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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 58, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 58, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 58, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 58, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Nitrogen Use Efficiency of High Yielding Japonica Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Influenced by Variable Nitrogen Applications
Kang, Shin-Gu ; Hassan, Mian Sayeed ; Ku, Bon-Il ; Sang, Wan-Gyu ; Choi, Min-Kyu ; Kim, Young-Doo ; Park, Hong-Kyu ; Chowdhury, M. Khalequzzaman A. ; Kim, Bo-Kyeong ; Lee, Jeom-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 58, issue 3, 2013, Pages 213~219
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.3.213
A field study was conducted to understand nitrogen use efficiency of high yielding Japonica rice varieties under three levels of nitrogen fertilizer (90, 150 and 210 kg N
) in Iksan, Korea. Two high yielding rice varieties, Boramchan and Deuraechan, and an control variety, Dongjin2, were grown in fine silty paddy. Nitrogen use efficiencies (NUE) were 83.3, 56.3, and 41.2 in 90, 150, and 210 kg N
fertilizer level, respectively. Total nitrogen uptake varied significantly among nitrogen levels and varieties. Variety Dongjin2 showed the highest nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE), while Boramchan and Deuraechan showed higher nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE). However, Nitrogen harvest index (NHI) was higher in Boramchan (0.58) than Deuraechan (0.57) and Dongjin2 (0.53). Rough rice yield showed linear relationship with total nitrogen uptake (
=0.72) within the range of nitrogen treatments. Boramchan produced significantly higher rough rice yield (8546 kg
) which mainly due to higher number of panicles per
compared to Deuraechan (7714 kg
). Deuraechan showed higher number of spikelets per panicle, but showed lower yield due to lower number of panicle per
. Rice varieties showed different nitrogen uptake ability and NUE at different nitrogen level. Plant breeders and agronomist should take advantage of the significant variations and relationships among grain yield, NUpE, and NUE.
Comparison of Water, Nitrogen Uptake and Use Efficiency Treated with Silica and N Application Forms
Choi, Kyung-Jin ; Lee, Jung-Il ; Chung, Nam-Jin ; Yang, Won-Ha ; Lee, Chung-Keun ; Oh, Se-Kwan ; Kim, Je-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 58, issue 3, 2013, Pages 220~225
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.3.220
This experiment was carried out to elucidate the effects of silicate and different application forms of N on the uptake of water and N by rice plants. Three rice cultivars, Ilpum, Anda and M202, were grown under the hydroponics in a phytotron. One-hundred ppm silica was applied for silicate treatment. For nitrogen application forms were 100%
in 2:1 ratio were applied. Silica treatment, compared to silica free, was very effective on the nitrogen uptake and dry weight increase of rice plants. Although silica application demonstrated no significant effect on the amount of water uptake, it improved increased water and nitrogen use efficiency. Therefore, sufficient application of silicate in paddy field will be useful for the growth of rice plants and water saving.
Starch and Quality Characteristic of Korean Rice Cultivar with Waxy and Non-waxy Type
Lee, Na Young ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 58, issue 3, 2013, Pages 226~231
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.3.226
A total 11 Korean rice cultivar was prepared and investigated for its starch and quality characteristics. Amylose content, damaged starch contnent, water contnent, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), particle size and pasting properties of rice flours were measured. The amylose content of waxy, middle waxy and non waxy type domestic normal rice cultivars were 7.09%, 11.69% and 18.58-21.52%, respectively. Moisture content of 11 Korean rice cultivar were 7.19-13.89%. WAI and WSI did not show variations by amylose contents. Sample with high moisture contents was lower damaged starch contents. Particle size of samples was
. Final viscosity and pasting temperature of the samples was shown to rage from 45.54 to 313.94 RVA and from 71.03 to
, respectively. In this study, results indicated that samples with low moisture contents tend to shown low particle size and high damaged starch contents regardless waxy, middle-waxy, and non waxy type.
Difference in Growth, Phenolics Content and Antioxidant Activity of Cowpea Sprouts at Different Plant Parts
Chon, Sang-Uk ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 58, issue 3, 2013, Pages 232~238
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.3.232
An experiment was conducted to determine the content of phenolics and flavonoids, antioxidant activity and antioxidant enzyme status for the extracts from 5 and 7-day old sprouts (DOS) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). Total phenolics [mg ferulic acid equivalents (FAE)
DW] content was highest in cotyledon extracts (48.8 mg
), followed by roots (30.8 mg
) and hypocotyl (22.2 mg
) extracts (p < 0.05) from 5 DOS. The result of total flavonoid level [mg rutin equivalents
DW] had same tendency to the results of total phenolics, showing lower amount ranges. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extracts from all the plant dose-dependently increased. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical) free radical scavenging activity was higher in cotyledon extracts (82.5%) than in root (52.6%) or hypocotyl parts (35.0%) from 5 DOS. Among antioxidant enzymes, APX and CAT activities were highest in cotyledon part and POX and SOD activities in root part of 5 and 7 DOS. The results showed that total phenolics content (
= 0.1516~0.9911) were more highly correlated with antioxidant activity than total flavonoids level (
= 0.0113~0.9442), and that the level and activity of physiological-active substances were different depending on plant part of the sprout.
Current Regional Cultural Situation and Evaluation of Grain Characteristics of Korean Wheat II. Grain Characteristics Collected in Domestic Wheat Cultivar Grown in Korea
Kim, Kyeong-Hoon ; Kang, Chon-Sik ; Seo, Yong-Won ; Woo, Sun-Hee ; Heo, Moo-Ryong ; Choo, Byung-Kil ; Lee, Choon-Kee ; Park, Kwang-Geun ; Park, Chul Soo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 58, issue 3, 2013, Pages 239~252
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.3.239
Agronomic characteristics and grain properties of Korean wheat of 175 farmers in nationwide for two years, 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, were evaluated to support basic data for improving grain quality of Korean wheat and enhancing Korean wheat consumption. Agronomic characteristics, including culm length, spike length, number of
and rate of off-type plant, and grain properties, including 1000 kernel weight, test weight, moisture, ash and protein content, were influenced by year and location. Number of
, test weight, moisture, ash and protein content of wheat cultivated in 2011 were higher than those of 2012 and culm length, spike length, rate of off-type plant and 1000 kernel weight of 2012 were higher than those of 2011. Wheat cultivated in southern part of Korea showed higher culm length and 1000 kernel weight and lower test weight than those of northern part of Korea. Spike length, number of
and test weight were reduced by additional fertilization after mid of March, although there was no significant difference between date of additional fertilization and grain properties. Cultivated wheats in Jeollabuk-do showed lower ash content and higher protein content than those of other provinces and cultivated wheats in Jeollanam-do exhibited higher ash content than that of other provinces. As amount of fertilization increased, culm length, 1000 kernel weight and protein content increased and spike length and ash content were decreased, although date of additional fertilization did not effect on agronomic characteristics and grain properties. Amount of fertilization was positively correlated with 1000 kernel weight and protein content (r = 0.159, P < 0.05 and r = 0.212, P < 0.01, respectively) and was negatively correlated with ash content (r = -0.185, P < 0.05). Thousand kernel weight was negatively correlated with ash content (r = -0.226, P < 0.01) and positively correlated with protein content (r = 0.207, P < 0.01). Ash content increased as test weight and culm length decreased and 1000 kernel weight was influenced by culm and spike length (r = 0.397, P < 0.001 and r = -0.205, P < 0.01, respectively).
Effect of Quality and Yield for Succeeding Crop Cultivation before Potato Harvest in Semi-highland
Suh, Jong-Taek ; Chang, Dong-Chil ; Cho, Ji-Hong ; Cho, Kwang-Soo ; Park, Young-Eun ; Kim, Hyun-Jun ; Cho, Hyun Mook ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 58, issue 3, 2013, Pages 253~259
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.3.253
This study was conducted to investigate proper mixed cultivation system of potato and succeeding crops (Chinese cabbage and Radish) in 2009. Potato varieties, 'Superior' a middle maturing variety and 'Haryeong' a late maturing variety were used. After potato harvest, succeeding crops of Radish and Chinese cabbage were planted on July 22th in 'Superior' variety plot and Aug. 3rd in 'Haryeong' variety plot. Potato crop was harvested in proper time, after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. and a suitable potato variety for succeeding crops among 'Superior' and 'Haryeong' was checked. 'Superior' variety was observed to be low rotting, deformity and greening at Chinese cabbage and Radish treatment plot than non-treatment plot. In addition, high yields of potato was maintained in succeeding crop treatments.
Characterization of Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Barley Irradiated with Proton Beam
Kim, Sang Kuk ; Park, Shin Young ; Kim, Hak Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 58, issue 3, 2013, Pages 260~266
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.3.260
The study was carried out to determine the gel pasting properties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Geoncheonheugbori) as affected by different proton beam irradiation. The
, blue value, and amylose content were significantly associated with increasing proton beam irradiation. The pasting time in barley flour irradiated with proton beam ranged 0.09 to 0.16 min shorter than nonirradiated barley flour. Gel pasting temperature ranged 57.4 to
. Gel pasting temperature in barley flour decreased with increasing proton beam irradiation. Proton beam irradiation caused a significant decrease in the onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp), conclusion temperature (Tc) and enthalpy change (
). Gelatinization range (R) in barley starch was more broaden than that of non-irradiated barley starch. Barley starches gave the strong diffraction peak at around
. Peak intensity tended to increase with increased proton beam irradiation. The granule crystallinity is closely associated with decreased amylose and increased amylopectin component. The crystallinity degree of barley starch irradiated with proton beam was significantly increased and it ranged from 24.9 to 32.9% compared to the non-irradiated barley starches. It might be deduced that proton beam irradiation causes significant changes of properties of starch viscosity in rice, especially at high irradiation of proton beam.
Analysis of Morphological Characteristics Among Popcorn Inbred Lines
Chang, Eun-Ha ; Sa, Kyu Jin ; Kim, Jong-Hwa ; Lee, Ju Kyong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 58, issue 3, 2013, Pages 267~273
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.3.267
We evaluated the morphological characteristics of 79 popcorn inbred lines, which were developed to breeding popcorn variety at Maize Experiment Station, Gangwon Agricultural Research and Extension Services, by examining ten quantitative and three qualitative characteristics. In the survey of 3 qualitative traits for 79 popcorn inbred lines, most inbred lines respectively showed purple (46 inbred lines) at tassel color (QL1), green (55inbred lines) at silk color (QL2) and green (75 inbred lines) at stem color (QL3). While, on the survey of 10 quantitative traits among 79 popcorn inbred lines, they showed the morphological variation in plant height (QN1,
cm), ear height (QN2,
cm), ear length (QN3,
cm), kernel setting length (QN4,
cm), ear thickness (QN5,
mm), ear row number (QN6,
number), ear weight (QN7,
g), kernel weight (QN8,
g), 100 kernel weight (QN9,
g) and germination rate (QN10,
), respectively. As a result, 5 inbred lines (PS0-001, PS0-003, PS1-002, PS1-003, PS2-009) in the 79 popcorn inbred lines have showed comparatively high values for the five quantitative traits. On the principal component analysis, silk color (QL2), ear length (QN3), kernel setting length (QN4), ear thickness (QN5), ear weight (QN7), kernel weight (QN8) and 100 kernel weight (QN9) greatly contributed in positive direction on the first principal components, whereas tassel color (QL1), stem color (QL3), ear height (QN2) and ear row number (QN6) contributed in negative direction on the first principal component. In addition, plant height (QN1), ear height (QN2), and kernel weight (QN8) contributed in positive direction on the second principal component, and also tassel color (QL1), silk color (QL2), ear length (QN3), ear row number (QN6) and 100 kernel weight (QN9) contributed in negative direction on the second principal component.
Physicochemical Properties of Rice Endosperm with Different Amylose Contents
Jeong, Jong-Min ; Jeung, Ji-Ung ; Lee, Sang-Bok ; Kim, Myeong-Ki ; Kim, Bo-Kyeong ; Sohn, Jae-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 58, issue 3, 2013, Pages 274~282
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.3.274
This study was carried out to find out the physicochemical properties of rice grains of 8 varieties having various amylose content. Amylose contents of 8 varieties were ranged from 6.3 to 30.9% and could be classified into 4 groups, such as waxy, low-amylose, nonglutinous, and high-amylose. Protein contents were ranged from 5.8% to 7.5% varied depending on variety, but there was no significant difference in protein contents among groups. The hardness of milled rice grains in low-amylose and non-glutinous was stronger than waxy and low-amylose group. Whiteness of waxy group grains was the highest while non-glutinous group was the lowest. The alkaline digestive values were evenly distributed from 5.2 to 6.9 and highly correlated with amylose content. There was significant difference in pasting properties of rice flours among groups. High-amylose group showed the highest initial pasting temperature and total setback viscosity, and the lowest peaks for trough and breakdown viscosity. Low-amylose group showed the highest breakdown viscosity but the lowest setback viscosity as well as high peak viscosity. Although amylose content was significantly correlated with alkali spreading value in milled rice, initial pasting temperature, and total setback, but it was negatively correlated with toyo-meter value and setback viscosity.
Genetic Analysis on Floury Endosperm Characteristics of 'Namil(SA)-flo1', a Japonica Rice Mutant Line
Mo, Young-Jun ; Jeung, Ji-Ung ; Kang, Kyung-Ho ; Lee, Jeom-Sig ; Kim, Bo-Kyeong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 58, issue 3, 2013, Pages 283~291
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.3.283
Rice varieties with suitable flour-making quality are required to promote rice processed-food industry and boost rice consumption in Korea. 'Namil (SA)-flo1' is an advanced mutant line with floury endosperm which shows good flour-making quality under dry-milling process. Genetic analysis was carried out to localize the chromosomal region responsible for the floury endosperm of 'Namil (SA)- flo1'. By using 94 F2 progenies, which were derived from 'Namil (SA)-flo1'
'Milyang 23', floury grains percentage was investigated as phenotypic data, and genotyping was conducted with 54 SSR markers. Association analysis showed that the target genetic region for floury endosperm is on middle-low region of chromosome 5. Through further association analysis with increased number of SSR markers on chromosome 5, we found that genotypic variation in RM164 explains 79.7% of the variation in floury grains percentage of F2:3 seeds. The floury endosperm locus was localized on 17.7-20.7 Mbp region of chromosome 5 and will be further analyzed for fine mapping and gene identification.
Palatability and Physicochemical Properties in 2001 Yield Increased by 10% than Normal Level in 2000
Lee, Jeom-Sig ; Lee, Jeong-Heui ; Yoon, Mi-Ra ; Kwak, Jieun ; Mo, Young Jun ; Chun, Areum ; Kim, Chung-Kon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 58, issue 3, 2013, Pages 292~300
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.3.292
In this study, we examine the palatability and physicochemical properties of rice in the year, when there was 10% increase in yield compared to normal year due to daily temperature range and sunshine hours. The results of the analysis of rice yield over the last 20 years (1993-2012) showed 10% difference between the yield in 2000, which was normal, and that in 2001. With regard to the crop weather condition during the ripening period in 2001 compared to 2000, the daily range and sunshine hours were higher, but the mean temperature was similar. The rice yield in 2001 was 9.8% higher than that in 2000 due to the increased number of spikelets per panicles and ratio of ripened grain. In terms of chemical traits, protein, Mg, and K contents decreased in 2001 compared to 2000, but amylose content increased. Trough and final viscosity assessed with a Rapid Visco Analyser were significantly higher in 2001 than 2000. The quality of cooked rice was measured through the Toyo Mido Meter Glossiness Value (TGV) instead of a palatability score because a sensory test produces relative comparison values rather than absolute values. The correlation coefficients between the sensory evaluation parameters and the TGV in several rice materials harvested in two years showed a highly significant positive correlation (
, n=27-47). TGV was also significantly higher in 2001 than in 2000. The results suggested that the palatability of cooked rice was good in 2001 with about 10% increase in rice yield compared to normal year in 2000 due to daily temperature range and sunshine hours.
NIRS Calibration Equation Development and Validation for Total Nitrogen Contents Field Analysis in Fresh Rice Leaves
Song, Young-Eun ; Lee, Deok-Ryeol ; Cho, Seong-Hyun ; Lee, Ki-Kwon ; Jeong, Jong-Seong ; Gwon, Yeong-Rip ; Cho, Kyu Chae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 58, issue 3, 2013, Pages 301~307
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.3.301
This study was evaluated high end research grade Near Infrared Reflectance Spectrophotometer (NIRS) to field grade multiple Near Infrared Reflectance Spectrophotometer (NIRS) for rapid analysis at fresh rice leaf at sight with 238 samples of fresh rice leaf during year 2012, collected Jeollabuk-do for evaluate accuracy and precision between instruments. Firstly collected and build database high end research grade NIRS using with 400 nm ~ 2500 nm during from year 2003 to year 2009, seven years collected fresh rice leaf database then trim and fit to field grade NIRS with 1200 nm ~ 2400 nm then build and create calibration, transfer calibration with special transfer algorithm. The result between instruments was 0.005% differences, rapidly analysis for chemical constituents, Total nitrogen in fresh rice leaf within 5 minutes at sight and the result equivalent with laboratory data. Nevertheless last during more than 8 years collected samples for build calibration was organic samples that make differentiate by local or yearly bases etc. This strongly suggest population evaluation technique needed and constantly update calibration and maintenance calibration to proper handling database accumulation and spread out by knowledgable control laboratory analysis and reflect calibration update such as powerful control center needed for long lasting usage of fresh rice leaf analysis with NIRS at sight. Especially the agriculture products such as rice will continuously changes that made easily find out the changes and update routinely, if not near future NIRS was worthless due to those changes. Many research related NIRS was shortly study not long term study that made not well using NIRS, so the system needed check simple and instantly using with local language supported signal methods global distance (GD) and neighbour distance (ND) algorithm. Finally the multiple popular field grades instruments should be the same results not only between research grade instruments but also between multiple field grade instruments that needed easily transfer calibration and maintenance between instruments via internet networking techniques.
Influence of Seed-filling Temperature on the Seed Quality and Water Soaking Properties of Soybean
Jung, Gun-Ho ; Kwon, Young-Up ; Lee, Jae-Eun ; Kim, Yul-Ho ; Kim, Dae-Wook ; Son, Beom-Young ; Kim, Jung-Tae ; Lee, Jin-Seok ; Shin, Seong-Hyu ; Baek, Seong-Bum ; Lee, Byung-Moo ; Chung, Ill-Min ; Kim, Sun-Lim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 58, issue 3, 2013, Pages 308~318
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.3.308
Korean soybean varieties, 'Seonyu' and 'Hwangkeum' were planted in 2012, and three temperature gradient, Tc(
, ambient temperatured),
, were artificially created by controlling the green house system during seed filling period. Mature seeds that developed under these conditions were analyzed for variances in physicochemical properties. The 100-seed weight and seed-coat ratio of soybean were decreased, but small seed rate was increased by high temperature during seed filling period. Protein content was increased, but oil content was decreased significantly with increasing the seed filling temperature. The decrement of carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), and the increment of monosaccharide, fructose and sucrose, in seeds explained that carbohydrate assimilation during seed filling was restricted by high temperature. Rapid increments of seed volume and weight were observed in the seeds of high seed filling temperature, but as soaking time increased the highest values were observed in the seeds of ambient seed filling temperature. The 100-seed weight and seed-coat ratio of soybean were closely related not only to the increment of soaking volume and weight, but also the increments of total dissolved solids (TDS) and electro conductivity (EC). Whereas protein content and C/N ratio showed less relationship with the soaking properties, but they had a positive correlation with TDS and EC. From the results, it was considered that high values of TDS and EC in the seeds of high temperature were mainly due to the incomplete conversion of assimilates into storage compounds. However, sugar content showed less influence on the soaking properties and the values of TDS and EC.
Characteristics of Germination and Seedling Growth of Red Rice by Temperatures and Seeding Depths
Cho, Young-Son ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 58, issue 3, 2013, Pages 319~323
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.3.319
Red rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important weeds in most of rice cultivating area. Seed germination related experiments were done to evaluate germination percentage, emerging speed, and initial growth by seeding depth and soil moisture level. The four experiments, 1) temperature, 2) seeding depth, 3) soil moisture level, and 4) seeding position, were done with combination each other on phytotron for germination and seedling growth related experiments of redrice. The treatments levels were: 1) Temperatures were 20/15(Low), 25/20 (Mid.),
(High), (day/night), 2) seeding depths were 0, 3, 6 cm, 3) soil moisture levels were 25, 35, 45, 55, 65% (VWC, %), and seeding position were furrow, ridge, ridge-top. The germination percentage and germination speed of red rice were higher and faster than Daeanbyeo in low temperature. Yoeongcheon redrice of seed germination percentage and seedling length was more vigor than Hapcheon red rice. Red rice was not germinated on 6 cm seeding depth until 11 days after seeding except high temperature treatment. Germination percentage increased with increasing soil water percentage in low temperature, however it was greatest in 45% in high soil moisture level between 25% to 65% in low temperature. Seed germination percentage and seedling length were not significantly different among the soil water level in mid- and high temperature levels. In conclusion, red rice could germinate in top soil (<6 cm) in mid- and high temperature range, so we might be control red rice by spraying herbicide after germination of red rice combined with delayed rotary cultivation.
Physiochemical Characteristics for Bale Types and Storage Periods of Agricultural By-products as a Lignocellulosic Biomass
Yu, Gyeong-Dan ; Na, Han Beur ; An, Gi Hong ; Koo, Bon-Cheol ; Ahn, Jong Woong ; Moon, Youn-Ho ; Cha, Young-Lok ; Yoon, Young Mi ; Yang, Jungwoo ; Choi, In-Hu ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 58, issue 3, 2013, Pages 324~330
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2013.58.3.324
One of the abundant biomass for bioenergy production is thought to be agricultural by-products produced annually. The purpose of this study were to provide basic information about the changes of the moisture contents and chemical compositions for storage periods and bale types of rice straw, and it was attempted for the first time. The bale types of rice straw which were harvest in October 2011, were the square bale, the round bale, and the wrapped round bale type with plastic, respectively. Each of bale were stored in house, outdoor, and rain sheltering facilities condition for 1 year. The moisture contents and chemical compositions for each bale type are investigated for the 3-storage stages (0, 6, 12 month). While the moisture contents of the square and round bales stored in house condition were ranged from 20~25%, the square bale stored under the rain shelter facilities was showed the lowest moisture content less than 20% during the storage periods. For the chemical compositions, the cellulose and hemicellulose contents of rice straw bale stored in outdoor condition were decreased with the storage periods. However, in house condition, the chemical compositions of the square and round bales were slightly increased at the middle and the end of storage stages (6 and 12 months) compared with the initial storage stage (0 month). In conclusion, while optimum and favorable storage conditions of agricultural by-products is a house storage of the bale with plastic, if the bale can stored at outdoor, water penetration prevention such as the rain shelter facilities is required.