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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 52, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 52, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 52, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 52, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of External Quality of Brand Soybeans
Jong, Seung-Keun ; Woo, Shun-Hee ; Kim, Hong-Sig ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 52, issue 3, 2007, Pages 239~248
Although high nutritional values and continuous identification of important functional substances of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill.] promote consumption of soybean products worldwide, informations on quality of brand soybean is not enough for consumers. Total of 100 brand soybeans [32 for soypaste and source, 45 black testa (lage), and 17 black testa (small) or medicinal soybean and beansprout soybean] were collected at supermarkets and several external quality factors were analyzed. Brand soybeans were marked with the environmental friendly and intimating words along with soybean (white or yellow), black soybean (black-, frost-, late frost-, green or inner-green-), medicinal soybean and beansprout soybean. Among 100 brand soybeans 30% was 1 kg package and 59% was 500 g package, difference between printed and actual weights of 70% brand soybeans was
and weights of 2/3 of brand soybeans were higher than printed weight. Range of 100 seed weights of soypaste and source, black testa (large) and black testa (small) and beansprout soybeans were
, respectively. Although ranges of 100 seed weights of soypaste and source and black testa (large) soybeans were similar, 63% of soypaste and source were less than 29 g, while 78% of black testa (large) soybeans were higher than 30 g. Although average and highest percentages of seeds separated with 6.7 mm sieve were similar with 87.4% and 99.9% for soypaste and source soybean and 86.5% and 99.5% for black testa (large) soybean, respectively, the lowest percentages were 70.7% for soypaste and source soybean and 14.4% for black testa (large) soybean. When 100 seed weight was greater than 35 g, 90% of seeds were remained on 6.7 mm sieve. On the other hand 100 g weight and percentage of seeds remained on 6.7 mm sieve showed significantly positive correlations [r=0.7488** for soypaste and source soybean and r=0.7874** for black testa (large) soybean when 100 seed weight was
. Based on hilum color and/or appearance, 76% of brand soybeans collected (more than 90% in yellow testa soybeans) were found to be mixed more than 10% with other cultivars or landraces. Foreign materials such as sand, piece of clothe, wood piece, dead insects, other soybeans were found in 20% of brand soybeans. Average test weight of brand soybeans was 762g
with a range of
. Soybeans from local markets were as good as brand soybeans in 100 seed weight, uniformity of seeds, weight of foreign materials and test weight.
Characterization of Biomass Production and Seedling Establishment of Direct-Seeded Nogyangbyeo, a Whole Crop Rice Variety for Animal Feed
Yang, Woon-Ho ; Choi, Kyung-Jin ; Kwak, Kang-Su ; Park, Tae-Shik ; Oh, Min-Hyuk ; Shin, Jin-Chul ; Kim, Jong-Geun ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 52, issue 3, 2007, Pages 249~258
Experiments were conducted with aims to (1) estimate the biomass yield potential, (2) characterize the biomass and digestible dry matter production, and (3) reveal the characteristic seedling establishment of a whole crop rice variety, Nogyangbyeo, in dry- and wet-seeded rice. Maximum aboveground total biomass of Nogyangbyeo was 18 t
in dry-seeded rice and 20 t
in wet-seeded rice. Biomass yield potential of Nogyangbyeo was lower than that of Dasanbyeo. Comparatively, Nogyangbyeo was straw-dependent and Dasanbyeo was grain-dependent for biomass accumulation. Percentage of digestible dry matter (DDM) was higher in panicles than straw. Digestible dry matter yield was determined mainly by biomass yield rather than DDM percentage. Number of seedling establishment in Nogyangbyeo was
in dry-seeded rice and
in wet-seeded rice. Poor seedling establishment of dry-seeded Nogyangbyeo in the field condition was the result of low seed germination under low temperature and poor seedling emergence by deep sowing. Low seedling emergence rate of Nogyangbyeo was attributed mainly to slow elongation growth by slow leaf development and partly to mesocotyl and 1st internode lengths, not to genetically defined leaf length. The slow elongation growth of Nogyangbyeo was the same even in the high daily mean temperature of
. Results suggest DDM yield in rice can be improved simply by increasing biomass and whole crop rice varieties should be adaptable to direct-seeding.
