristics, and palatability Chilling by Irrigation of cold water
induced delay of days to heading, reduction of culm length, inferiority of panicle exsertion and high sterility of panicle. Head rice ratio was decreased, while the percentage of chalky and creak rice increased with increasing sterility over from 20%. Protein content was gained 0.9-2.0% more than, while whiteness and palatability of the milled grain were reduced under cold water irrigation treatment. Significant decrease in maximum viscosity and breakdown viscosity of rice flour was investigated under cold water treatment by amylogram analysis, while the initial gelatinization temperature and setback viscosity were increased. Sensory panel test showed that the palatability of cooked rice was unfavorable and its stickiness was lower compared with that under normal condition. Differences in the aroma of cold-treated and untreated cooked rice were not performed significantly.
Physicochemical Properties of Breeding Lines of Colored Barleys
Choi, Jae-Seong ; Park, Soo-Jin ; Joung, Yong-Myeon ; Kim, Jung-Gon ; Won, Mi-Hee ; Kang, Myung-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 125~132
The below is the results of physicochemical analysis of 40 breeding lines of colored barley (CB) whose systems are different Water content of CB No. 24 showed the lowest value of 7.4% while CB No. 9 showed the highest value of 10.8%. Crude protein of CB
range was found. Crude fat content of CB No. 6 showed the highest value of 4.35% while CB No. 34 showed the lowest of 1.35%. Crude ash content of CB No. 31 showed the lowest value of 1.20%. Ca content of CB No. 10 showed the highest value of 717.50 mg% while general barley showed the lowest value of 442.82 mg%. Mg content of CB No. 10 showed the highest value of 1320.00 mg%. Cu content of CB No. 20 showed the lowest value of 2.20 mg% while CB No. 33 showed the highest value of 6.25 mg%. K content of CB No. 20 showed the lowest value of 723.24 mg% while CB No. 1 showed the highest value of 1002.50 mg%. Mn content of CB No. 28 showed the lowest value of 31.72 mg% while general barley showed the highest value of 94.56 mg%.
content of CB No. 25 showed the lowest value of 5.20 mg% while CB No. 28 showed the highest value of 4.46 mg%.
Differentiation of Barley Response to Drought and Salt Stress in Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Free Amino Acid Content
Kim, Dea-Wook ; Heo, Hwa-Young ; Suh, Sae-Jung ; Lee, Yeong-Ho ; Kim, Si-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 133~138
To differentiate barley responses to drought and salt stress, barley seedlings at the second leaf stage were treated with 218 mM NaCl and 29.5% PEG6000 iso-osmotic to 218 mM NaCl for 6 days. Shoot fresh weight and leaf relative water content of barley seedlings were more reduced by drought compared to salt stress. Hydrogen peroxide content increased under both stress conditions, but its accumulation was more severe at 6 days after salt stress. The activity of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) was enhanced until 4 days after salt stress. On the other hand, the activity of GR and CAT increased gradually until 6 days after drought. Among the amino acids measured in this study, the accumulation of glycine, arginine and GABA (
acid) was lower under salt stress than drought. However, considerably larger amount of proline was accumulated by salt stress. It is concluded that the antioxidant enzymes activity and amino acid content of barley seed-lings were differently regulated in response to the isoosmotic condition of salt and drought stress.
Variation of Oil Contents and Fatty acid Compositions in Korean Soybean Germplasms
Choung, Myoung-Gun ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 139~145
The objectives of this study was to determine the oil contents and fatty acid compositions of soybean germplasms including major Korean cultivars, and to provide the basic information of fatty acid composition for development high quality soybean varieties. Among 46 Korean major cultivated soybean samples, the oil contents were varied from 15.8% to 20.3%, and the average oil content was 18.2%. Crude oil content of cv. Saebyolkong (20.3%) was the highest among that of other cultivated soybeans. Likely many other oils of plant origin, most fatty acids in soybean are unsaturated. The highest percentage of fatty acid in soybean was linoleic acid (18:2), followed in a decreasing order by oleic (C18:1), palmitic (C16:0), linolenic (C18:3), and stearic acid (C18:0). The composition of C18:1 and C18:2 fatty acids among 563 soybean germplasms and cultivars which were positively correlated with nutritional quality of edible vegetable oil, were ranged
, respectively, and the C18:3 which were negatively correlated with flavor quality were varied from 5.03% to 11.48%. Also, the composition of C16:0 and C18:0 which were known to raise total cholesterol levels in human serum were ranged
respectively. On the other hand, the range of fatty acid composition among 46 Korean major soybean cultivars has been investigated to be: C16:0,
. Among the 563 germplasms tested, there are significant correlations among unsaturated fatty acids: negative between C18:1 and C18:2 (r=-0.961**) or C18:3 (r=-0.756**), and positive between C18:2 and C18:3 (r=0.608**). Also, the C18:1 was negatively correlated with saturated fatty acids, C16:0 (r=-0.231**) and C18:0 (r=-0.479**).
