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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Lee, Sang Chul
Volume & Issues
Volume 53, Issue spc - Dec 2008
Volume 53, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 53, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 53, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 53, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Agronomic Stability of North Korean Rice Varieties using Statistical Models
Jeong, O-Young ; Lee, Jeom-Ho ; Hong, Ha-Cheol ; Jeong, Eung-Gi ; Paek, Jin-Soo ; Yang, Chang-Ihn ; Jeon, Yong-Hee ; Kim, Myeong-Ki ; Lee, Kyu-Seong ; Yang, Sae-Jun ; Lee, Young-Tae ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~7
This experiment was carried out to evaluate the agronomic stability of North Korean rice varieties using the statistical model developed by Grafius, Finlay, and Ever hart. The lowest yearly variation based on coefficients of variation was found in Hannam 29 for number of panicles per hill, in Sijoong 9 for number of grains per panicle, in Pyeongyang 3 for ripened grain ratio, in Sijoong 16 for 1,000 grain weight, and in Yeomju 1 for grain yield. By Grafius's model, Pyeongbook 3, Weonsan 66 in early maturing groups and Seohaechalbyeo in medium maturing groups show stable for 3 years. Weonsan 66 in early maturing groups and Seohaechalbyeo in medium maturing groups were found to be highly stable as analyzed by both Finlay and Wilkinson's model and Everhart & Russell's model. With reference to three models, Weonsan 66 was highly stable for 3 years with showing more yield than Odaebyeo in early maturing groups while Seohaechalbyeo was highly stable for 3 years with showing high yield than Hwaseongbyeo in medium maturing groups above
of milled rice respectively.
Simulating Ammonia Volatilization from Applications of Different Urea Applied in Rice Field by WNMM
Park, Ki-Do ; Lee, Dong-Wook ; Li, Yong ; Chen, Deli ; Park, Chang-Young ; Lee, Young-Han ; Lee, Chang-Hoon ; Kang, Ui-Gum ; Park, Sung-Tae ; Cho, Young-Son ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 8~14
) volatilization from a silty clay loam paddy soil applied with non, straight urea, and coated urea, respectively, under transplanting in Milyang, Korea from 2002 and 2003 was simulated by a Water and Nitrogen Management Model (WNMM). Based on the data from the in-situ measurements,
volatilization during the rice growth was 6.04% and 1.46% of the applied nitrogen (N) from straight urea and coated urea, respectively. The bulk aerodynamic approach in WNMM satisfactorily predicted the difference in
loss during the given rice growing seasons from the two urea fertilizers.
for the correlation between the predicted and observed NH3 loss during the calibration year (2002) was 0.53 less than 0.68 of the application year (2003). This difference could be due to the weather condition such as heavy rainfall and temperature during the calibration year.
Development of Prediction Model by NIRS for Anthocyanin Contents in Black Colored Soybean
Kim, Yong-Ho ; Ahn, Hyung-Kyun ; Lee, Eun-Seop ; Kim, Hee-Dong ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 15~20
Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a rapid and accurate analytical method for determining the composition of agricultural products and feeds. This study was conducted to measure anthocyanin contents in black colored soybean by using NIRS system. Total 300 seed coat of black colored soybean samples previously analyzed by HPLC were scanned by NIRS and over 250 samples were selected for calibration and validation equation. A calibration equation calculated by MPLS(modified partial least squares) regression technique was developed in which the coefficient of determination for anthocyanin pigment C3G, D3G and Pt3G content was 0.952, 0.936, and 0.833, respectively. Each calibration equation was applied to validation set that was performed with the remaining samples not included in the calibration set, which showed high positive correlation both in C3G and D3G content file. In case Pt3G, the prediction model was needed more accuracy because of low
value in validation set. This results demonstrate that the developed NIRS equation can be practically used as a rapid screening method for quantification of C3G and D3G contents in black colored soybean.
Growth of Soybean Sprouts Affected by Period and Method of Seed Storage
Jeon, Seung-Ho ; Lee, Chang-Woo ; Kim, Hong-Young ; Kim, Hee-Kyu ; Kang, Jin-Ho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 21~27
Germination of soybean and growth of its sprouts should be affected by storage condition and period of seeds. The experiment was conducted to examine the effects of period stored at cold room and storage conditions on their growth and morphological characters. The seeds, cv. Pungsannamulkong, were stored at
for 1 or 2 years, and by the three different storage methods of indoor, cold room, or transfer of indoor to cold room. Compared to the seeds stored for 2 years, one-year seeds had higher rate in hypocotyl of longer than 7 cm, root and hypocotyl lengths, and more hypocotyl fresh weight although there was not significant difference in total fresh weight. In the storage method experiment, one-year seeds stored at cold room and by transfer of indoor to cold room showed better growth, more lateral roots and fresh weights, although only two-year seeds stored at cold room did the same response, indicating that growth of soybean was affected by period and method of seed storage.
Morphological Characters and Color of Mungbean Sprouts Affected by Water Supplying on the Harvest Day
Hong, Dong-Oh ; Jeon, Seung-Ho ; Lee, Chang-Woo ; Kim, Hong-Young ; Kang, Jin-Ho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 28~33
Traditionally mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) sprouts has been stored after dehydration to decrease their decay. The study was done to determine the effect of watering for final 12 hours of harvest day on morphological characters and color of mungbean sprouts. The seeds of cv. Zhong Lu 1 were soaked in 50 ppm BA solution immediately before 4 hour aeration and then cultured for 6 days, when water-supplied for final 12 hours or not. After packaged with PE envelops, the sprouts stored 5 days at
, and their morphological characters, fresh and dry weights, and colors were measured everyday. Compared to non-water supplied, water supplied sprouts had thicker hypocotyl diameter in middle part, and higher total fresh weight due to increment of cotyledon and hypocotyl ones although the two sprouts did nearly same in other characters. Only nonwater supplied sprouts showed higher color b value in hypocotyl than water supplied ones although there were not significant differences between them in other color-related characters, meaning that the latter ones were more rapidly decayed during their storage. In non-water supplied sprouts, number of lateral roots, hypocotyl and root lengths, total fresh weight, brightness of hypocotyl and root was decreased since 3 days after storage but cutting resistance of hypocotyl was done since 5 days.
Variation of Isoflavone and Saponin During Maturity in Black Soybean
Yi, Eun-Seob ; Kim, Hee-Dong ; Chae, Jae-Cheon ; Kim, Yong-Ho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 34~41
This study was conducted to investigate antioxidant component content during maturity for judgement of optimum harvest time in black soybean. For high-functional black soybean production, accumulation pattern of isoflavone and saponin contents and anti oxidative activity according to maturity stage were investigated. Varieties used in this experiment were Ilpumgemojeongkong and heukcheongkong, which are the recommended black soybean in Korea. Isoflavone and saponin contents during maturity period in black soybean was the highest at
days earlier than general harvesting time. It was indicated that optimum harvesting time for high quality soybean were
days earlier than harvesting time for higher yield. As a result of investigation about accumulation pattern of antioxidant components by maturity stages in seed, total isoflavone content was the highest at 61 DAF in Ilpumgeomjeongkong and at 77 DAF in Heukcheongkong. Contents of total saponin were the highest at 61 DAF and at 71 DAF, respectively. In case of leaf, total isoflavone content was the highest at 55 DAF in Ilpumgeomjeongkong and Heukcheongkong. Contents of total saponin were the highest at 18 DAF and at
DAF, respectively. It showed that black soybean's leaf could be developed as a new health food material, owing to high contents of antioxidant components and biological activity and it's suitable harvest time was at
A GDD Model for Super Sweet Corn Grown under Black P. E. Film Mulch
Lee, Suk-Soon ; Yang, Seung-Kyu ; Hong, Seung-Beom ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 42~49
GDD models of corn were developed in bare soil, while sweet and super sweet corns are grown under black polyethylene (P. E.) film mulch in Korea. To develop a suitable GDD model under black P. E. film mulch, a super sweet com hybrid "Cambella-90" was planted from 1 April to 30 June in 2003 at the 10-day intervals under black P. E. film mulch and in bare soil. In bare soil the best GDD model was
, where H" was daily maximum temperature but is was substituted for
- (daily maximum temperature -
) when higher than
and L' was daily minimum temperature, but it was substituted for
when lower than
. The same GDD model could be adapted for com grown under black P. E. film mulch, but base temperature was substituted for
. To determine planting date for the scheduled harvests, accumulated GDDs were calculated using 30-year average temperature data during the growing season. Under black P. E. film mulch planting dates were determined by subtracting GDD of the hybrid,
, from accumulated GDD of scheduled harvest dates.
Estimation of Soybean N Fraction Derived from N Sources by
in Soybean Cultivation with Rye as Green Manure
Seo, Jong-Ho ; Lee, Seong-Hee ; Cho, Young-Son ; Lee, Jae-Eun ; Lee, Chung-Keun ; Kwon, Young-Up ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 50~57
Winter season cultivation of rye as green manure for soybean have been a favorite with farmer because it could remove a risk of injury by continuous cropping and increase N uptake and yield of soybean. Effects of rye green manure on soybean N uptake,
fixation and yield were investigated with
as pot experiment in greenhouse in 2004 and field in 2005, respectively. The N derived from N fertilizer (
) in rye green manure increased with increasing of N fertilizer rate compared to N derived from soil. N uptake and DM yield of soybean at the pot with paddy soil was higher than those at the pot with upland soil mainly due to the increase of N uptake from paddy soil. Total
recovery in soil was higher at rye green manure than no green manure because
applied to rye plant was remained highly as soil organic N compared to chemical N fertilizer.
recovery in soybean plant increased in proportion to amounts of N fertilizer applied to rye. The N fractions from
fixation of soybean plant at the pot experiment in 2004 ranged from 92% to 95%, on the other hand those in field experiment in 2005 ranged from 82% to 84%. Estimation of amount of
fixation was not different between Difference method and
method in 2004 and 2005.
Identification of Chalkiness Development of Milled Waxy Rice Grains with Harvest Times and the Moisture Contents
Jeong, Eung-Gi ; Lee, Choon-Ki ; Choi, Yoon-Hee ; Kim, Jung-Tae ; Kim, Seok ; Son, Jong-Rok ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 58~63
Variation of chalkiness expression in milled waxy rice with the moisture contents of grains was investigated using instrument and naked eye evaluation methods. To find out any effects of varieties and harvesting times on the chalkiness development, rice grains of seven waxy varieties harvested at early, optimal and late times were tested after being sun-dried to have three different moisture contents of about
and above 16.0%. The moisture contents of rice grains were distributed in the ranges of about 13.0% to 17.5% with the drying intensity right after harvesting. Although there were some genetical variations in whiteness and degree of transparency of milled rice grains among varieties at the same condition, chalkiness was most significantly affected by the changes of moisture content in all waxy varieties and harvesting times. At the moisture content less than 13.5%, all varieties exhibited waxy unique chalkiness, and at the moisture ranges between 13.5% and 14.0% the chalkiness was more or less affected by harvesting time and varieties. At the moisture content ranges between 14.0% and 16.0%, chalkiness gradually disappeared as with the increase of moisture content. However the degrees of chalkiness loses were strongly depended on individual kernels by showing as if the number of non-waxy rice kernels would be increasing in waxy rice grains with the moisture content increase. At the moisture content above about 16.0%, all waxy kernels lost their unique chalkiness, and showed non-waxy rice appearance.
Effects of Planting Density on Growth and Yield of Vegetable Soybean Varieties
Lee, Seung-Su ; Kim, Chang-Ho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 64~69
The objective of experiment was to investigate the effects of planting density on growth and yield of vegetable soybean, and to clarify the optimum planting density of vegetable soybean in the middle west region of Korea. The field experiment with 4 levels of planting density was carried out at Yesan area in
. The days from seeding to flowering and the days from seeding to harvesting and lodging were not significantly different among planting distance. The stem length was increased as planting distance was shortened but the number of node, branch, pod per branch, pod per individual, weight of stem and pod, one hundred pod weight and rate of 2+3 seed per pod were decreased as planting density was increased. The size of vegetable soybeans was not significantly different among planting distance, but the harvest index of vegetable soybean was decreased as planting distance was shortened. Yield of vegetable soybean was increased as planting distance was decreased. However, the approriate densities for stem and pod weight per a plant, number of pod per a branch and the vegetable soybean yield of 2+3 seed per pod were different from that density. The optimal planting distance of varieties was
in Sunheukkong and Ilpumgeomjeongkong and was
An Optimum Harvest Time for Chinese Milk Vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) Seed Production
Lee, Byung-Jin ; Choi, Zhin-Ryong ; Kim, Sang-Yeol ; Oh, Seong-Hwan ; Kim, Jun-Hwan ; Hwang, Woon-Ha ; Ahn, Jong-Woong ; Oh, Byeong-Geun ; Ku, Yeon-Chung ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 70~74
To determine an optimum harvest time for chinese milk vetch (CMV) seed production, the seeds were harvested at 4 times, according to 25, 30, 35, and 40 day after flowering (DAF), in Miryang, southern part of Korea. CMV plants were manually harvested at each time and seed threshing was done by rice threshing machine. Seed yield, 1,000-seed weight, germinability, and hard coat ratio were investigated. Seed yield was the highest, 53.9 kg/300 kg by dry weight (DW) of CMV plant, at 35 DAF. 1,000-seed weight increased according to seed harvest time from 25 DAF to 40 DAF when it was 3.10 g. The germination ratios of seeds harvested at 4 times were not significantly different when the seeds stored until August 1. In case of long period of CMV seeds stored, the seeds harvested later showed higher germination rate. On the other hand, because the hard coat ratio causing germination inhibition was declined with an increase of storage period, it was higher in the seeds harvested later. There was no difference among the seeds harvested at 4 times at October 1. In conclusion, it was presumed that an optimum harvest time for CMV seed production should be at 35 DAF considering seed yield, weight and germinability.
Antimutagenic Effect and Cytotoxicity to Human Cancer Cell Lines of Colored Potato Extracts
Park, Young-Eun ; Jeong, Jin-Cheol ; Cho, Huyn-Mook ; Hwang, Young-Sun ; Lee, Hyeon-Jin ; Choi, Su-San-Na ; Lee, Su-Jin ; Park, Eun-Sun ; Ko, Eun-A ; Kim, Nan-Sol ; Lim, Jung-Dae ; Choung, Myoung-Gun ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 75~84
Colored potatoes are an excellent source of dietary polyphenols including anthocyanins. Generally, anthocyanins from fruits and vegetables exhibit anti-carcinogenesis and anti-cancer properties in vitro test. This experiment was conducted to know the effects of colored potato extracts contained anthocyanins on antimutagenic activity and anticancer activity to six human cancer cell lines containing LNCaP (androgen-dependent) prostate cancer cells. Extracts of three colored potatoes ('Hongyoung', 'Jayoung' and 'Jasim') and the white potato ('Superior') cultivars were used in this study. The extracts of three colored potatoes inhibited the mutagenicities induced by direct mutagen such as 4-nitro-quinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) and another indirect mutagens of bezo(a)pyrene (BaP). Also, the extracts of 'Hoyoung' and 'Jayoung' showed higher antimutagenic activity than 'Jasim' and 'Superior' against to direct or indirect mutagen on both strains of TA98 and TA100. The activity of growth-inhibitory of extract of four potato cultivars were screened by SRB (sulphorhodamine B) method on diverse human cancer cells representing different types of cancers. Among the extract of four potato cultivars, the extract of 'Jasim' showed moderate inhibition on proliferation of LNCaP, ACHN and MOLT-4F cells and did not inhibit the proliferation of other cancer cells. On the other hand, extract of 'Superior' did not inhibit the proliferation of any tested cancer cell lines. However, the extracts of 'Hongyoung and Jayoung' inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells with
values ranging from 2.5 to
. On the basis of the
values, it is clear that LNCaP cells were more sensitive to extracts of colored potato cultivars than other cancer cells. The extract of 'Jayoung' at
were more active and inhibited cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells. This result revealed that the extracts of colored potatoes are expected to be good candidate for development into source of antimutagenic and anticancer agent.
QTL Analysis of Seed and Growth Traits using RIL Population in Soybean
Kim, Jeong-Soon ; Song, Mi-Hee ; Lee, Janf-Yong ; Ahn, Sang-Nag ; Ku, Ja-Hwan ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 85~92
An RIL population from a Shinpaldalkong2/GC83006 cross was employed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with agronomic traits in soybean. The genetic map consisted of 127 loci which covered about 3,000cM and were assigned into 20 linkage groups. Phenotypic data were collected for the following traits; plant height, leaf area, flowering time, pubescence color, seed coat color and hilum color in 2005. Seed weight was evaluated using seeds collected in 2003 to 2005 at Suwon and in 2005 at Pyeongchang and Miryang sites. Three QTLs were associated with 100-seed weight in the combined analysis across three years. Among the three QTLs related to seed weight, all GC83006 alleles on LG O (
), LG A1 (
) and LG C2 (
) increased the seed weight. A QTL conditioning plant height was linked to markers including Satt134 (LG C2,
), and the GC83006 allele increased plant height at this QTL locus. For two QTLs related to leaf area, 1aM on LG M (
) and laL on LG L (
), the Shinpaldalkong2 alleles had positive effect to increase the leaf area. Satt134 on LG C2 (
) was associated with QTL for days to flowering. Satt134 (LG C2) showed a linkage to a gene for pubescence color. Satt363 (LG C2) and Satt354 (LG I) were linked to the hilum color gene, and Sat077 (LG D1a) was linked to the seed coat color. The QTL conditioning plant height was in the similar genomic location as the QTLs for days to flowering in this population, indicating pleiotropic effect of one gene or the tight linkage of several genes. These linked markers would be useful in marker assisted selection for these traits in a soybean breeding program.
Effects of Elevated
on Maize Growth
Kim, Young-Guk ; Cho, Young-Son ; Seo, Jong-Ho ; Kim, Sok-Dong ; Shin, Jin-Chul ; Park, Ho-Ki ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 93~101
The effects of
enrichment on growth of maize (Zea mays L.) were examined. Parameters analyzed include growth characteristics, yields, photosynthetic rates, evaporation rates and photosynthesis-related characteristics under elevated
. The plants were grown in growth chambers with a 12-h photoperiod and a day/night temperature of
at the seedling stage and
from the silking stage. The plants were exposed to two elevated
of 500, 700ppm and ambient levels (350 ppm). Chalok 1 and GCB 70 germinated three days after seeding, and germination rates were faster in the elevated
than the control. Germination rates displayed significant differences among the
treatments. At the seedling stage, leaf area, top dry weight, and photosynthetic rates, and plant height indicated positive relationship with elevated
concentrations. At the
concentration also indicated positive relationship with plant height, leaf area, top dry weight, and photosynthetic rates. At the silking stage, increased plant height of Chalok 1 was noted in the
treatments compared to the control. No significant differences were noted for GCB 70, in which leaf area decreased but photosynthetic rates increased progressively with
concentration. Stomatal aperture was a little bigger in the elevated
than the control.
concentration was negatively related to stomatal conductance and transpiration rates, resulting in high water use efficiency.
Yields and Isoflavone Contents of Soybean Cultivar in Highland Area
Ok, Hyun-Choong ; Yoon, Young-Ho ; Jeong, Jin-Cheol ; Hur, On-Sook ; Lee, Choon-Woo ; Kim, Chung-Guk ; Cho, Hyun-Mook ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 102~109
This study was performed to obtain fundamental information on growth adaptability and isoflavone contents of soybean cultivars in highland area of Korea. For this study, we cultivated nineteen cultivars and investigated yield and isoflavone contents. In Jinbu-myeon located at altitude of 600 m, most of cultivars showed more than 2.5 t/ha seed yield except three cultivars, and the range of isoflavone contents among nineteen cultivars was 715 to
. Cultivars with both high seed yield and isoflavone contents were Manrikong, Sinpaldalkong2, Cheongjakong, and Cheongjakong2 in this area. In Daegwallyeong-myeon located at altitude of 800 m, the range of seed yield and isoflavone contents was 1.4 to 2.4 t/ha and 437 to
, respectively. Cultivars with both high seed yield and isoflavone contents were Ilpumgeomjeongkong and Dooyookong in this area. Cultivars selected on the basis of seed yield and isoflavone contents in 2004 and 2005 showed also similar results for yield and isoflavone contents at farmer's field in highland area in 2006. In conclusion, it could be expected to produce soybeans having both higher yield and better quality if the selected soybean cultivars are cultivated in highland area.
Optimal Extraction Condition of Anthocyanins in Soybean (Glycine max) with Black Seed Coats
Choung, Myoung-Gun ; Hwang, Young-Sun ; Lee, Hyeon-Jin ; Choi, Su-San-Na ; Lim, Jung-Dae ; Kang, Sung-Taeg ; Han, Won-Young ; Baek, In-Youl ; Kim, Hyeun-Kyeung ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 53, issue 1, 2008, Pages 110~117
Soybeans (Glycine max) with a black seed coat have been widely utilized as food source and as a medicinal herbs in Korea. The pigmentation in the seed coat of black soybean is due to accumulate anthocyanins in the epidermis palisade layer. The anthocyanin content and composition of the black soybean seed coat are considered as a standard. of quality evaluation of black soybean. The main objective of this study was to investigate the optimal condition for an extraction method of anthocyanins and compare anthocyanin quantity and composition within black soybean varieties and germplasms. In the test of extraction solvent, absorbance at 530 nm and Hunter's a value were increased as increasing the concentration of MeOH, but Hunter's Land b values were the exact opposite of absorbance and Hunter's a values. There was no significant difference for anthocyanin contents from 1% HCl -
to 1% HCl - 80% MeOH. In the aspects of anthocyanin contents and HPLC peak resolution, 1% HCl - 20% MeOH extraction solution was the most suitable solvent. Among the 5 kinds of extraction method using 1% HCl - 20% MeOH solution, the anthocyanin contents of room temperature extraction at 72 h was the highest among the methods. High extraction temperature, sonication and reflux method influenced on the decrease of anthocyanin contents because of breakdown of anthocyanins. There was no significant difference for extraction time between 12 h and 24 h. However, the optimal extraction condition were at room temperature for 12 h. The anthocyanin contents in seed coats of black soybean were determined on the basis of HPLC peak area at 530 nm. Ten black soybean varieties and germplasms were tested with optimal conditions founded in this study. On the basis of antocyanin component, these can be classified into three groups; C3G, C3G + D3G and C3G + D3G + Pt3G. The total anthocyanin content in seed coats ranged from 1.58 to 10.62 mg/g of seed. The total anthocyanin content of the variety "Geomjeongol" was about 7 times higher than that of variety "Heugchong". Information for extraction method and diversity in antocyanin of soybean seed coats can be used for future research for germplasm evaluation and development of high quality black soybean varieties.