Barley Sowing by Partial Tillage Direct Grain Seeder in Wet Paddy Field
Koo, Bon-Cheol ; Kim, Jae-Cheol ; Yang, Yon-Ha ; Kang, Moon-Seok ; Cho, Young-Son ; Park, Seok-Ho ; Park, Kwang-Geun ; Lee, Choon-Ki ; Shin, Jin-Chul ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 52, issue 3, 2007, Pages 259~263
Sowing time of barley after cultivation of rice has frequently been delayed because of rainfall or some other reasons by rice cultivation. Partial tillage direct grain seeder with eight row, which had been developed for rice sowing and showed many advantages in wet field, were tested for barley sowing. After flooding during
, plots were designed to make wet condition. Three sowing methods were tested; high ridged broadcasting, plat drill seeding and partial tillage direct grain seeding. It were impossible to sow properly even in 27% of soil water content by high ridged broadcasting, plat drill seeding but could be possible to sow normally by partial tillage direct grain seeder in 42% of soil water content as good as in 27% of soil water content. Initial growth condition after sowing in plots of partial tillage direct grain seeder were normal even in plots sown in more than 50% of soil water content. No. of spike, which was
, in plot of partial tillage direct grain seeder sowed at 30% soil water content was better than plat drill seeding,
. Yield and yield components of plot of partial tillage direct grain seeder, were higher than plot sowed by plat drill seeder in same soil water content. Partial tillage direct grain seeding can be a good sowing way for barley especially in wet condition. However, parts of seeder have to be improved for barley sowing; 1) ridged width of partial tillage direct grain seeder should be
wider than 10 cm, which is necessary for drainage during barley growing season in wet paddy field. 2) sowing width of partial tillage direct grain seeder was not same with one of drill seeder which was the best width for light interception and should be shorter than 30cm.
Cross-Tolerance and Responses of Antioxidative Enzymes of Rice to Various Environmental Stresse
Kuk, Yong-In ; Shin, Ji-San ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 52, issue 3, 2007, Pages 264~273
In order to examine the cross-tolerance of two chilling-tolerant cultivars (Donganbyeo and Heukhyangbyeo) and two chilling-susceptible cultivars (Hyangmibyeo and Taekbaekbyeo) to salt, paraquat, and drought, changes of physiological response and antioxidant enzymes were investigated. The seedlings were grown in a growth chamber until the 4-leaf stage. The seedlings were exposed to chilling at
for 3 days. For drought treatment, the seedlings were subjected to drought by withholding water from plants for 5 days. For paraquat study, plants were sprayed with
paraquat. For the salt stress, the seedlings were transferred to the Hoagland's nutrient solution containing 0.6% (w/v) NaCl for 4 days. Chilling-tolerant cultivars showed cross-tolerant to other stresses, salt, paraquat, and drought in physiological parameters, such as leaf injury, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and lipid peroxidation. The baseline levels of antioxidative enzyme activities, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) activities in chilling-tolerant cultivars were higher than in the chilling-susceptible cultivars. However, there were no differences in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities between chilling-tolerant and -susceptible cultivars in untreated control. CAT activity in chilling-tolerant cultivars was higher than that in chilling-susceptible cultivars during chilling, salt, and drought treatments, but not during paraquat treatment. However, other antioxidative enzymes, APX, POX, and GR activities showed no significant differences between chilling-tolerant and -susceptible cultivars during chilling, salt, paraquat, and drought treatments. Thus, it was assumed that CAT contribute to cross-tolerance mechanism of chilling, salt, and drought in rice plants.