Variation of Isoflavone Contents in Korean Soybean Germplasms
Choung, Myoung-Gun ; Kang, Sung-Taeg ; Han, Won-Young ; Baek, In-Youl ; Kim, Hyeun-Kyeung ; Shin, Doo-Chull ; Kang, Nam-Suk ; Hwang, Young-Sun ; An, Young-Nam ; Lim, Jung-Dae ; Kim, Kwan-Su ; Park, Si-Hyung ; Kim, Sun-Lim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 146~151
Isoflavone in soybean is known to have the important physiological functions such as antioxidative, estrogenic, and anti-tumor activities. Therefore, isoflavone content is considered as important aspect of soybean quality. The objectives of this study are to determine the isoflavone contents of soybean germplasms including major cultivars in Korea, and to provide the basic information of isoflavone far development soybean cultivar containing high isoflavone content. Among 43 Korean major cultivated soybean samples, the total isoflavone contents were varied from
, and the average total isoflavone content was
. Total isoflavone content of Seokryangputkong
was the highest among those of the other cultivated soybeans. On the other side, Hwangkeumkong
contained lower isoflavone than other cultivars. The total isoflavone content of vegetable use or early maturity soybean cultivar
showed more higher total isoflavone content than others. The daidzein, glycitein, genistein and total isoflavone contents of 648 soybean germplasms collected in Korea, were ranged
, respectively, and total isoflavone content of IT 180001 line
was the highest among those of other soybean germplasm lines.
Effects of Sowing Date for Seed Quality of Sprout-soybean
Kim, Hag-Sin ; Kim, Hong-Sig ; Kim, Kyong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 152~159
These studies were conducted to clarify the effects of sowing date on seed quality characters in soybean-sprouts. Six sprout-soybean cultivars were planted on three sowing dates in 2000 and 2001. Percentages of purple spot seed stain, seed coat-cracking and immatured seeds were higher in the May 25 sowing than later sewings. Pungsannamulkong showed the lowest percentages of seed coat-cracking and immatured seeds, while Hannamkong showed the highest percentages. The protein contents decreased as the sowing dates were delayed. Tawonkong and Pungsannamulkong showed the highest protein content on May 21 and June 15 sewings, and on July 5 sowing, respectively. The oil contents was not affected by the sowing dates, however, Somyeongkong and Tawonkong showed the highest and the lowest oil contents, respectively. The aglycone contents of isoflavone were the highest in the lune 15 sowing followed by July S sowing and May 25 sowing in that order. Somyeongkong showed the highest contents of isoflavone and aglycone, while Tawonkong showed the lowest contents.
Variations of Isoflavone Contents in Seeds and Sprouts of Sprout Soybean Cultivars
Kim, Young-Jin ; Oh, Young-Jin ; Cho, Sang-Kyun ; Kim, Jung-Gon ; Park, Myoung-Ryoul ; Yun, Song-Joong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 160~165
Biofuctionality of soybean seeds and soy-bean products have been fortified by the uncovering of the multifuctional beneficial effects of isoflavones. As one way to fully utilize beneficial effects of isoflavones in soybean sprout is through the enhancement of isoflavone contents in soybean seeds, genetic selection for higher isoflavone and cultivational measures to increase isoflavone content in soybean seeds were attempted. Isoflavones (daidzein, gemstein) contents in soybean seeds and soybean sprouts were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Total isoflavone contents in soybean seeds ranged from 756 to
and Iksan #13
showed highest content among the 21 germplasms analyzed. Onetime treatment of soybean plants with Antipol or Piaster at the
stage yielded seeds with higher isoflavones as
, respectively, which were higher by 37% and 14% than that of seeds in the control plants, respectively. In Eunhakong, Isoflavone contents of soybean sprout changed during sprouting. Daidzein content in hypocotyl increased to maximum on the third day of cultivation and decreased there-after, whereas the content changed little in cotyledon. In sprouts of Pungsannamulkong, daidzein content in hypocotyl showed a maximum level on the first day and decreased gradually thereafter but, the content changed little in cotyledon. Total isoflavone contents in lateral roots which developed on the 6th day after sprouting ranged from 4,416 to
Isolation and Structural Analysis of Acetyl Soyasaponin
from Hypocotyl of Soybean
Kim, Sun-Lim ; Bang, Myun-Ho ; Kim, Jung-Tae ; Chi, Hee-Youn ; Chung Ill-Min ; Kim, Hyun-Bok ; Berhow Mark A. ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 166~173
Soyasaponins are phytochemicals of major interest fur their health benefits. Chemical investigation of a soybean phytochemical concentrate resulted in the isolation and identification of triterpenoid saponins. The MeOH extraction of defatted hypocotyl separated from soybeans was peformed by the automated solvent extractor (ASE). Fractionation was performed on a flash column (
i.d.) packed with a preparative
reverse phase bulk packing material
and monitored at 210 nm, and collected 14 fractions. Consequent Fsat preparative column liquid chromatography (Fast PCLC) was performed for the purification of Fraction-I (Fr-I) collected from the fraction 8 and 9 of flash chromatography. Fsat PCLC was performed on a Luna
, semipreparative reverse phase column (
i.d.) for the purification of isolated unknown compound (Fr-I-2). Chemical structure of acetyl soyasaponin
was identified and determined by a combination of extensive NMR (
, 400 MHz;
, 100 MHz; DEPT), IR, UV, and ESI-MS analysis.
