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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 59, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 59, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 59, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 59, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
Isolation and Identification of Anthocyanins and Determination of Antioxidative Activity in Rice-hull of a new Cultivar, `Jungmo1020`
Ra, Ji-Eun ; Park, Ji-Young ; Seo, Woo Duck ; Song, You-Chun ; Cho, Jun-Hyun ; Lee, Jong-Hee ; Sim, Eun-Yeong ; Nam, Min-Hee ; Chung, Ill-Min ; Han, Sang-Ik ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 391~397
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.391
Anthocyanins are water-soluble plant pigments that give rise to the red, purple, or blue colors observed in many crops. Especially purple pigment of colored rice represent biological activities has been an increased interest, due to the functional meal as a staple food. These health benefits have been attributed to antioxidant property of anthocyanin. However, there have been little genetic source for development of new and various colored rice variety. A recently developed new variety, `Jungmo1020`, showed an unique characteristic of blue color of rice grain hull. We identified the pigment petunidin-3-O-glucoside (Pt-3-G) as a major compound with a value of
(68.3%) from 80% MeOH with 1% HCl extracts by UPLC/MS/MS. The content of Pt-3-G in the extracts using a solvent of 100% MeOH with 1% HCl was the highest with the values of
. In addition, these extracts showed excellent antioxidatative activities by DPPH and ABTs assay.
Effects of physico-chemical treatment on `Nunkeunhukchal` (black sticky rice with giant embryo) for the enhancement of GABA (γ- aminobutyric acid) contents
Han, Sang-Ik ; Ra, Ji-Eun ; Seo, Kyung-Hye ; Park, Ji-Young ; Seo, Woo Duck ; Park, Dong-Soo ; Cho, Jun-Hyun ; Lee, Jong-Hee ; Sim, Eun-Yeong ; Nam, Min-Hee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 398~405
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.398
We assessed the GABA accumulation and other components after the `Nunkeunhukchal (BGE)`, `Josanghukchal (BR)`, and `Ilmibyeo (IB)` grain was soaked in water for 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 96 hr. The results showed a continuous accumulation of GABA in soaking treated brown rice of BGE and IB. Among the treated hours, 72 hours of soaking had the maximal accumulation of GABA (51.4 mg/100 g), amino acid, polyphenol and other components. The activities of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in brown rice and rice-bran were the same in BGE rice. However, the formation of GABA treated with L-glutamate as substrate showed dramatic increase of 354.6 (fourteen times higher than normal extraction) and 726.4 mg/100 g in BGE rice and rice-bran, respectively. These results suggested that the soaking and extraction with L-glutamate buffer could be better methods for the harvest of increased GABA.
Influence of Rainfall During the Ripening Stage on Pre-Harvest Sprouting, Seed Quality, and Longevity of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Baek, Jung-Sun ; Chung, Nam-Jin ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 406~412
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.406
The influence of rainfall during the ripening stage on pre-harvest sprouting, seed viability, and seed quality was investigated in two Korean rice cultivars, Shindongjin and Hopum. When the rainfall was artificially treated in a greenhouse, HP started to pre-harvest sprouting at three days of rainfall treatment (DRT), but Shindongjin did not show pre-harvest sprouting at 40 DAH treatment and just 0.3~0.8% at 50 DAH, which was much lower than 15.3~25.8% of Hopum in the same treatment. After harvest, the seed germination of Hopum decreased about 10~25% compared to non-treated seeds, but that of Shindongjin decreased much little rate than that of Hopum. The seed longevity tested by accelerated aging decreased with prolonged rainfall period in both cultivars, but the varietal difference was clear; Shindongjin could withstand longer accelerated aging than Hopum. Shindongjin maintained its germination (>50%) ability after 15 days of accelerated aging regardless of the rainfall treatment period and time, but Hopum dropped below 50% germination ability after only 5 days of accelerated aging. In conclusion, rainfall during the ripening stage induced not only pre-harvest sprouting, but also reduced seed quality and longevity during storage, which varied between two cultivars.
