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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Dec 1970
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Studies on Yield Increase of Soybean as a Protein Source -Varietal response of yield components, protein and oil yield to different sowing dates and calcium levels in soybean-
S. K. Hyun ; Eun-Woong Lee ; Chung-Yong Lee ; Yong-Woong Kwon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 8, issue 1, 1970, Pages 1~4
To study the varital response of grain, protein and oil yield to different sowing dates and calcium levels in soybean, the most important crop as a protein source in Korea, this experiment was conducted in 1969. Three leading soybean varieties (Choongbukbaek, Ryooku＃3 and Changdanbaekmok) were sown at May 22,, June 11 and July 1 under 3 different calcium levels, 0.50 and 100kg per 10a respectively. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Ryonku ＃3 showed the highest grain yield because of the highest number of pods per hill. In order of protein content, and oil content of grain, Choongbukbaek>Ryooku＃3>Changdanbaekmok and Changdanbaekmok>Choogbukbaek>Ryooku＃3 were found. Ryooku＃3 also showed the highest protein and oil production per unit area owing to the highest grain yield. However. varietal differences of the grain yield the protein and the oil production per unit area varied along the different sowing dates. Interactions between varieties and sowing date on the grain yield should be considered in practice. 2. No difference in the grain yield was found between the first sowing date (May22) and the second (June11) on average. The grain yield in the plot of the third sowing date (July l)was strikingly decreased mainly by the smaller number of pods per hill. The protein and the oil content were not varied significantly by the different sowing dates. The protein and oil production per unit area were lowest in the plot of the third sowing date owing to the decreased grain yield. 3. More calcium application increased the number of branches per hill, the number of pods per hill, and the grain yield. The highest grain yield was found in the plot received 100 kg of calcium hydroxide per 10are. Protein content increased in higher calcium level, but oil content was highest in the plot of noncalcium. More protein production per unit area was gotten by more calcium application because of higher grain yield and protein content. all production increased in higher calcium level by the increased grain yield. 4. High plus (+) correlation was found between stem length and stem weight per hill stem length and grain weight, stem length and grain yield, stem weight per hill and number of pods per hill and grain weight, number of branches per hill and grain weight, number of pods per hill and grain yield, and grain weight and protein content of grain. Minus(-) correlation was recognized between number of pods per hill and grain weight.
Ecological Study for Consistently High Yielding Rice Variety -I. Yield response of rice varieties to the latitudinal ecological variability
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 8, issue 1, 1970, Pages 5~16
An early variety Suwon ＃82 and a medium variety Nongkwang were grown in early season and ordinary season under 3 levels of nitrogen (IN, 1.5N and 2N) at 3 locations, Haenam (
30'), Iri (
50') and Suwon (
20'). An early variety Fuzisaka＃5 and a medium early variety Rikuu＃137 were grown in ordinary season at 2 locations, Suwon (altitude39m) and choonchon(altitude 90m) which seeds of both variety are harvested at 2 locations, Suwon and Choonchon, where they were grown more than 10 years repeatedly. Observations were made for the number of days to heading, culm length, grain yield and yield components, and discussions were made in terms of the characteristics of a consistently high yielding variety to be bread in the future. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The later variety which showing latitudinal response in growth duration. Their yield not closely related to their growth curation. 2. Generally the number of grains per hill (number of penicles per hill X number of grains per penicle) predominately contributes to the yield following by the grain fertility and grain weight in oder. No latitudinal nor altitudinal tendency was observed for such yield component attributes at the individual locations. 3. The number of days to heading and culm length varied according latitude and the repeatability measured in terms of the ratio of the intra - class variance to the total phenotypic variance were negligible, but for the yield, considerable latitudinal repeatability was noted depending variety. 4. The altitudinal repeatability for the culm length ani for the number of days to heading were relatively large but for the yield it was relatively small. Differential altitudinal repeatability also was observed for yield between equally productive varieties. 5. In the path coefficient analysis of yield components to yield, the one which showing positive large P-values with no significant correlations between components, are considered to be consistently high yielding variety. 6. A consistently high yielding variety is also considered to be the one which showing large latitudinal or latitudinal repeatability(rl) for yield and high responses to nitrogen application or soil fertility in grain yield.