Effects of Biofertilizer on the Quality and Antioxidant Property of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Rico, Cyren Mendoza ; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Kamrul Islam ; Mintah, Lemuel O. ; Shin, Dong-Il ; Chung, Il-Kyung ; Son, Tae-Kwon ; Lee, Sang-Chul ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 52, issue 3, 2007, Pages 274~280
The effect of biofertilizer in enhancing nutrient quality and antioxidant property of rice grain was investigated. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and 7 treatments namely : RF =
half of the recommended fertilizer rate,
HRF+Bio 250=HRF combined with 250 kg Biofertilizer 10
; HRF+Bio 500=HRF combined with 500 kg Biofertilizer 10
Bio 250=250 kg Biofertilizer 10
Bio 500=500 kg Biofertilizer 10
and NF=No Fertilizer. Results showed that HRF+Bio 500 obtained a significantly higher protein content but a significantly lower amylose content compared with RF and NF treatments. Highest phytic acid content was recorded in NF treatment while the lowest was observed in HRF+500 treatment. The highest values in both electron donating ability and reducing power were obtained in HRF+Bio 500 treatment. All treatments obtained higher reducing power than that of the RF treatment and that NF treatment showed comparable values in both electron donating ability and reducing power with those of the treated plots. Highest antimutagenicity property was also observed in HRF+Bio 500 treatment followed by Bio 500 treatment. This study showed the possibility of using biofertilizer to enhance nutritional quality and antioxidant property of rice.
Proteome Analysis of the Young Spikelets of Photoperiod-Sensitive Rice Mutant Treated in Different Photoperiods
Pandeya, Devendra ; Song, You-Chun ; Kim, Sung-Su ; Suh, Hak-Soo ; Kang, Sang-Gu ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 52, issue 3, 2007, Pages 281~288
Photoperiod sensitive genetic male sterile (PGMS) rice is sterile mutant controlled by photoperiod. A PGMS mutant 920S was sterile grown under long-day (LD) photoperiod (14 h light/10 h dark) but fertile grown under short-day (SD) photoperiod (10 h light/14 h dark). Proteome analysis revealed that 12 protein spots were differentially expressed in the spikelets of 920S plants either treated with LD or SD photoperiod. Among these proteins, three proteins including chlorophyll a/b binding protein, vacuolar ATPase
and an unknown protein were more than three-fold abundant in the spikelet of the SD-treated plants than those of the LD-treated plants. On the other hand, eight proteins including acetyl transferase, 2, 3- biphosphoglycerate, aminopeptidase N, pyruvate decarboxylase, 60S acidic ribosomal protein and three unknown protein spots were more abundant in the spikelets of the LD-treated plants than those of the SD-treated plants. The results suggest that the observed proteins may be involved in sterile or fertile pollen development under LD or SD photoperiod respectively in the PGMS mutant rice.
Potential Role of Polyphenolics and Polyphenol Oxidase on the Induction of Browning in Ginseng Roots
Lim, Tae-Kyo ; Park, Hong-Wu ; Hwang, Yong-Soo ; Choi, Jae-Eul ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 52, issue 3, 2007, Pages 289~295
This study was conducted to investigate the potential of polyphenols and polyphenol oxidase activity on the induction of rusty symptom development in ginseng root. When rusty inducing bacteria were inoculated on fresh ginseng root, the hue value of the inoculated root increased from 101.2 (white yellow) at 1 day after innoculation to 60.9 (brownish red) at 30 days after innoculation. Lysobacter gummosus, Pseudomonas veronii and Agrobacterium tumefaciens enhanced the accumulation of total phenolics. Along with the increase of total phenolics, total activity of polyphenol oxidase concomitantly increased but the specific activity of the enzyme was not.
N Use Efficiency and Nitrate Leaching by Fertilization Level and Film Mulching in Sesame Cultivated Upland
Lee, Dong-Wook ; Park, Ki-Do ; Park, Chang-Young ; Son, Il-Soo ; Kang, Ui-Gum ; Ko, Jee-Yeon ; Shim, Kang-Bo ; Cho, Young-Son ; Park, Sung-Tae ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 52, issue 3, 2007, Pages 296~302
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of slow release fertilizers (SRF), crotonylidene diurea (CDU) and latex coated urea (LCU), on nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) and nitrate-N leaching in a silty clay loam soil under polyethylene film mulching (PFM) for sesame cultivation. In PFM plot, concentrations of
in SRF applied soils were less than that in the urea plot during the whole growing period. However,
in all the non-mulched plots (NM) were not significantly different. Urea-N in soil treated with SRF was higher than urea plot until 50 days after application and was comparable in all the treatments after 50 days.
concentrations in leached solution in 21 days after urea fertilization in PFM and NM were 26 mg
and 83 mg
, respectively. However,
in leached solution at applied CDU and LCU was less than that of urea similar to nitrate concentration in soil.
in leached solution in applied CDU and LCU in 44 days after application was about 25% lower than that urea plot and PFM, while the
concentration of CDU and LCU treatment in NM did not changed. Application of SRF increased the yield of sesame and N recovery compared to urea and there was a little difference between SRF and N levels. In conclusion, application of 80% N level with SRF increased N recovery and reduced nitrate leaching without reduction of yields compared with urea application.
Antibacterial and Antimutagenic Effects of Sweetpotato Tips Extract
Lee, Joon-Seol ; Shin, Mee-Jin ; Park, Yang-Kyun ; Ahn, Young-Sup ; Chung, Mi-Nam ; Kim, Hag-Sin ; Kim, Jeong-Mok ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 52, issue 3, 2007, Pages 303~310
Sweetpotato shoot tops (leaves, tips and petioles) are known to be very useful parts as vegetables because of their high nutritive values and great biomass yield. In this study, the phenolic compound contents, antibacterial activity, mutagenic activity, and antimutagenic activity were investigated in sweetpotato tips that were 10-15cm of shoot top including stems, petioles and tender leaves after sprout of storage roots. The study was done by extracting sweetpotato tips with 80% ethanol and the ethanol fraction was re-extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. In ethyl acetate and butanol fractions, total phenolic compounds contained 95. 6mg/g extract and 69.3 mg/g extract, respectively, The antibacterial activity was measured using the paper disk method with concentrations of 1, 2, 5 and 10 mg/disk of butanol and ethyl acetate fractions against L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium strains. Higher doses of solvent extracts showed the higher antibacterial activities. In addition, 5, 10 and 20 mg/mL of the extracts were tested to determine the antibacterial activity in liquid culture. The sweetpotato leaf extract by ethyl acetate showed 1 log reduction compared to control after 24 hrs on Listeria monocytogenes, but 20 mg/ml of butanol extract completely inhibited the growth of the pathogen after 12 hrs. The extracts from ethyl acetate or butanol on Salmonella Typhimurium did less than 1 log reduction during cultivation compared to control. The numbers of S. Typhimirium TA98 and TA100 revertant colonies were 29-33 and 159-188 CFU/plate, respectively, indicating that solvent extracts were no mutagenic activity. The antimutagenic test was performed by adding direct mutagen 2-NF and MMS, and butanol and ethyl acetate showed antimutagenic effect. Thus, this study showed that sweetpotato tips had high phenolic contents and both antimicrobiol and antimutagenic properties. Sweetpotato tips would be good nutritive source because of their high nutrient content without any toxicity in consuming.
Effects of Application of Controlled Release Fertilizer Blended with Different Nitrogen Releasing Latex Coated Ureas on Rice Growth and Grain Quality
Lee, Dong-Wook ; Park, Ki-Do ; Park, Chang-Young ; Kang, Ui-Gum ; Son, Il-Soo ; Park, Sung-Tae ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 52, issue 3, 2007, Pages 311~319
This study was conducted to estimate effects of application of controlled release complex fertilizer with latex coated urea (LCU-complex) on growth and grain quality of rice under direct seeded on dry paddy (DS) and transplanted on flooding paddy (TP). Three types of latex coated urea different nitrogen (N) releasing were LCU40, LCU80 and LCU100. The time of N releasing of LCU formulations in water at both 20 and
was faster in the order of LCU40, LCU80, LCU blend (LCU40, LCU80 and LCU100 was mixed in ratio of 2:2:1), and LCU100. The number of tillers and dry matter weight were great in order of LCU-complex 100% > LCU-complex80% > urea and plant height was not significant. Grain yields at LCU-complex80% in both DS and TP plot were similar to those of urea application. N recovery of LCU-complex80% and 100% was improved 8 and 6% compared to that of conventional urea split application in DS plot and 9 and 4% in TP. Content of protein of grain at applied LCU-complex was less 0.8% and
than that of urea in DS and TP, respectively. Content of amylose and Mg/K ratio in rice grain was not significant. Consequently application of LCU-complex blended types of coated urea different N releasing can be reduced 20% of N without yield reduction and improved grain quality compared with urea application.
Comparisons in Anatomical Morphology Between Soybean Cultivars of Different Flooding Tolerance under Early Vegetative Flooding Conditions
Lee, Choong-Yeul ; Cho, Jin-Woong ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 52, issue 3, 2007, Pages 320~324
To characterize flooding-affected anatomical morphology changes in soybean, flooding-tolerant cv Pung-sannamulkong (PSNK) and flooding-sensitive cv. Sobaek-namulkong (SBNK) at 5 trifoliate leaf stage were exposed to flooding by maintaining tap water 2 cm above soil surface for 9 days and resultant microscopic anatomical changes in leaf and hypocotyl cross-sections along with chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate changes were compared. Flooding-sensitive SBNK exhibited more significant decrement in chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, number of palisade parenchyma, and leaf dry matter compared to cv. PSNK. Flooding decreased fineness of palisade parenchyma, while inducing wider xylem vessel, especially in PSNK. The aerenchyma formation in hypocotyls under flooding could be observed only in flooding-resistant PSNK. All these anatomical changes seems to be related with higher physiolocial activity and resultant resistance against flooding in PSNK compared to flood-sensitive PSNK.
Planting Time for the Economic Yield of a Super Sweet Corn Hybrid in the Southern Part of Korea
Yang, Seung-Kyu ; Hong, Seung-Beom ; Lee, Suk-Soon ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 52, issue 3, 2007, Pages 325~333
To find out the planting times for the economic yield of a super sweet corn hybrid, "Cambella 90" was planted from 1 April of 2003 and 2004 at the 10 days intervals under black polyethylene (P. E.) film mulch and in bare soil in Gyeongsan. Daily maximum soil temperature under black P. E. film mulch was lower, while daily minimum soil temperature was higher compared to bare soil. Soil moisture content under black P. E. film mulch maintained optimum level longer than in bare soil. Emergence rate, percent stand, culm length, and the number of marketable ears were higher under black P E. film mulch compared to bare soil. Silking date under black P. E. film mulch was earlier compared to bare soil by
days at April plantings, while only 1 day earlier at June plantings. Silking date of individual plants in a plot ranged
days depending on planting dates and soil mulch in the same plot. The number of large ears decreased as planting dates delayed. Considering emergence rate and the number of marketable ears, the planting time for the economic yield of a super sweet com hybrid, "Cambella 90" ranged 1 April to 20 June in the southern part of Korea.
Optimum Plant Populations of a Super Sweet Corn Hybrid at Different Planting Dates
Lee, Suk-Soon ; Yang, Seung-Kyu ; Hong, Seung-Beom ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 52, issue 3, 2007, Pages 334~340
A super sweet corn hybrid, "Cambella 90", was grown at 5 plant populations (35,000, 45,000, 55,000, 65,000, 75,000 plants/ha) on 1 April, 1 May, and 1 June in 2004 under black polyethylene (P. E.) film mulch to find out the optimum plant populations at different planting dates. Emergence rate and percent stand increased as planting dates delayed. Culm length and ear height were highest at the planting on 1 May and increased with increased plant population. Soluble solids content was highest at the planting on 1 May and decreased as plant population increased. Ear length, seed set ear length, ear diameter, and ear weight decreased as plant population increased. Seed set ear length could not substitute for ear weight to evaluate marketable ears. The optimum plant population of "Cambella 90" was
plants/ha at the planting on 1 April when emergence rate was low due to low temperature,
plants/ha at the planting on 1 May, and 65,000 plants/ ha after the planting on 1 June.
Differences of Soil Enzyme Activity after Incorporation with Chinese Milk Vetch Litter Cut at Different Growth Stages
Lee, Ji-Hyun ; Shim, Sang-In ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 52, issue 3, 2007, Pages 341~347
Chinese milk vetch (CMV) is a winter legume that is commonly used as cover crop in Korea. Kill date of cover crop for addition into soil affects N content in cover crop and N availability in soil. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of CMV as green manure cover crop according to kill dates before growing corn without artificial fertilizer. Top of CMV cut three times on 13 April, 27 April, and 11 May were added into soil at a rate of 600 kg per 10a. Sugar content in CMV litter was persistently decreased from mid-April to late-May. The decrease of sugar content might be due to the transformation into starch and/or other storage or structural constituents. The decreased amount of sugars was greater than 12% and the increased amount of starch was less than 0.2%. Concentration of
in soil treated by CMV litter cut on May 11 was slightly higher than that in the treatment with early-cut (April 13) CMV, the concentration at 28 and 49 DAT (days after treatment) was higher in the treatment with late-cut CMV litter. Regardless of cut (kill) date of CMV, the phosphatase activity in the treatment of CMV litter was higher compared to the untreated control. Soil dehydrogenase activity was increased steadily by addition of CMV litter implying total microbial activities in the soil were increased. Our results demonstrate that the status of cover crop species at kill date is an important factor influencing soil enzyme activities derived from microorganisms. Therefore, the optimal kill date of cover crop should be examined to improve the efficiency of cover crop as green manure crop regarding the practical sequence in cropping system.
Diversity in Lipid Contents and Fatty Acid Composition of Soybean Seeds Cultivated in Korea
Kim, Sun-Lim ; Lee, Yeong-Ho ; Chi, Hee-Youn ; Lee, Sun-Joo ; Kim, Si-Ju ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 52, issue 3, 2007, Pages 348~357
The 117 soybeans seeds were collected from the nine provinces of Korea, and protein and lipid contents, and fatty acid composition levels were evaluated to investigate their relationship. The 100-seed weights of the black soybeans were varied
, while the 100-seed weight of yellow soybeans were varied
. Protein and lipid content of the 117 soybean seeds was 38.3% and 17.8%, respectively Protein contents of the 59 black soybean seeds (38.6%) were significantly higher than those of the 58 yellow soybean seeds (37.9%). However, lipid contents of the black soybean seeds (17.6%) were lower than those of the yellow soybean seeds (18.1%). Linoleic and oleic acid composition levels of the 117 soybean seeds were 53.75% and 22.08%. Unsaturated fatty acid levels of soybean seeds showed a statistically significant variability among the nine provinces of Korea, however, the differences were not found in the linoleic (18:2) and oleic acid (18:1) levels. Therefore, it was considered that the significant variability of unsaturated fatty acid were mainly due to the variations of linolenic acid (18:3) level. The composition levels of linoleic, oleic, palmitic (16:0), and linolenic acid in the yellow soybean seeds were 53.43%, 22.73%, 12.23%, and 8.24%, while those of the black soybean seeds were 54.13%, 21.48%, 12.47%, and 8.31%. Obtained results suggested that fatty acid composition levels were varied and possibly influence by the phenotype of seed coat colors. Oleic acid, mono-saturated fatty acid, showed the most remarkable variability between yellow and black soybean seeds, and the composition levels were higher in the yellow soybean seeds. Relationship between unsaturated fatty acid levels and 100-seed weights in the yellow soybean seeds showed a negative correlation (r=-0.513, P<0.01), but no relationship
was observed in the black soybean seeds.