Changes of Physicochemical Properties and Fatty acid Compositions of Rough Rice Stored at Different Storage Temperatures and Periods
Kim, Jeong-Ju ; Baek, Man-Kee ; Kim, Kwang-Su ; Yoon, Mi-Ra ; Kim, Gi-Young ; Lee, Jeom-Ho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 413~426
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.413
This study was conducted to investigate changes of physicochemical properties and fatty acid compositions of rough rice stored at different storage temperatures and periods. So we analyzed texture, alkali digestion value (ADV), toyo glossiness value, pasting properties, fat acidity and fatty acid compositions of five rice varieties every 4 month on the condition of which rough rice had been stored at different temperatures (ambient and low temperature condition at
) for 2 years. Hardness of cooked rice was increased by storage periods and cohesiveness of cooked rice was not considerably different among varieties according to storage temperatures and periods. ADV was significantly different among varieties and storage periods but not different with storage temperatures. Toyo glossiness value of cooked rice was continuously decreased from 4 months after storage regardless to storage temperature. The pasting properties were considerably affected by storage temperatures and periods of rough rice. Increase in peak viscosity, final viscosity and breakdown was observed but setback was decreased by storage periods. Fat acidity of brown rice was much higher than that of milled rice during storage of rough rice and tend to increase by storage period. Oleic acid among fatty acids of brown rice except Sindongin and Hitomebore tended to be decreased by storage periods and linoleic acid among fatty acids of brown rice of Hopum was decreased by storage periods. The contents of linoleinic acid and stearic acid among fatty acids of milled rice were comparatively decreased from 4 months after storage, whereas the content of palmitic acid tended to be increased by storage periods.
Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Seed Viability, Germination and Seedling Emergence Rate of Rice
Shon, Jiyoung ; Kim, Junhwan ; Jung, Hanyoung ; Kim, Bo-Kyung ; Choi, Kyung-Jin ; Yang, Woonho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 427~434
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.427
This study aimed to investigate the effects of pre-harvest sprouting (PHS)-damaged grains of rice on seed viability, germination percentage and seedling emergence rate. As comparing the seed lots of same cultivar `Hopum` with different PHS percentages, seed lot with 8% PHS (high PHS percentage) showed 30% lower germination than that with 1% PHS (low PHS percentage). The difference of seedling emergence rate and seed viability percentages between the two seed lots was consistent with that of germination percentage. PHS-damaged brown rice was observed protruded embryo, discolored endosperm and fungi infected grains. PHS grains were classified into two groups, PHS-I showing endosperm discoloration in one third of a grain and PHS-II in more than half of a grain. The seed lot with high PHS percentage had much more PHS-II grains than that of low PHS percentage. PHS-II grains showed remarkably lower germination percentage than PHS-I grains and got severely moldy during germination test. In laboratory experiment, morphological changes and re-germination ability of seeds which dried after germination by soaking were tested. Sprouted seeds of 3mm shoot length showed half discolored endosperm and had a strong resemblance with PHS-II grains. Re-germination percentage of 3mm sprouted seeds sharply decreased than 2 mm sprouted seeds. Sprouted seeds which were treated for accelerated-aging (AA) for 24hr at
were significantly reduced in re-germination percentage compared to that of non-AA-treated sprouted seeds. These results indicate that PHS with over 3mm shoot length can severely damage not only grain appearance but also seed viability, germination percentage and seedling emergence rate. Therefore, we conclude that larger difference of germination percentage or seedling emergence rate between seed lots having smaller difference of PHS percentage might be caused by accelerated seed deterioration in PHS-damaged rice grains.