Studies on the seeding systems and varieties adapted to mechanization in barley and wheat culture
Jae-Young Cho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 8, issue 1, 1970, Pages 17~29
To research the seeding systems and the varieties adapted to mechanization in barley and wheat culture in Korea, the studies were carried out from October, 1969 to June, 1970 at Suwon. In these studies, six kinds of seeding systems of drilling and dibbling that seems to adapted to mechanization were tested as compared with the customary seeding system, furrowing moderately or widely, using three varieties of barley, Suwon ＃18, Barsoy and Buhufng, and three varieties of wheat, Wonkwang, Yucseung ＃3 and Yeungkwang, under the two fertilizer levels of standard and double. The summarize results gained were as follows; 1. Buhung seemed to be the most suitable variety in barley as it yielded the most and matured early and grew the safest. Barsoy suffered from winter injury. 2. Yeungkwang seemed to be the most suitable variety in wheat as it yielded the most and produced the largest grain ani grew the safest, however it matured late. Wonkwang suffered heavily from lodging injury. 3. More yield were produced and there were no increase of cultural dangers except lodging in double fertilizer level. 4. Seeding system of drilling and dibbling seems to be able to put in practice safely under the double fertilizer level when lodging resistant varieties are selected. 5. Rate of yields increase in comparison with the customary seeding system of moderate furrowing were 16 percent in drilling of 20 centimeter spacing, 13 percent in wide furrowing and 12 percent in dibbling of 20
12 centimeter spacing in barley and also 9 percent in wide furrowing, 8 percent in dibbling of 20
12 centimeter spacing and 7 percent in drilling of 20 centimeter spacing in wheat. 6. The most important cause of above yields increase seems to be the increase of spike number per unit area. 7. Yields increase by drilling as compared with furrowing was not caused by higher rate of seeding. 8. The plants matured a bit earlier by drilling and dibbling. 9. Better stands of seedling were fount in dibbling due to the promotion of germination by tramping. 10. An increase of yields will be expected by decreasing the spacing in drilling and dibbling.
STUDIES OF THE APPEARANCE OF NECROSIS IN RICE
Sang-Yull Jae ; Kwang-Tae Choi ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 8, issue 1, 1970, Pages 31~36
This experiment was designed to get some information on the parts in which necrosis occurs first in the embryo of rice, and on the phenomenon of necrosis that develops into other parts. Norin No.6 harvested in 1967 was used for this experiment and necrosis appearance was investigated by the T.T.C. method. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1) Necrosis of the embryo in rice occurred in the plumule initially. 2) It was observed that the necrosis developed from the plumule to the radicle. 3) Finally, it was shown that necrosis developed from the surface tissue of the embryo to the inside tissue.
Studies on the Germinability of Rice Seeds at Low Temperature -5. The Physiological Studies on the Varietal Difference of the Seed Germinability at Low Temperature
Hong-Suk Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 8, issue 1, 1970, Pages 37~45
A series of experiments was carried out to study on the physiological characteristics of varietal differences in the germinability of rice seeds at low temperature(
). The studies included the experiments on water absorption, change of dry weight, amylase activity, respiration of the grains and on the relationship between varietal differences of the seed germinability and oxygen concentration at low temperature using 4 or 5 varieties that are quite different in the seed germinability at low temperature. The results of experiment were summarized as follows; 1. There were no varietal differences in the length of phase A of water absorption, and thus the varietal differences of the seed germinability at low temperature may be due to length of phaseB of water absorption under low temperature. The percent of embryo to the endosperm in dry weight showed gradual decrease until the completion of germination and then increased suddenly thereafter in the varieties of higher seed germinability, while there were no change in per cent of the embryo to the endosperm in dry weight in the varieties of higher seed germinability at low temperature. 2. Amylase activity was significantly increased at the beginning of seed germination in varieties of higher seed germinability at low temperature, while lower varieties showed no increase of amylase activity even at 30days after seeding in the laboratory under low temperature. 3. The varieties of higher seed germinability at low temperature showed a somewhat high respiration even at the end of phase A of water absorption and increased the respiration significantly at the onset of seed germination, while there were no increase in respiration at 30 days after seeding in the varieties of lower seed germinability at low temperature. 4. An interaction between oxygen concentration and varieties in seed germination under low temperature existed. and thus low concentration of oxygen showed a delaying of germination and rooting in the case of higher varieties, but induced or promoted the germination and rooting in the case of lower varieties in the seed germinability under low temperature conditions. The optimum oxygen concentration to induce or promote seed germination of lower varieties in the seed germinability under low temperature was about 5 per cent and this effect was more significant by prolonging the days of treatment.