Isoflavone Contents of Soybean according to Different Planting Dates
Yun, Hong-Tae ; Kim, Wook-Han ; Lee, Yeong-Ho ; Suh, Sae-Jung ; Kim, Si-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 174~178
This study was conducted to compare the changes of isoflavone content grown at different planting dates and to determine a relationship between growing periods and isoflavone content, in soybean. A total fifty six soybean varieties, including summer type soybean, Chinese varieties and domestic soybean varieties, were used this experiment. Mean total isoflavone content of domestic soybean varieties was higher than summer type soybean varieties and Chinese varieties. And, the soybean isoflavone content was significantly increased in growth at late planting dates. Soybean isoflavone contents was increased with longer reproductive growth period. While, the relationship between seed weight and isoflavone content showed significantly negative correlation coefficient, -0.57 at Apr. 15, -0.51 at May 15, and -0.38 at Jun. 15, respectively planting dates.
Antioxidant Activity and Agronomic Characteristics of Colored Waxy Corns
Lee, Hee-Bong ; Park, Bo-Young ; Ji, Hee-Chung ; Cho, Jin-Woong ; Kim, Seog-Hyung ; Mo, Eun-Kyung ; Lee, Mi-Ra ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 179~184
This study was carried out to evaluate major agronomical characterization and phenol compound contents, Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (XO), Catalase activity, Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical sacvenging activity were analyzed in colored waxy corns. The mean of stem height and ear length were 248.8 cm and 18.6 cm, respectively. The pericarp thickness in CNU108
was thinner than other hybrids. The period of tasseling days in CNU69 and CNU202 were very shorter than other hybrids (59 days). 100-kernel weight of CNU50 was 35.6 g and heavier than the others. The antioxidant activities such as xanthin oxidase (XO), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher in CNU70 and CNUI 38. Especially highest EDA (electron donating ability) in DPPH radical scavenging effect was 94.8% and 94.6% in CNU160 and CNU193, respectively. In the results, the antioxidant enzyme activity and antioxidant acticity were higher in CNU109 and CNU 34 hybrids. The hybrids, CNU34, CNU70, CNU108, CNU 138 and CNU193 may be considered higher functional color waxy corn.
SSR Marker Related to Major Characteristics Affected Kernel Quality in Waxy Corn Inbred Lines
Jung, Tae-Wook ; Moon, Hyeon-Gui ; Son, Beom-Young ; Kim, Sun-Lim ; Kim, Soon-Kwon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 185~192
This experiment was conducted to assess genetic diversity of waxy corn inbred lines and to identify SSR markers related to major characteristics affected kernel quality for improving waxy corn
hybrid with good quality. Diversity of 64 waxy com inbred lines was evaluated using 30 microsatellite markers. The 30 microsatellite markers representing 30 loci in the maize genome detected polymorphisms among the 64 inbred lines and revealed 225 alleles with a mean of 7.5 alleles per primer. The polymorphism Information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.14 to 0.87, with an average of 0.69. Based on Nei's genetic distances, the 64 inbred lines were classified into 9 groups by the cluster analysis. The group I included 26 inbred lines (41%), other groups included 3 to 9 inbred lines. One-way analysis of variance was conducted to identify significant relationship between individual markers and major characteristics that affect kernel quality. The analysis showed that umc1019 was related to amylopectin and crude protein content, me 1020 to amylopectin content and peak viscosity, and bnlg1537 to 100-kernel weight, kernel length, and kernel width.
Effect of Planting Date, Plant Spacing, and Harvest Time on the Production of Small-sized Sweetpotato in the Alpine Zone of Korea
Kim, Hag-Sin ; Moon, Youn-Ho ; Chung, Mi-Nam ; Ahn, Young-Sup ; Lee, Joon-Seol ; Bang, Jin-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 193~197
The optimum planting date, plant spacing, and harvest time for production of small-sized sweetpotato was evaluated in 2003 to 2004 at the Mokpo Experiment Station. Small-sized sweetpotato is important as snack food in Korea. Optimum planting date and plant spacing were with plastic mulch, and mid-April and
respectively, mid-June and
respectively without plastic mulch. Storage root yield decreased with early harvest, but the ratio of small-sized sweetpotato was higher in plots harvested after 100 days of planting (DAP) than that of 80 or 120 DAP. Considerable differences in storage root yield was noted with planting dates and plant spacings, but the use of plastic mulch resulted to smaller yield variations in plots, harvested in mid-April. Planting in mid-April and harvesting after 100 DAP increased income by about
compared with plantings mid-May.