Isolation and Identification of Flavonoids from Corn Silk
Kim, Sun-Lim ; Kim, Mi-Jung ; Lee, Yu-Young ; Jung, Gun-Ho ; Son, Beom-Young ; Lee, Jin-Seok ; Kwon, Young-Up ; Park, Yong-Il ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 435~444
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.435
This study was carried out to isolate and characterize the flavonoids present in corn silks. Maysin content in the unpollinated corn silks (Kwangpyeongok) showed its highest level at 3 days after silking, and decreased thereafter, while the content of open pollinated silks were consistently decreased after silking. This result indicates that the maysin content is considerably affected by the pollination of corn silk. Unpollinated corn silks were collected with excising, and ethanol employed to extract flavonoids at common temperature for 9 days. After extraction, chlorophyll, lipids etc. were removed with methylene chloride, then submitted to flash column cartridge (
i.d.) packed with a preparative
bulk packing material (
), and monitored at 352 nm. Four fractions, fraction-I, -II, -III, and -IV, were isolated from ethanolic extract of corn silks. Absorption spectrum of fraction I showed its maximum intensity (
) at 327 nm and 239 nm, fraction-II showed its maximum intensity at 339 nm and 274 nm, fraction-III showed its maximum intensity at 345 nm and 277 nm, and fraction-IV showed its maximum intensity at 352 nm, 270 nm, 257 nm, respectively. On the baisis of ESI micro-TOF analysis, fraction-I was identified as chlorogenic acid (m/z 355, 3-(3,4-dihydroxycinnamoyl) quinic acid,
), fraction-II identified as a mixture of chlorogenic acid and luteolin 3`-methyl ether 7-glucuronosyl-(
)-glucuronide (m/z 653,
), fraction-III identified as a mixture of chlorogenic acid luteolin 7-O-neohesperidoside (m/z 595,
), and luteolin 3`-methyl ether 7-glucuronosyl-(
)-glucuronide, and fraction-IV identified as maysin (m/z 577, 2"-O-
), respectively. From the ethanolic extract of corn silks, fraction-I was obtained about 35 mg/100 g F.W., fraction-II was about 48 mg/100 g F.W., fraction-III was about 46 mg/100 g F.W., and fraction-IV was about 138 mg/100 g F.W., respectively.
Changes in the Physicochemical Characteristics of Sweet Corn Kernels during Grain Filling Stage with Different Sowing Date
Kim, Mi-Jung ; Park, Hyo-Jin ; Kim, Sun-Lim ; Jung, Gun-Ho ; Kim, Jung-Tae ; Shin, Seong-Hyu ; Kwon, Young-Up ; Chung, Ill-Min ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 445~456
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.445
This study was conducted to investigate the kernel characteristics of sweet corn during ripening with different sowing date. Godangok and Guseulok were sown at April 10, July 10, July 20, and July 30 in 2013. Irrespective of sowing date, fresh and dry weight of 100 kernel, starch content, crude fat content, and hardness of sweet corn kernels were significantly increased according to maturation (p<0.05). But moisture content, total sugar content, crude protein content and crude ash content of sweet corn kernels were significantly decreased according to maturation (p<0.05). The changing rates of 100 kernel weight and starch content on kernels were faster at early sowing date than at late sowing date. The moisture content of sweet corn kernels was 68~69% at optimum for harvesting. The degree of sweetness on Godangok was about 1.8 and 1.4 times higher in sowing at July 20 and July 30 than in sowing at April 10. On the other hand, the degree of sweetness was similar regardless of sowing time on Guseulok. These results will be helpful to farmers for fall-harvest sweet corn cultivation and management.
Evaluation of Seed Vigor and Morphology by Varietal Difference of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)
Jeon, Seung-Ho ; Yoon, Dong-Kyung ; Oh, Seung-Ka ; Lee, Eun-Jung ; Lee, Hyoun-Jun ; Lee, Byung-Jin ; Jung, Ki-Youl ; Cho, Young-Son ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 457~462
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.457
This study was conducted to evaluate basic seed characteristics such as morphological characteristics and various seed vigor using 4 sorghum varieties, Nampungchal, Donganme, Hwanggeumchal and Whinchal. No difference was shown in morphological characteristics of the varieties except that the width. Whinchal has bulb-shaped seed, while the other varieties have oval-shaped seeds. The seed coat color of Whinchal is obviously different from those of the other varieties; especially, Nampungchal and Hwanggeumchal are not glossy. Germination rate were Hwanggeumchal > Nampungchal > Donganme > Whinchal in the order of higher rate in standard germination tests and cold germination test. In the ageing test, Donganme showed the lowest 15% decrease in comparison with the standard cultivar. Electric conductivity (EC) has negative correlation with standard germination tests, cold germination test and accelerated ageing test. In the percentage of emergence (PE), Hwanggeumchal was the highest 85.7% which was more than 40% to the lowest Whinchal. Mean emergence time (MET) showed significant difference between the varieties; Whinchal showed the slowest 6.0 days.