Studies on the Salt Tolerance of Rice and Other Crops in Reclaimed Soil Areas -1. On the Salt Tolerance of Rice Varieties
Hyong-Bin Im ; Jai-Wook Shim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 8, issue 1, 1970, Pages 47~68
Experiments were conducted by moderate season culture of each of 7 early, medium and late maturing varieties which were considered to be of strong salt tolerance in non-salty, low- and high-salty reclaimed areas (salt content: 0.5% and 1% at the end of April). The results of the experiments revealed that the early maturing varieties were suffered greatly from salt damage in such reclaimed salty area which is the "fall better type" in the year-round changes of soil salt concentration in Korea. Better yielding varieties in the salty area showed generally a high yield ratio in the salty area compared with the non-salty area. This indicates that they are strong salt tolerant varieties. It seemed that the salt tolerance could be measured by the number of delaying days in heading, the growth rate of culm length, number of panicles and number of grains per panicle in the salty area to compare with the non-salty area. The effects or salt damage on the yields of each variety at maturing stage and agronomic characteristics in the salty area were compared and discussed with the non-salty area.alty area.
Studies on Competition Effect and Spatial Treatment for Soybean Genotypes
E-Hun Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 8, issue 1, 1970, Pages 69~81
1. Four soybean varieties in pure stand and mixtures were grown in 20 competition treatments of genotypes at within-row spacings of 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 cm and were investigated in 10 characters for different genotypes. 2. Yield, weight of 100 seeds, height, number of branches, pods per plant, and seeds per pod were highly significant for within-row spacing treatment. 3. There was no spacing treatment effect for number of nodes and days to flower. Maturity did not respond equally in four varieties for spacing effect. 4. Fruiting period was influenced by spacing treatment. Height and number of branches were increased as within-row spacings were increased. Seed yield per area was increased oppositely. 5. Difference between fertilizing and non-fertilizing treatment was not significant in this experiment. At 80 cm spacing no competition effect occurred for yield. 6. In the competition effect, Kumkang Daerip was strong competitor ani Chungbuck Back and Shelby were weak competitors. 7. The within-row spacing of uniformity in roder to increase yield per area was proved as 20 cm in this study. 8. Oil percent was increased as spacings were increased and protein percent was as spacings were decreased.
Effects of the Various Cultural Treatments on Tuber Yield and Starch Content in Sweet Potato
Jae-Young Cho ; Keun-Yong Park ; Chae-Don Ban ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 8, issue 1, 1970, Pages 83~89
Investigation was made to know the effects of the time of transplanting and harvesting, fertilizer, soil texture and period of storage on tuber yield and starch content of sweet potato. Variety used was Shin-mi, one or the leading varieties in Korea. Late transplanting, early harvesting, and balanced application of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium, and loam and coarse sandy loam were more effective in increasing starch content than early planting, late harvesting, and more application of potassium and none application of phosphorous, and light clay respectively. Long storage period resulted in reducing starch content.
Effects of handling methods of seed tuber pieces at planting on sprouting of fall grown potatoes
Bong-Ku Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 8, issue 1, 1970, Pages 91~97
It is one of the important subjects in fall crop production of potatoes in korea to find the proper direct planting method as a substitute for transplanting method by sprouting inducement at seed-bed. From this point the author has undertaken this experiments to examine the effects of several handling methods of seed tuber pieces at planting on sprouting of fall grown potatoes at Ansung Agricultural College from August to september in 1969. The results of experiments induced sprouting with Gibberellin treatment using the variety Irish Cobbler were as follows; 1. Sun light exposure treatment to cut surface of potato seed pieces resulted in rotting of seed pieces and delay of sprouting and bud growth. Exposure more than three hours induced severe rotting(more than fifty percent) of seed pieces (Table I). 2. When soil moisture are abundant and the duration of sun light. exposure is short, even direct planting method of treated seed pieces with Gibberellin resulted in good potato stands (Table 2). 3. The direct planting method, as the rotting of seed pieces are avoidable are applicable in fall crop production of potatoes us a substitute for transplanting method because the sprouting and bud growth are promoted more in case of direct planting than transplanting (Table 3). 4. When the humidity in the bottle was low no healing effects was found by holding the seed pieces in large closed bottle under the trees for three days before planting (Table 2). 5. If duration of sunlight exposure is short, no difference of potato stands between clear day planting and cloudy day plant ing (Table 3). 6. As long as soil moisture deficiency. was not induced the irrigation at planting shows no effects to protect the seed piece rotting after planting (Table 3).