Making Techniques of Hight Quality Powder in Sweetpotato
Lee, Joon-Seol ; Ahn, Young-Sup ; Kim, Hag-Sin ; Chung, Mi-Nam ; Jeong, Byeong-Choon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 198~203
This study was conducted to select the temperature for hot air drying method, cutting method, and solution that inhibits enzymatic browning in making high quality powder from sweetpotato roots. It was observed that
was the best temperature for air drying method wherein the dry matter rating, dry matter time, flour yield and chemical component were considered. The proper cutting thickness should be 2.0 mm considering the vitamin C content and sensory evaluation of sweetpotato flour. Also, 1% vitamin C solution inhibited enzymatic browning of sweetpotato.
Color Stability according to Storage Period of Purple Sweetpotato Products
Lee, Joon-Seol ; Jeong, Byeong-Choon ; Ahn, Young-Sup ; Chung, Mi-Nam ; Kim, Hag-Sin ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 204~208
This study was conducted to develop a processing procedure for soft drink and wine from purple sweetpotato and to determine the color stability of purple sweetpotato anthocyanin pigment after production. Purple sweet potato soft drink was found to have 15.6% of total extraction,
of sugar and pH 4.1, whereas wine had 12.6% of alcohol,
of sugar and pH 4.9.Color stabilities of the soft drink and wine showed little difference after four-month storage from the time right after processing. The public found the soft drink that was made from 90% of purple sweet potato, 5% of citron and 5% of honey, more to their taste, rather than other soft drinks that were either made from 100% purplesweet potato or made from 80% of purple sweet potato, 10% of citron and 10% of honey. The public also found
. of fermentation temperature more agreeable than that of
. Powder, vinegar and anthocyanin pigment earned from purple sweet potato showed high stability, as they showed no change in color after four months in storage.
The Antioxidant Activities of Artemisia spp. Collections
Choi, Yong-Min ; Chung, Bong-Hwan ; Lee, Jun-Soo ; Cho, Yong-Gu ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 209~214
One hundred Individuals that were collected from plains and mountains all around South Korea were used for this experiment. The inhibition abilities of lipid peroxidation by Artemisia spp. collections were compared with BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene). The results could be confirmed the excellency fur control of lipid peroxide level such as BHT 200 ppm in all mugwort collections. Antioxidant activity (AEAC), electron donating ability (EDA), total phenolic compound, and flavonoids of 100 Artemisia spp. collections were analyzed. Total phenolic compound contents of Artemisia spp. collections were ranged from 156 to 1,767 rng/100 g, and mugwort collections with more than 900 mg/100 g of total phenolic compound content were 20 individuals. Electron donating abilities were ranged from 13.4 to 95.0%, and mugwort collections over 90% of electron donating ability were 23 individuals. Antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts that used ABTS and DPPH radical were measured and mugwort collections with high total phenolic compound contents had high radical exclusion ability as well. Artemisia spp. collections, AC-60, AC-67, AC-77, that showed the high levels of antioxidant activities and had good growth characters and productivity, were selected for mass production.
Comparison of Antioxidant Activities in Mugwort Teas and Commercial Teas
Chung, Bong-Hwan ; Cho, Yong-Gu ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 215~219
Artemisia spp. collections, AC60, AC67, and AC77, that showed the high levels of antioxidant activities and had good growth characters and productivity, were cultivated for mass production. Using selected excellent ones, AC60, AC67, and AC77, after mass production, mugwort teas were made through rubbing and drying processes. Total phenolic compound content, nitrite scavenging ability, and SOD-like activity in mugwort teas and commercial teas were compared. Total phenolic compound content was the highest in AC67 with 109.6 mg/100 ml. Nitrite scavenging ability of AC67 tea was relatively high with 92.5% at pH 1.2 and Jasmine (98.1%), Persimmon Leaf Tea (96.4%), Green tea (98.5%), and Jakseolcha (98.7%) were very high as well. In SOD-like activity, mugwort teas, AC67 (91.7%) and AC77 (93.7%), were high as well as those of Seolrokcha (92.1%) and Rooibos Tea (93.8%). This suggests that AC60, AC67, and AC77 could be used fur making high quality teas as well as Seolrokcha, Jasmine, Green tea, Jakseolcha, Rooibos Tea, Peppermint Herb Tea.
Chemical Component of Mugwort (Artemisia princeps Pampanini) leaves Collected in Korea
Ryu, Su-Noh ; Han, Sang-Suk ; Kim, Kwan-Su ; Jeong, Hae-Gon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 220~223
Mugwort, Artemisia princeps Pampanini, has been used as natural medicine traditionally in the far east countries including Korea. This study was performed with the object of provoding basic data an leaf quality improvement in mugwort. The 210 mugwort were collected in 48 locations from 2004 to 2006, leaves of 210 genotypes collected were analyzed for eupatilin, jaceosidin and sesamin content. The eupatilin content was averaged to 43.8mg (100 g leaves) and ranged from 0 to 228.0 mg. The average jaceosidin and sesamin contents were 12.8 mg and 3.58 mg and the ranges of those were 0 to 73.8 mg and 0 to 6.56 mg, respectively. The eupatilin content of mugwort harvested in the western region was higher compared with those harvested in the resemble altitude of the southern and eastern of Korea.
Proper Harvesting Time and Drying Temperature for Improving the Alisma plantago Quality and Yield
Hyun, Kyu-Hwan ; Kwon, Byung-Sun ; Lim, June-Taeg ; Shin, Dong-Young ; Shin, Jong-Sup ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 224~228
The characteristics associated with the Alisma plantago quality and the factors as the proper harvesting time and drying temperature of Alisma plantago were examined from 2004 to 2006 at Sunchon, Southern region. The Alisma plantago cultivars tested were Sunwol and Yongjun. The highest yields of root and good quality, color and luster were obtained when harvested 22 days after first frost date and dried with
of a weeks at the drying oven for Sunwol and Yongjin cultivars. Considering from our results, optimum harvesting time were most likely to be harvesting time of 22 days after first frost date and drying temperature of
of a weeks at the drying oven.
Effects of Dye Bath Soil Type on Quality of Mat Rush (Juncus decipiens Nakai)
Lim, June-Taeg ; Kwon, Byung-Sun ; Jung, Dong-Soo ; Kae, Bong-Myung ; Hyun, Kyu-Hwan ; Shin, Dong-Young ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 229~232
This study was conducted to select the most suitable dye bath soil of mat rush for good quality. Dry stem weight ranged from 102.5 to 107.0 g, dry stem ratio ranged from 34 to 36%, color of stem ranged from soft gray to heavy gray, degree of softness ranged from high to low and degree of floating ranged from extremely high to low. All the good quality components, such as dry stem weight, dry stem ratio, color of stem, degree of softness and degree of floating showed large variations. Hadong white ceramic soil, the superior dye bath soil of mat rush, showed relatively superior values for all the good quality components with 102.5 g in light dry stem weight, 34% in high dry stem ratio, good color of soft gray in color stem, high in degree of softness and extremely high id degree of floating. The results indicate that dye bath soils shows different adaptabilities to a particular dye bath and Hadong white ceramic soil seems to be the most suitable dye bath soil of mat rush for good quality.
Establishment of Plant Regeneration from Apical Meristem of Sweetpotato
Lee, Joon-Seol ; Ahn, Young-Sup ; Chung, Mi-Nam ; Kim, Hag-Sin ; Jeong, Byeong-Choon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 233~236
This study was conducted to investigate somatic embryogenesis capacity using callus derived from bud meristems in sweetpotato. Shoot apical meristem explants
were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L 2/4-D. Embryogenic callus were observed in five cultivars when their shoot apices were cultured on MS medium supplements with 1 mg/L 2,4-D. After 6 weeks of culture, greater than 80% of the survived explants produced embryogenic calli and the calli gave rise to somatic embryos at frequencies of 72% (Yulmi), 60% (Shinhwangmi), 78% (Geonmi), 70% (KoKei 14), 40% (Sinjami). The regenerated plants developed into whole plantlets after they were transferred onto the fresh hormon-free MS medium of 74% (Yulmi), 82% (Shinhwangmi), 86% (Geonmi), 74% (Kokei 14), 41% (Sinjami) respectively.
Comparison of Frequency Embryogenesis through Microspore Culture of Domestic Cultivars in Brassica napus L.
Park, Yoon-Jung ; Kim, Kwang-Soo ; Jang, Young-Seok ; Kim, Chul-Woo ; Bang, Jin-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 237~241
This experiment was carried out comparison with haploid plants productivity by microspore culture among domestic cultivars of Brassica napus L. Isolated microspore from flower buds were cultured on NLN medium supplemented with 13% sucrose,
NAA. Genotype was important factor in haploid embryo productivity 'Tamlayuchae' showed the highest haploid embryo production frequency (176 embryos formed from 1 flower bud). But, 'Hallayuchae' and 'Youngsanyuchae' were not generated embryo even cell division. When suspension culture on NLN liquid medium at 100 rpm, embryos were developed multilobe abnormal embryo cluster. Multilobe abnormal embryos on MS medium basal solid medium were regenerated multiple shoots. Regenerated haploid plant with well developed shoots and roots on MS basal medium were successfully transferred to pots.
Comparison with in Vivo Pollen Development of Domestic Cultivars in Brassica Napus L.
Park, Yoon-Jung ; Kim, Kwang-Soo ; Jang, Young-Seok ; Kim, Chul-Woo ; Bang, Jin-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 242~246
This study was showed into the pollen development with in vivo by bud size and genotype. Microspores of buds from 2.0 mm to 2.5 mm of all genotypes were composed of mainly tetrad cells and early uninucleate stage cells. Microspores derived from buds of 2.5-3.0 mm were exposed cells of early uninucleate, middle uninucleate, and late uninucleate. Microspores from buds of 3.0-3.5 mm contained mostly late uninucleate stage cells and showed some early binucleate stage cells. Microspores of buds with 3.5-4.0 mm in length were composed of mainly binucleate stage cells and decreased late uninucleate stage cells. Microspore with more than 4.0 mm were entered into binucleate stage cells of divided generative nucleus and vegetative nucleus. In 'Tamlayuchae', microspores derived from buds of 3.5-4.0 mm were observed cells of late uninucleate stage and early binucleate stage because of late microspore development. In MS-maintainer, the spring type, microspore derived from buds of 2.5-3.0 mm were observed tetrad stage cells.
Effect of Polyamines on Indigo Biosynthesis in Hairy Root Cultures of Polygonum tinctorium Lour.
Kim, Jin-Nam ; Jang, Hong-Gi ; Park, Sang-Un ; Ryu, Hwa-Won ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 247~250
We herein studied the effect of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) on growth and indigo biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of Polygonum tinctorium Lour. Our results revealed that polyamine treatment increased hairy root growth and indigo biosynthesisat all tested concentrations, with the highest growth rate (4.4 g/ flask) and indigo yield (216 ug/g) induced by 70 mg/L putrescine. These results show far the first time that the growth rates and indigo biosynthesis of Polygonum tinctorium hairy roots may be improved by addition of polyamines to the liquid culture medium.
Changes of Phenolic Compounds Affected by Different Drying Method in Leaves and Stems of Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.)
Kim, Se-Jong ; Park, Jun-Hong ; Choi, Seong-Yong ; Kim, Kil-Ung ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 251~254
This study was conducted to identify changes of chemical components affected by different drying method and temperature conditions in leaves and stems of peony plant. Drying methods were the dried air heated
, far-red ray
, room temperature and oven dry
. Drying temperature were 40, 50, 60, 70 and
on far-red ray dryer. Among the drying methods, the contents of components were the highest in far-red drying and normal temperature drying as compared with air heated drying and oven drying. Among the drying temperature conditions, the contents of components were the highest in drying temperature at
and decreased in high temperature of
Effect of the Planting Density and Pinching on Yield of Petal and Grain in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)
Kim, Se-Jong ; Park, Jun-Hong ; Kim, Jae-Chul ; Park, So-Deuk ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 255~258
This study was carried out to find the effect of the pinching and planting density on yield of petal and grain in safflower (Caythamus tinctorius L.). The planting density was high effective branch number per
compared with pinching, and effective flower bud was most in
in three line planting density, but in case of pinching was few at
Grain yield was increased with 231 kg/10a at double line planting density compared with in 220 kg/10a of control. Petal yield of double line and three line planting density was 25.4 kg/10a and 26.9 kg/10a, it was increased 15, 22% compared with 22.0 kg/10a of control, respectively.
Determination of Resveratrol Content in Grapes and Wines
Kim, Heon-Woong ; Chu, Sang-Mi ; Lee, Dong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 259~263
A direct HPLC method was used to analyze determination of resveratrol in grapes and wines. Content of resveratrol in different parts of 13 grape cultivars and 13 wines were quantified. The average total resveratrol content was
. Resveratrol contents in the skin, fruit, seed and fruit stem were distributed range of
, respectively. Resveratrol contents in 13 wines were distributed range of
Effect of Self-incompatibility Control Substances on the Quality and Fruiting of Apple
Son, Tae-Kwon ; Chung, Il-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 264~268
This study investigated the effect of self-incompatibility control substance 'Apple plus' in improving self-fertilization and quality on apple. Results showed that the rate of fruit setting of disc florets of Fuji apple in the open field increased from 17.2% in 2004 to 44.4% in 2005 for the treated plots and from 0.5% in 2004 to 3.0% in 2005 for the control. In the case of using net covering, the rate of fruit setting increased from 3.3% in 2004 to 5.2% in 2005 for the treated plots and from 0.4% in 2004 to 0.1% in 2005 for the control. For the quality of apple fruits, results showed that there was no significant difference on the fruit L/D and firmness for both control and treated plots. However, the number of seeds was affected by the different substances which produced the following average number of seeds: control, 0.9; IS-1, 1.2; IS-2, 1.2; IS-3, 1.5 and IS-4, 0.7. The SSR genetic analysis showed that the rate of self-fertilization was highest for IS-1 (100%), followed by IS-2 (73%), IS-3 (68%), IS-4 (62%) and control (0%).
High-Throughput DNA Extraction Method for Marker Analysis in Rice Grain
Choi, Young-Deok ; Lee, Hae-Kwang ; Lee, Yun-Suk ; Yun, Jeong-Hee ; Kim, Su-Jeong ; Park, Seong-Whan ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 269~273
The study of molecular markers to improve crops largely depends on the availability of rapid and of efficient DNA extraction methods. Here we developed a cheap and convenient method to isolate genomic DNA from rice grains suitable for large-scale microsatellite analysis. We confirmed that the isolated rice DNA is suitable for PCR analysis with STS marker and SNP marker, as well as microsatellite marker. Further, we established high-throughput DNA extraction system in a 96-well plate format which make it possible high-throughput analysis of microsatellite markers with rice grains. This implies that the new method could be a useful tool for other types of marker analysis in large scale.
Isolation of High Quality RNA from Seeds of the Mungbean (Vigna radiata)
Kim, Kyeong-Im ; Ku, Ja-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 274~276
Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is a legume to East Asia that has great potential for development as traditional food and industrial crop. It produces both protein and starch rich grain. The low variability of the existing gene pool of the mungbean limits the use of conventional plant breeding to address this problem. For this purpose, an efficient means of RNA isolation from mungbean seed tissues was developed. The quality of RNA obtained by this method was sufficient for use in RT-PCR and RNA analysis.
Rutin, Catechin Derivatives, and Chemical Components of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) Sprouts
Lee, Hee-Sun ; Park, Cheol-Ho ; Park, Byoung-Jae ; Kwon, Soon-Mi ; Chang, Kwang-Jin ; Kim, Sun-Lim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 277~282
The aim of this study was to develop the tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) sprouts and to clarify the biological and chemical characteristics of the sprouts. At 7 days after seeding, hypocotyls length and thickness, and root length of tartary buckwheat sprouts were 137 cm, 1.4 mm, and 12.6 cm, respectively. Fresh weight, dry weight, and moisture contents of an individual sprout at 7 days after seeding were 202 mg, 5.4 mg, and 95.3%, respectively. Protein content in tartary buckwheat sprouts was 23.0% which relatively higher than that of seeds, while lipid and ash contents were 3.5% and 5.3%. Among 7 minerals, the content of phosphorus showed the highest level (1,383.5 mg/100 g), while the contents of sodium and potassium were 1,197.5 mg/100 g and 1,106 mg/100 g, respectively. The contents of other minerals were Mg (795.5 mg/100 g), Ca (149 mg/100 g), Zn (16.4 mg/ 100 g), and Fe (14.7 mg/100 g). The rutin content of tatary buckwheat sprouts including root parts was the highest (5644.9 mg/100 g) at 7 days after seeding. The concentration of catechin derivatives in tartary buckwheat sprouts was high in order of catechin (59 mg/100 g), epicatechin gallate (47 mg/100 g), and epicatechin (14 mg/100 g).
Non Destructive Fast Determination of Fatty Acid Composition by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy in Sesame
Kang, Churl-Whan ; Kim, Dong-Hwi ; Lee, Sung-Woo ; Kim, Ki-Jong ; Cho, Kyu-Chae ; Shim, Kang-Bo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 283~291
To investigate seed non destructive and fast determination technique utilizing near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRs) for screening ultra high oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid content sesame varieties among genetic resources and lines of pedigree generations of cross and mutation breeding were carried out in National Institute of Crop Science (NICS). 150 among 378 landraces and introduced cultivars were released to analyse fatty acids by NIRs and gas chromatography (GC). Average content of each fatty acid was 9.64% in palmitic acid (C16:0), 4.73% in stearic acid (C18:0), 42.26% in oleic acid and 43.38% in linoleic acid by GC. The content range of each fatty acid was from 7.29 to 12.27% in palmitic, 6.49% from 2.39 to 8.88% in stearic, 12.59% of wider range compared to that of stearic and palmitic from 37.36 to 49.95% in oleic and of the widest from 30.60 to 47.40% in linoleic acid. Spectrums analyzed by NIRs were distributed from 400 to 2,500 nm wavelengths and varietal distribution of fatty acids were appeared as regular distribution. Varietal differences of oleic acid content good for food processing and human health by NIRs was 14.08% of which 1.49% wider range than that of GC from 38.31 to 52.39%. Varietal differences of linoleic acid content by NIRs was 16.41% of which 0.39% narrower range than that of GC from 30.60 to 47.01%. Varietal differences of oleic and linoleic acid content in NIRs analysis were appeared relatively similar inclination compared with those of GC. Partial least square regression (PLSR) among multiple variant regression (MVR) in NIRs calibration statistics was carried out in spectrum characteristics on the wavelength from 700 to 2,500 nm with oleic and linoleic acids. Correlation coefficient of root square (RSQ) in oleic acid content was 0.724 of which 72.4 percent of sample varieties among all distributed in the range of 0.570 percent of standard error when calibrated (SEC) which were considerably acceptable in statistic confidence significantly for analysis between NIRs and GC. Standard error of cross validation (SECV) of oleic acid was 0.725 of which distributed in the range of 0.725 percent standard error among the samples of mother population between analyzed value by NIRs analysis and analyzed value by GC. RSQ of linoleic acid content was 0.735 of which 73.5 percent of sample varieties among all distributed in the range of 0.643 percent of SEC. SECV of linoleic acid was 0.711 of which distributed in the range of 0.711 percent standard error among the samples of mother population between NIRs analysis and GC analysis. Consequently, adoption NIR analysis for fatty acids of oleic and linoleic instead that of GC was recognized statistically significant between NIRs and GC analysis through not only majority of samples distributed in the range of negligible SEC but also SECV. For enlarging and increasing statistic significance of NIRs analysis, wider range of fatty acids contented sesame germplasm should be kept on releasing additionally for increasing correlation coefficient of RSQ and reducing SEC and SECV in the future.
Pasting and Texture Properties of Rice Blends Formulated with Three Rice Cultivars
Choi, In-Duck ; Kim, Deog-Su ; Son, Jong-Rok ; Yang, Chang-Inn ; Choi, Im-Su ; Kim, Kee-Jong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 292~296
Three rice cultivars of Goami2 (G2), Ilpumbyeo (IP), and Baegjinju (BJJ) of which physicochemical properties are significantly different, were blended by a simplex-lattice mixture design. The effect of blending those rice cultivars on pasting and texture properties were observed. Rapid Visco Analysis (RVA) indicated that the onset gelatinization temperature of pure blend of G2 rice
was higher than that of IP
. Increasing G2 rice resulted in lower peak and breakdown viscosity, and adhesiveness and cohesiveness, whereas higher setback viscosity and hardness. Pasting and texture properties of IP and BJJ indicated that G2 rice has quite different physical characteristics compared to IP and BJJ. Thus, it is expected that blending those three rice cultivars can be used to formulate a desirable rice blend on purpose, furthermore to promote the consumption of G2 rice, which has higher indigestible carbohydrate contents.
Chemical Variability of Leaf Cuticular Waxes According to Leaf Position in Tea Tree
Kim, Kwan-Su ; Song, Yeon-Sang ; Moon, Youn-Ho ; Park, Si-Hyung ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 297~303
Cuticular waxes on tea (Camellia sinensis L.) loaves consisted mainly of alkanes, fatty acids, primary alcohols, triterpenes, and a group of unknown compounds, dominated by primary alcohols and triterpenes. Tea tree accessions used in this study were M-1, M-2, Sakimidori, and Yabukita. For all accessions, the alkane, fatty acid, and primary alcohol constituents consisted of a homologues series, and the major constituents of primary alcohol class were the C28 and C30 homologues. Triterpenes consisted of friedelin,
, and three unidentified ones and friedelin was the most abundant. Leaf area and the total amounts of cuticular waxes per leaf increased with lower leaf position from the apical bud in Yabukita variety. With different leaf position, total wax amount per unit leaf area on the youngest leaves of P1 (the uppermost leaf position) showed the largest amount
, and on mature loaves of P2 to P6 ranged from 7.08 to
, and then on the oldest loaves of P7 (the lowest leaf position) remained at an increased level
. During leaf development (lower leaf position), the amount of primary alcohols decreased from P1 to P6 and increased at P7, whereas that of triterpenes increased from P1 to P7. The percentage of each wax class in the total wax amount occurred a decrease in primary alcohol and an increase in triterpene, with leaf age.
Nondestructive Prediction of Fatty Acid Composition in Sesame Seeds by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy
Kim, Kwan-Su ; Park, Si-Hyung ; Choung, Myoung-Gun ; Kim, Sun-Lim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 51, issue spc1, 2006, Pages 304~309
Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to develop a rapid and nondestructive method for the determination of fatty acid composition in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed oil. A total of ninety-three samples of intact seeds were scanned in the reflectance mode of a scanning monochromator, and reference values for fatty acid composition were measured by gas-liquid chromatography. Calibration equations were developed using modified partial least square regression with internal cross validation (n=63). The equations obtained had low standard errors of cross-validation and moderate
(coefficient of determination in calibration). Prediction of an external validation set (n=30) showed significant correlation between reference values and NIRS estimated values based on the SEP (standard error of prediction),
(coefficient of determination in prediction) and the ratio of standard deviation (SD) of reference data to SEP. The models developed in this study had relatively higher values (more than 2.0) of SD/SEP(C) for oleic and linoleic acid, having good correlation between reference and NIRS estimate. The results indicated that NIRS, a nondestructive screening method could be used to rapidly determine fatty acid composition in sesame seeds in the breeding programs for high quality sesame oil.