Antioxidative and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Extract from Milling By-products of Sorghum Cultivar, `Hwanggeumchal`
Ra, Ji-Eun ; Park, Ji-Young ; Seo, Woo Duck ; Sim, Eun-Yeong ; Ko, Jee Yeon ; Nam, Min-Hee ; Chung, Ill-Min ; Han, Sang-Ik ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 463~469
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.463
Sorghum has been consumed as one of the important staple food in the semiarid tropics of Africa and Asia. Sorghum is rich in starch, protein, essential vitamins and minerals and grows relatively well in dry climate regions when it compared with other staple food crops. Sorghum has taken an increased interest due to several studies that report about the beneficial effects of sorghum on human health. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidative and activity of extract of milling by-products (hull and bran) of Korean sorghum cultivar, `Hwanggeaumchal` as well as its grain. Hull extract showed the highest total polyphenol contents (
) and major four pigments content (
). From results of 2,2`-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, hull extract (
) was also showed the strongest antioxidative effects. Bran and grain showed similar polyphenol, pigments contents and antioxidative effects. We determined cell viability by MTT assay and evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity by measuring nitric oxide (NO) of hull, bran and grain methanol extract (0.5% HCl v/v) on RAW 264.7 cells. Hull extract treatment was significantly decreased NO production with dose-dependant manner. Apigeninidin as one of the major pigment of hull was showed inhibitory activity against NO production without cytotoxicitiy. Therefore, sorghum milling by-products can be used as a good source of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory agents.
Effects of Sowing Date on Agronomic Characteristics of Intermediate-erect Type Cowpea Grown in Plastic Greenhouse
Kim, Dong-Kwan ; Son, Dong-Mo ; Lee, Kyung-Dong ; Rim, Yo-Sup ; Chung, Jung-Sung ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 470~476
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.470
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sowing time on ecological responses, growth, and yields of cowpeas grown in plastic greenhouses in a southern region of South Korea. Experiments were carried out in Naju, Jeonnam Province (Latitude
04` N, Longitude
54` E) during 2012 and 2013. The intermediate-erect type strains used in this study were Jeonnam1 and Jeonnam2. Sowing was performed between mid-March and mid-August at intervals of one month. The days from sowing to emergence was significantly higher for the mid-March sowing (12 days) but no significant differences were observed among the other sowing dates (3 to 4 days). The days from sowing to first flowering were shorter for sowing dates between mid-March and mid-July because sowing time was delayed and then were lengthened again at mid-August sowing; the days were longest at mid-March sowing (around 75 days) and were shortest at mid-July sowing (30 days). The days from first flowering to harvesting were short for the sowing dates between mid-March and mid-May (24 to 28 days) but were relatively long for subsequent sowing dates (35 to 38 days). Stem and peduncle lengths were relatively long for the mid-April and mid-August sowing dates. Main-stem node number was highest for the mid-June sowing. Branch number per plant was highest for the mid-March sowing. The mid-March sowing displayed the highest number of pods per plant as well as the heaviest seed weight. Yield per 10 ares was highest for the mid-March sown Jeonnam1 and the Jeonnam2 strains (340 and 367 kg respectively), and then tended to decrease due to subsequent delays in sowing.
Variation of Anthocyanin Contents by Genotypes and Growing Environments in Black Colored Soybeans
Hwang, In-Taek ; Lee, Joo-Young ; Choi, Byung-Ryul ; Lee, Eun-Seop ; Kim, Yong-Ho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 477~482
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.477
Variation of anthocyanin contents were analyzed by different growing environments, three locations over three years with 3 black colored soybeans. Anthocyanin contents were different according to growing location, genotypes and planting time, so it can be concluded that anthocyanin content was effected by environmental and genetic variation. Planting date seemed to have a much greater influence on anthocyanin content than cultivar and location. Among different planting dates, anthocyanin contents increased in the seeds planted on June 15 rather than did May 30 and May 15. Compared with 3 cultivars and 3 locations, Ilpumgeomjungkong and Yeonchun had higher contents such as 11.58 mg/ and 9.85 mg/g, respectively. The correlations between color index and anthocyanin content were analyzed by Hunter`value. L (lightness) and b (yellowness) values were correlated negatively with D3G, C3G, Pt3G and total anthocyanin content while a (redness) value was correlated positively. The correlations between meteorological factors and anthocyanin content were analyzed. Anthocyanin content was correlated negatively with mean temperature and accumulated temperature whereas mean daily temperature difference showed positive correlation. We could conclude that the area in which mean temperature was low and daily temperature difference was high is good for attempts to improve black soybean seed quality by the increase of anthocyanin contents.
Growth and Yield Components Responses to Delayed Planting of Soybean in Southern Region of Korea
Park, Hyeon-Jin ; Han, Won-Young ; Oh, Ki-Won ; Kim, Hyun-Tae ; Shin, Sang-Ouk ; Lee, Byong-Won ; Ko, Jong-Min ; Baek, In Youl ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 483~491
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.483
Double cropping system including paddy field soybean is widely adopted nationwide, due to rise in market price and its higher income than paddy field rice. Sowing date of soybean as a second crop is being delayed depending on first crop`s growth period and harvesting time. Due to the increased temperature in October and delayed first frost date, soybean could be harvested without frost damage even in late-plating. Therefore, selection of soybean cultivar which is appropriate for this environment is very important. The effect of sowing date and genotype of soybean on growth and yield was investigated for three planting dates (June 20, July 5, and July 20) with ten cultivars developed for soy-pate production, to figure out plant development and yield pattern in delayed planting. As planting date is delayed, plant height and pod number was decreased and this pattern was more clearly detected in mid-late maturity cultivars. Hundred-seed weight did not show significant changes even in late planting, due to compensations between yield components. Yield reduction of July 20 in contrast to that of June 20 showed that Nampung (9.6%) showed the least yield decline. Maximum yield was achieved from Daepung, Taekwang, and Uram among other soybean cultivars in late planting. Shortening of growth period was strongly detected in reproductive stage while length of vegetative stage was regularly maintained in both early and mid-late maturity cultivars.
Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Korean Soybean Collection Using 75 Microsatellite Markers
Lee, Gi-An ; Choi, Yu-Mi ; Yi, Jung-Yoon ; Chung, Jong-Wook ; Lee, Myung-Chul ; Ma, Kyung-Ho ; Lee, Sok-Young ; Cho, Jin-Woong ; Lee, Jung-Ro ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 492~497
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.492
Soybean (Glycine max L.) is crucial legume crop as source of high quality vegetable protein and oil, and Korea is regarded as a part of center of soybean origin. To expand the information of conserved genetic diversity, we analyzed the genetic variability of soybean collection mainly introduced Korean accessions using 75 microsatellite markers. A total of 1,503 alleles with an average value of 20.0 alleles were detected among 644 accessions. Korean collection revealed average allele number of 13.4 while Chinese, Japanese and Southeast Asian accessions showed 9.0, 5.4 and 6.5 mean alleles, respectively. Especially, Korean accessions showed more number of private allele per locus as 3.4 contrary to other geographical groups. The mean expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content was 0.654 and 0.616, respectively, and expected heterozygosity values were not significantly distinguished according to the geographical groups. The phylogenetic dendrogram and deduced population structure based on DNA profiles of 75 SSR loci showed Korean accessions formed distinct gene pool against Chinese accessions, and could be divided into five subpopulations. Korean soybean accessions have specific genetic diversity and might be serve the valuable alleles for bio-industry as a part of the center of soybean origin.
Eliminating Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) Using Cryotherapy of in vitro-grown Potato Shoot Tips
Yi, Jung-Yoon ; Lee, Gi-An ; Jeong, Jong-Wook ; Lee, Sok-Young ; Lee, Young-Gyu ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 498~504
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.498
Potato virus Y (PVY) and potato leafroll virus (PLRV) are among the most damaging potato viruses and prevalent in most potato growing areas. In this study, cryopreservation was used to eradicate PVY and PLRV using two cryogenic methods. Potato shoot tips proliferated in vitro were cryopreserved through droplet-vitrification and encapsulation-vitrification using plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2; 30% glycerol + 15% dimethyl sulfoxide + 15.0% ethylene glycol + 13.7% sucrose) and modified PVS2. Both cryogenic procedures produced similar rates of survival and regrowth, which were lower than those from shoot tip culture alone. The health status of plantlets regenerated from shoot tip culture alone and cryopreservation was checked by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The frequency of virus-free plants regenerated directly from highly proliferating shoot tips reached 42.3% and 48.6% for PVY and PLRV, respectively. In comparison, the frequency of PVY and PLRV eradication after cryopreservation was 91.3~99.7% following shoot-tip culture. The highest cryopreserved shoot tip regeneration rate was observed when shoot tips were 1.0~1.5 mm in length, but virus eradication rates were very similar (96.4~99.7%), regardless of shoot tip size. This efficient cryotherapy protocol developed to eliminate viruses can also be used to prepare potato material for safe long-term preservation and the production of virus-free plants.
Comparison of Growth Characteristics and Quality of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) by Different Shade Materials
Seong, Bong-Jae ; Lee, Ka-Soon ; Han, Seong-Ho ; Kim, Sun-Ick ; Kim, Gwan-Hou ; Lee, Sox-Su ; Won, Jun-Yeon ; So, Jung D. ; Cho, Jin-Woong ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 505~510
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.505
This research investigated growth of ginseng regard to sunshade materials and micro metrological phenomena under the sunshade material to product high quality ginseng. Followings are results of investigation of active ingredient from raw ginseng producted under the sunshade materials. The highest temperature under the sunshade material from June to August was measured from a Three-layered blue and one-layered black polyethylene net (TBOBFN) followed by a aluminium-coated polyethylene sheet (ACPS) and blue polyethylene sheet (BPS). The highest light penetration of
was obtained from the BPS at August, also the temperature was highest at the ginseng field. Growth of above ground part of 2~3 year old ginseng under the ACPS was the highest, followed by the ACPS and the BPS. In case of 4 year old ginseng, the ACPS and the BPS was the same, followed by the TBOBPN. Root length and diameter of 2~3 year old ginseng showed difference among treatments, but 4 year old ginseng was not showed difference. Meanwhile, the highest amount of root of 4 year old ginseng of
was obtained from ACPS. The total amount of ginsenocide of 4 year old ginseng under the ACPS was highest, followed by the BPS and the TBOBPN. Chromaticity of ginseng root under the TBOBPN was highest, followed by the ACPS and the BPS.