The variation of Sugar and Sprouting stem in Gibberellin Treated seed potato
Ja-Ok Guh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 8, issue 1, 1970, Pages 99~103
This study aimed to contribute fundamental study of sprouting in Gibberellin treated potatoes, and studied about Glucose and Sucrose amount and its sprouting stem structure in it sprouting seed potatoes with Gibberellin treatment. The results obtained are as follow; The quantity of glucose in gibberellin treated seed potatoes showed remarkable increase in comparison with that of those untreated, and the increment went up as the seeding date pass. As to the concentration of gibberellin, the 10 ppm plot contained more glucose than 5 ppm plot but 14th after seeding, it was found that this tendency was reversed. The increasing tendency of the quantity of sucrose in gibberellin treated seed potatoes were similar to that of glucose. The sprouting stems of the gibberellin 10 ppm and 5ppm plot were all longer than the controls. And after 14 days on account of thin ing growth by gibberellin treatment, the sprouting stems of the 5ppm plot were longer than 10ppm plot. The microscopic vertical and cross section of the gibberellin treated sprouting stems showed larger cells than those of untreated. The cells of sprouting stem treated by gibberellin 10 ppm were larger than those of the stems treated 5ppm.
Studies on the Resistance to Black shank of leaf tobacco
Il Hou ; Yu-Sun Ban ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 8, issue 1, 1970, Pages 105~110
Resistance to Black shank of various varieties were investigated in field and incubator. The results were summarized as follows; 1) In occurrence of this disease, yellow tobacco varieties were ranged from 4 days to 12 days after inoculated. 2) Korean native varieties were ranged from 6 days to 20 days. 3) Orient tobacco takes from 8 days to 17 days in occurrence of this one. 4) Japanese varieties ranged from 4 days to 3 days in occurrence of this disease. 5) Dark air-curing tobacco was ranged from 5 days to 14 days. 6) Chinese variety was ranged from 6 days to 11 days. Each varieties of resistant to Black shank was as follows; 1) Yellow tobacco varieties; Cash, Oxford-1, Oxford-3, N.C-75, N.C-95, Golden-cure Delcrest. 2) Native varieties; Sinzongtchio, Muktchio Sosa-3 Mokgitchio. 3) Japanese varieties; Hatano Outaruma Maruha. 4) Chinese variety; Gkzuoe, Yung-zung, Tongzuoe. 5) Orient tobacco; Samsun, Baffra, Xanthix. 6) Dark air-curing varieties; B-Hw, Connecticut-Broad leaf, Connecticut-Havana, Tennessee-Black.
Varietal response in tobacco under photoperiodic and temperature Conditions
Il Hou ; Y. D. Lee ; Eun-Woong Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 8, issue 1, 1970, Pages 111~115
1. Eight Varieties of Nicotiana tabacum, "Yellow special A", "Gold leaf", "Oxford, " "Awha", "Yungzung", "Samsun", "Maruha" and "Hatano" were compared on the photoperiodic responses. 2. Experiments were conducted both under high temp. condition(green-house, average temp
) and low temp. condition (out-door; average temp
) in four plots of 8.10.12 and 14 hours in day length. 3. The results obtained are summarized as follows; i) In the short day condition, the flowering was accelerated in the low temp. than high. On the contrary, in the high temp, it was accelerated in the long day. ii) Generally speaking, the flowering was responsed more in low temp. and short day length than high temp.-long day. iii) But the above trend was found great difference among varieties..-long day. iii) But the above trend was found great difference among varieties.
Studies on the Anther Culture of Nicotiana tabacum
Chang-Yawl Harn ; Young-Seu Koh ; Moon Ja Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 8, issue 1, 1970, