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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 55, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 55, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 55, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 55, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
Estimating Grain Weight and Grain Nitrogen Content with Temperature, Solar Radiation and Growth Traits During Grain-Filling Period in Rice
Lee, Chung-Kuen ; Kim, Jun-Hwan ; Son, Ji-Young ; Yoon, Young-Hwan ; Seo, Jong-Ho ; Kwon, Young-Up ; Shin, Jin-Chul ; Lee, Byun-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 55, issue 4, 2010, Pages 275~283
This experiment was conducted to construct process models to estimate grain weight (GW) and grain nitrogen content (GN) in rice. A model was developed to describe the dynamic pattern of GW and GN during grain-filling period considering their relationships with temperature, solar radiation and growth traits such as LAI, shoot dry-weight, shoot nitrogen content, grain number during grain filling. Firstly, maximum grain weight (GWmax) and maximum grain nitrogen content (GNmax) equation was formulated in relation to Accumulated effective temperature (AET)
Accumulated radiation (AR) using boundary line analysis. Secondly, GW and GN equation were created by relating the difference between GW and GWmax and the difference between GN and GNmax, respectively, with growth traits. Considering the statistics such as coefficient of determination and relative root mean square of error and number of predictor variables, appropriate models for GW and GN were selected. Model for GW includes GWmax determined by AET
AR, shoot dry weight and grain number per unit land area as predictor variables while model for GN includes GNmax determined by AET
AR, shoot N content and grain number per unit land area. These models could explain the variations of GW and GN caused not only by variations of temperature and solar radiation but also by variations of growth traits due to different sowing date, nitrogen fertilization amount and row spacing with relatively high accuracy.
A Calculation Method of in vivo Energy Consumption in Estimation of Harvesting Date for High Potato Solids
Jung, Jae-Youn ; Suh, Sang-Gon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 55, issue 4, 2010, Pages 284~291
A simulation modeling for predicting the harvesting date with high potato solids consists of development of mathematical models. The mathematical model on potato growth and its development should be obtained by using agricultural elements which analyze relations of solar radiation quantity, temperature, photon quantity, carbon dioxide exchange rate, water stress and loss, relative humidity, light intensity, and wind etc. But more reliable way to predict harvesting date against climatic change employs in vivo energy consumption for growth and induction shape in a slight environmental adaptation. Therefore, to calculate in vivo energy loss, we take a concept of estimate of the amount of basal metabolism in each tuber on the basis of
. In the validation experiments, results of measuring solid accumulation of potato harvested at simulated date agreed fairly well with the actual measured values in each regional field during the growth period of 2005-2009. The calculation method could be used to predict an appropriate harvesting date for a production of high potato solids according to weather conditions.
Contribution Rate of Plant Parts to Dry Matter Yields in Winter Forage Crops
Kwon, Young-Up ; Park, Hyoung-Ho ; Baek, Seong-Bum ; Park, Kwang-Geun ; Kim, Jung-Gon ; Lee, Jae-Eun ; Seo, Jong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 55, issue 4, 2010, Pages 292~298
This study aims to understand the contribution rate of plant parts on biomass in five winter forage crops including barley, wheat, oat, rye and triticale. In barley and oat, the major plant parts on dry matter yields were changed from culm to spike at 20 days after heading(DAH), but culm was very important part on biomass of rye, wheat and triticales until 30DAH. Wheat, rye and triticales showed same pattern in dry weight increase indicating that culm was main component of biomass from heading stage but spike became heavier after 30 DAR. Barley and oat were similar in dry weight increase where spike was the main components of biomass at 20 DAR. After heading stage the major biomass of most winter forage crops were dependent on the weight of culm and spike, while the contribution of leaves to plant biomass was lower as compared to culm and spike. Thus culm and spike were very important factors for improving the dry matter production of winter forage crops breeding and early maturing is also additively required under Korean climatic condition.
Difference of Ginsenoside Yields in Red Ginseng Parts According to Extraction Time at Low Temperature
Han, Jin-Soo ; Kang, Sun-Joo ; Nam, Ki-Yeul ; Choi, Jae-Eul ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 55, issue 4, 2010, Pages 299~305
In this study, the contents of ginsenoside were compared according to the red ginseng extract times to provide basic information for developing nutraceutical foods using red ginseng. The highest total ginsenoside contents of the main, lateral, and fine root extracts were 23.04, 65.68, and 295.92 mg/100 mL when extracted at
for 21, 18, and 12 hours, respectively. The total ginsenoside content showed a tendency to decrease as the extraction times were increased. The highest Rb1 and Rg1 contents of the main, lateral, and fine root extracts were 5.76, 28.39, and 117.83 mg/100 mL when extracted at
for 18, 15, and, 12 hours, respectively, and their highest Rb2 and Re contents were 5.76, 28.39, and 117.83 when extracted under the same conditions. The prosapogenin content of the red ginseng extract increased along with the extraction time. The highest total ginsenoside extraction ratios of the main, lateral, and fine root extracts of the red ginseng at
were 21.3, 21.1, and 67.1%, respectively.
Multiplication and Movement of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Rice Leaves with Resistance Genes Derived from Different Origins
Kang, Sun-Joo ; Lee, Sung-Eun ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Han, Jin-Soo ; Choi, Jae-Eul ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 55, issue 4, 2010, Pages 306~311
The multiplication and movement of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice leaves of seven near-isogenic lines(NILs) derived from different genetic sources and from the susceptible cultivar Toyonishiki were examined. The bacterium populations increased rapidly in susceptible cultivar leaves of the inoculation sites but increased gradually in NIL leaves. X oryzae pv. oryzae were detected at 20cm above the leaves of the inoculated sites in IRBB 103 and Toyonishiki but were not detected in the other NILs at 25 days after inoculation. These results support that resistant genes restrict bacterial movement not multiplication.
Development and Preliminary Test of a Prototype Program to Recommend Nitrogen Topdressing Rate Using Color Digital Camera Image Analysis at Panicle Initiation Stage of Rice
Chi, Jeong-Hyun ; Lee, Jae-Hong ; Choi, Byoung-Rourl ; Han, Sang-Wook ; Kim, Soon-Jae ; Park, Kyeong-Yeol ; Lee, Kyu-Jong ; Lee, Byun-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 55, issue 4, 2010, Pages 312~318
This study was carried out to develop and test a prototype program that recommends the nitrogen topdressing rate using the color digital camera image taken from rice field at panicle initiation stage (PIS). This program comprises four models to estimate shoot N content (PNup) by color digital image analysis, shoot N accumulation from PIS to maturity (PHNup), yield, and protein content of rice. The models were formulated using data set from N rate experiments in 2008. PNup was found to be estimated by non-linear regression model using canopy cover and normalized green values calculated from color digital image analysis as predictor variables. PHNup could be predicted by quadratic regression model from PNup and N fertilization rate at panicle initiation stage with
of 0.923. Yield and protein content of rice could also be predicted by quadratic regression models using PNup and PHNup as predictor variables with
of 0.859 and 0.804, respectively. The performance of the program integrating the above models to recommend N topdressing rate at PIS was field-tested in 2009. N topdressing rate prescribed for the target protein content of 6.0% by the program were lower by about 30% compared to the fixed rate of 30% that is recommended conventionally as the split application rate of N fertilizer at PIS, while rice yield in the plots top-dressed with the prescribed N rate were not different from those of the plots top-dressed with the fixed N rates of 30% and showed a little lower or similar protein content of rice as well. And coefficients of variation in rice yield and quality parameters were reduced substantially by the prescribed N topdressing. These results indicate that the N rate recommendation using the analysis of color digital camera image is promising to be applied for precise management of N fertilization. However, for the universal and practical application the component models of the program are needed to be improved so as to be applicable to the diverse edaphic and climatic condition.