The Growth Phase and Yield Difference of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) on Soil Salinity in Reclaimed Land
Kang, Chan-Ho ; Choi, Weon-Young ; Yoo, Young-Jin ; Choi, Kyu-Hwan ; Kim, Hyo-Jin ; Song, Young-Ju ; Kim, Chung-Kon ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 511~520
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.511
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) was recognized as a potential source of forage. To reduce the production cost, we should insure large cultivation area. The one of the best candidate places to expand the useful kenaf production was `Saemangeum` reclaimed land. To confirm the possibility of kenaf growth in reclaimed land, we seeding and cultivated the kenaf in `Saemangeum`. The germination percentage of kenaf on 5.0 dS/m soil salinity was 18%. It is less 66% than that of 4.0 dS/m soil salinity and at 6.0 dS/m, the germination percentage of kenaf was under 10%. The growth and development of kenaf in reclaimed land grew worse with increasing soil salinity. The stem diameter which the most important factor that decide the value and yield of product was upper 2.6 cm when soil salinity maintained under 4.0 dS/m, but if soil salinity marked over 4.0 dS/m, the stem diameter of kenaf was drop under 2.0 cm and it deteriorate the number of leaves per plant by 20~46%. The necrosis on older tip and marginal leaves were noted approximately first month after seeding which was correlated directly with the salinity levels of reclaimed soil. Reduction of total yield was coincide with increasing levels of EC. If soil salinity over 5.0 dS/m, the amount of decreased by soil salinity was 51% than that of non-reclaimed region. The allowable soil salinity level of which could be maintained within 20% reduction rate was 4.2 dS/m. Consequently kenaf can be grown successfully with moderately saline soil condition. However, salt levels in excess of 4.2 dS/m severely have restricted plant growth and development and will result in significant yield reduction.
Effect of Mixed Seeding between Triticale and Legume crops for Increasing Protein Contents in Forage
Cho, Sang-Kyun ; Oh, Young-Jin ; Park, Hyeong-Ho ; Jang, Yun-Woo ; Song, Tae-Hwa ; Noh, Jae-Hwan ; Park, Tae-Il ; Park, Kwang-Geun ; Kang, Hyeon-Jung ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 521~525
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.521
This study was conducted in the central northern area that has a smaller production of winter forage crop compared to the southern areas, in order to identify the optimal mix of seeding, mix ratio and seeding method. The results showed that among the mixed seeding of triticale and crimson clover, the mix of triticale+crimson clover, mixing ratio is 8:2 (w/w), had the largest dry weight of 1,462 kg/10a, which was more than either single seeding of triticale or crimson clover. Although there were no total quantity differences between different mix ratios, there were differences in quantity between sowing types with broadcasting seeding is more than in narrow strips seeding. In forage value of mixed seeding combination, crude protein contents in single seeding of crimson clover showed the highest value at 17.2%, and in single seed of triticale showed the lowest at 7.4%. In mixed seeding combination the crude protein contents were highest in triticale+crimson clover, mixing ratio is 7:3 (w/w), at 9.0%. The mixed seeding between triticlale and legume crops will helpful for increasing forage value.
Growth Characteristics and Feed Value of Whole Crop Silage Rice on Paddy Field and Reclaimed Tidal Land
Cho, Kwang-Min ; Back, Nam-Hyun ; Yang, Chang-Hyu ; Shin, Pyung ; Noh, Tae-Hwan ; Lee, Geon-Hwi ; Lee, Kyeong-Bo ; Park, Ki-Hun ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 526~531
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.526
This study was carried out to compare the growth characteristics and feed values of the whole crop silage rice from paddy field and reclaimed paddy field. The heading dates of tested varieties was August 8 to August 30 in the paddy field, 1~2 days later than the reclaimed paddy field`s August 6 to August 29. Plant height was in the range of 105~135 cm in paddy field, and 97~126 cm in reclaimed paddy field, respectively. The plant height of Mokyang was tallest in the paddy field, but Suwon 544 was tallest in the reclaimed paddy field. The number of tiller per plant of Nokyang was largest in the paddy field. Dry matter (DM) yield of whole crop rice ranged from 15.26 to
in the paddy field and 11.94 to
in the reclaimed paddy field. The highest DM yield in both fields was attained by Mokwoo. Comparing with the paddy field, the reclaimed paddy field achieved 78~84% in the DM yield. The crude protein content of varieties was 8.5 to 11.6% in the reclaimed tidal land and 6.7~8.7% in the paddy field. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of varieties in both fields ranged from 31.2 to 55.5%. Suwon 544 recorded the highest NDF contents in both fields. All varieties did not show any significant difference in acidic detergent fiber (ADF) which had values ranging from 22.3 to 33.2%. Total digestion nutrient (TDN) was more than 60% overall in both fields. Regarding TDN yield, Mokwoo recorded
in reclaimed tidal land and
in the paddy field, which showed the highest figure among the varieties. These results suggest the feasibility for cultivation of the whole crop silage rice in reclaimed paddy field, which showed 80% of the yield compared to paddy field, and implied that Mokwoo would show the most excellent yield and feed value.
Uptake and Accumulation of Arsenate on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown in Soils Mixed with Various Rates of Arsenopyrite Gravel
Shim, Ho-Young ; Lee, Kyo-Suk ; Lee, Dong-Sung ; Jeon, Dae-Sung ; Shin, Ji-Su ; Kim, Soo-Bin ; Cho, Jin-Woong ; Chung, Doug-Young ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 532~538
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.532
Arsenic (As) is nonessential element toxic to plants. In Korea little is not only known about the extent of actual anthropogenic sources and inputs of arsenic to the agricultural land which plays a active role as a sink, but also systematic research on arsenic as an toxic element entering the food chain via the soil-plant pathway has not been investigated in the fields and greenhouses besides in few places of abandoned mining sites. Therefore, it is important to focus on the effect of As-contaminated soils on As uptake and biomass production of lettuce plants. In this study, As concentrations in the soil and accumulation of As in lettuce transferred by As uptake from soils were investigated. To do this, soil which was mixed with various rates of arsenopyrite gravels containing arsenic from 0 to 100% was packed into a round plastic pot. Then, 10 days old vegetable crops of chinese cabbage and lettuce after germination were transplanted into a pot. Growth of lettuce was observed for four weeks with one week interval. All experiments were done by triplicate. The results showed that the growth rates for number of leaves, width and length of the crop plants were retarded with increasing amount of gravel mixed due to increasing bioavailable amount of arsenate with increasing rate of gravel in soils. With these results, we conclude that the bioavailable amount of arsenate can influence the growth of lettuce.
Effects of Ca-Gluconate on Fruit Firmness and Softening Enzyme Activities in Tomato using Hydroponics Systems
Kwon, Soo-Jeong ; Lee, Guang-Jae ; Roy, Swapan-Kumar ; Cho, Kab-Yeon ; Moon, Young-Ja ; Cho, Jin-Woong ; Woo, Sun-Hee ; Kim, Hag-Hyun ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 59, issue 4, 2014, Pages 539~546
DOI : 10.7740/kjcs.2014.59.4.539
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of Ca-gluconate (Ca-glu) on fruit firmness and softening enzyme activities of hydroponically grown tomato (Solanium esculentum Mill.). The obtained results revealed that the rate of weight loss was markedly increased from at storage to 5 days after storage (DAS) in control, and was constantly increased until 7 DAS as 4.1% in Ca-glu treatment. Fruit firmness was more rapidly decreased in Ca-glu induced fruit compared to control. Results showed that fruit firmness in control and Ca-glu treated fruit were 0.67 and
, respectively. In our investigation, no difference was revealed in Hunter`s `a` value between control and Ca-glu treated fruit. Total carotenoids content of control fruit were rapidly increased while the Ca-glu treated fruit were gently increased. Lycopene content was higher (
) in control than Ca-glu treatment (
). The activity of Polygalacturonase (PG) was rapidly increased with increasing storage period as from 0.4 to 1.2 units whereas the PG activity of Ca-glu treatment was gently increased from 1 to 7 DAS, and rapidly increased from 7 to 11 DAS. However, the pectinesterase (PE) activity was rapidly increased in control fruit, when the storage period was increased, but interestingly, the Ca-glu treated fruit was slowly increased from 1 to 7 DAS, and rapidly increased 7to 11 DAS.
-galactosidase activity of Ca-glu induced fruit was rapidly increased from 1 to 7 DAS as from 1.6 to 3.0 units, and gently increased from 7 to 11 DAS.
-galactosidase activity of control were higher than Ca-glu treatment.