Identification of 26 Germplasms of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) with ISSR and SCAR Markers
Sung, Jung-Sook ; Cho, Gyu-Taek ; Lee, Suk-Young ; Baek, Hyung-Jin ; Park, So-Hye ; Huh, Man-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 55, issue 4, 2010, Pages 319~326
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a herb primarily distributed throughout in the world. We have used the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) technique to investigate the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of C. tinctorius. Of all germplasms, 88.7% were polymorphic among all germplasms. Mean genetic diversity within germplasms was very low (0.048). The Turkey germplasm had the highest expected diversity (0.082) and Australia germplasm was the lowest (0.020). These values indicate that most of the genetic diversity of safflower is found among germplasms and there is a high among-germplasm differentiation. We found eight phenetic bands for determining the specific marker of germplasm with SCAR markers. The regions of the Mediterranean Sea and India may be the most probable candidates for the origin of safflower. The tree showed four major clades: (1) European germplasms, (2) Azerbaijan, Egypt, and Ethiopia, (3) Australia, and (4) America.
Seed Production by Induction of Male Flowers on Female Plants of Hemp(Cannabis saliva L.)
Moon, Youn-Ho ; Koo, Bon-Cheol ; Choi, Yoyng-Hwan ; Ahn, Seung-Hyun ; Bark, Surn-Teh ; Cha, Young-Lok ; An, Gi-Hong ; Kim, Jung-Kon ; Suh, Sae-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 55, issue 4, 2010, Pages 327~332
This study was conducted to overcome the deliciousness by sex reversal in hemp plants. When female plants grown under long day length condition were transferred to short day length condition in 3th and 6th leaf stage, a few male flowers were formed and the gap of flowering days between sex reversed male and normal female flowers were around 10 days and 3 days, respectively. Although the flowering amounts were small, this short gaps of flowering days were enough for artificial pollination. When female plants grown under long day length condition were transferred to short day length condition just after treatment of silver nitrate in the vegetative stage, a great amount of male flower was formed and the gap of flowering days between sex reversed male and normal female flowers were only 1 to 3 days. The increased sex reversed male flowers and induced short gap of flowering days were adequate for natural wind pollination. When female seeds were cultivated, seed yield was 141 kg/10a, while it was 96 kg/10a when normal seeds cultivated.
Evaluation of Legume Green Manure Crops for Spring-Sowing in the Central Regions of Korea
Cho, Hyeoun-Suk ; Jeon, Weon-Tai ; Seong, Ki-Yeung ; Kim, Min-Tea ; Lee, Jong-Ki ; Kim, Chung-Guk ; Jeong, Kwang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 55, issue 4, 2010, Pages 333~338
The use of green manure crop for sustainable agriculture can reduce the use of chemical fertilizer and herbicides, and the cultivation area of the green manure crop has gradually increased. However, there has been little information about appropriate use of spring-sown green manure crop in the central regions of Korea. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different legume crops on application of sown green manure in spring. Each of the green manure crops including alfalfa, chinese milk vetch, crimson clover, crotalaria, hairy vetch, lupin, red clover and white clover was grown in upland soil of silt loam. The dry weight and C/N ratio of all crops increased throughout the growing period, while C/N ratio of all crops during growing period was lower than 25. The highest value of dry weight among the green manure crops was observed in crimson clover, followed by red clover, lupin, chinese milk vetch and alfalfa. Also, the highest value of contents of nitrogen, phosphous and potassium of green manure crops were observed in hairy vetch, alfalfa and crimson clover, respectively. And the values were 41.3, 4.3 and 35.9 g
, respectively. In terms of nitrogen yield, crimson clover that showed 71 kg N
was the highest yield among the green manure crops, followed by chinese milk vetch of 51 kg
, red clover of 46 kg
, and hairy vetch of 41 kg
. These results suggest that crimson clover, chinese milk vetch, red clover, and hairy vetch could be a suitable green manure crop for spring sowing.
Variations in Temperature and Relative Humidity of Rough Rice in the Polypropylene Bulk Bag during Waiting Time for Drying
Lee, Choon-Ki ; Yun, Jong-Tag ; Song, Jin ; Jeong, Eung-Gi ; Lee, Yu-Young ; Kim, Wook-Han ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 55, issue 4, 2010, Pages 339~349
The uses of the polypropylene bulk bags having the loading capacities more than 500 kg are increasing in Korea recently as a storage container for rough rice. This study was performed to obtain the basic information on the changes of temperature and relative humidity in the bulk-bag-stored high moisture rough rice during waiting for drying. At the moisture content more than 22% on wet weight basis of paddy, the bulk-bag inside temperature rose up to more than
and then slid down during storage. For example, in case of Hwaseongbyeo, 26.5% moisture content of rough rice (MCRR) harvested at 46 days after heading (DAH) showed
of peak temperature at 66.8 hours after bulk-bag loading, 22.5% MCRR harvested at 52 DAH exhibited
at 81.1 hours, and 19.7% MCRR harvested at 55 DAH displayed
at 119.0 hours. There were a good linear relationship between peak temperatures of bulk-bag inside and moisture contents of paddy (
=0.89 in 2005, and 0.87 in 2006), while the slope and intercept of the linear regression equation was affected by the environmental conditions such as ambient temperatures and microbial flora. The peak temperatures increased with the rate of about
per every 1% increase of moisture content at higher moisture contents of paddy than 19%. The relative humidity varied depending on bulk-bag inside temperature and rough rice moisture content, and showed the range of 94.2% to 99.9% in the central point of the bulk-bag. The results suggested that a rapid drying treatment as soon as possible was needed to produce a good quality of rice when the paddy of high moisture more than 22% on wet basis was harvested in a bulk-bag especially at high ambient temperature.
Growth and Yield Characteristics of Foxtail Millet, Comon Millet Cereal Crops on Marginal Agricultural Lands
Yoon, Seong-Tak ; Lee, Myung-Cheol ; Kim, Jeong-Soon ; Zhang, Qingyu ; Xu, Zhen-Yu ; Kim, Young-Bok ; Kim, Tae-Ho ; Nam, Jung-Chang ; Nam, Min-Hee ; Lee, Young-Hawn ; Hwang, Jae-Bok ; Shim, Sang-In ; Kim, Seong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 55, issue 4, 2010, Pages 350~356
This experiment was conducted to select optimum minor cereal crop and variety for the marginal agricultural lands so that they would be used to increase the agricultural land use rate in mountainous areas. This experiment used three different marginal agricultural lands, that is, slope land, barren land and gravelly land. Soil pH of control field was 7.85, slightly alkali, whereas gravelly land showed strong acid(pH 5.1). EC of marginal agricultural lands was generally lower compared to the control, especially barren land showed 0.05dS
which was the lowest among marginal agricultural lands. Foxtail millet showed no significant difference of heading and ripening date among marginal agricultural lands. Foxtail millet of slope land showed the highest culm length(169.5 cm) and grains per ear(4913.9 grains) among marginal agricultural lands except control field. Growth duration of three varieties was varied from 112 to 113days, which was not different statistically. In grains per ear of common millet, slope land showed 787.1 grains which was the highest among marginal agricultural lands except control field. Among varieties, Byorukgijang showed the highest grains per ear(827.2 g/ear), whereas 1000 grain weight was 5.5 g which was lower compared to that of Hwanggijang(6.2 g). In sorghum, slope land showed the highest grains(2563.8 grains) per ear and ears per 3.3
(26.0 ears) except control field. Growth duration of three sorghum varieties almost the same from 122 to 123 days, whereas the highest grains per ear was obtained from Moktaksusu(2357.6 grains). Jangmoksusu showed the highest 1000 grain weight(23.8 g) among three sorghum varieties. In yield of three foxtail millets, the highest yield was obtained from slope land(282.0 kg/10a) among marginal agricultural lands and Mongdangjo showed the highest yield(252.3 kg/10a) among three varieties. In yield of three common millets, the highest yield was obtained from slope land(196.0 kg/10a) among marginal agricultural lands and Byorukgijang showed the highest yield(173.8 kg/10a) in three varieties. In three sorghum varieties, the highest yield was obtained from slope land(301.7 kg/10a) among marginal agricultural lands and Moktaksusu showed the highest yield(236.5 kg/10a) among three varieties.
Application of Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIR) Method to Rapid Determination of Seed Protein in Coarse Cereal Germplasm
Lee, Young-Yi ; Kim, Jung-Bong ; Lee, Ho-Sun ; Lee, Sok-Young ; Gwag, Jae-Gyun ; Ko, Ho-Cheol ; Huh, Yun-Chan ; Hyun, Do-Yoon ; Kim, Chung-Kon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 55, issue 4, 2010, Pages 357~364
Kjeldahl method used in many materials from various plant parts to determine protein contents, is laborious and time-consuming and utilizes hazardous chemicals. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy, a rapid and environmentally benign technique, was investigated as a potential method for the prediction of protein content. Near-infrared reflectance spectra(1100-2400 nm) of coarse cereal grains(n=100 for each germplasm) were obtained using a dispersive spectrometer as both of grain itself and flour ground, and total protein contents determined according to Kjeldahl method. Using multivariate analysis, a modified partial least-squares model was developed for prediction of protein contents. The model had a multiple coefficient of determination of 0.99, 0.99, 0.99, 0.96 and 0.99 for foxtail millet, sorghum, millet, adzuki bean and mung bean germplasm, respectively. The model was tested with independent validation samples (n=10 for each germplasm). All samples were predicted with the coefficient of determination of 0.99, 0.99, 0.99, 0.91 and 0.99 for foxtail millet, sorghum, millet, adzuki bean and mung bean germplasm, respectively. The results indicate that NIR reflectance spectroscopy is an accurate and efficient tool for determining protein content of diverse coarse cereal germplasm for nutrition labeling of nutritional value. On the other hands appropriate condition of cereal material to predict protein using NIR was flour condition of grains.
Modelling of Pollen Dispersal of Maize (Zea mays L.) Using Gamma Model
Lee, Yong-Ho ; Kwon, Young-Sun ; Wang, Hong Wei ; Lee, Su-Jeong ; Alamgir, Kabir Md. ; Karuppanapandian, Thirupathi ; Hong, Sun-Hee ; Lee, Dong-Jin ; Baek, Hyung-Jin ; Jang, Young-Seok ; Kim, Wook ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 55, issue 4, 2010, Pages 365~370
The pollen dispersal by wind can make an important to understanding the viability and evolution of plants in ecological and agricultural science. Modelling can be applied to evaluate concerns about the spread of engineered pollens from genetically modified (GM) crops. Here, we are using gamma model to estimate the level of dispersal distance of pollen in the cross-pollination between two different maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars in GMO field of Korea University during the year 2010. The result of estimation of model indicates maximum pollen dispersal distance of estimated proportion of cross-pollination of maize was reached to 0.1% in 525 meter northwest due to the wind. We identify further measurements necessary to improve the accuracy of the model predictions.
Identification of the Housekeeping Genes Using Cross Experiments via in silico Analysis
Yim, Won-Cheol ; Keum, Chang-Won ; Kim, Sae-Hwan ; Jang, Cheol-Seong ; Lee, Byung-Moo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 55, issue 4, 2010, Pages 371~378
For sensitive and accurate gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against housekeeping genes is required. There are conventional housekeeping gene (e.g. ACT) that primarily function as an internal control of transcription. In this study, we performed an in silico analysis of 278 rice gene expression samples (GSM) in order to identify the gene that is most consistently expressed. Based on this analysis, we identified novel candidate housekeeping genes that displayed improved stability among the cross experimental conditions. Furthermore four of the most conventional housekeeping genes were included in our 30 other housekeeping genes among the most stable genes. Therefore, these 30 genes can he used to normalize transcription results in gene expression studies on rice at a broad range of experimental conditions.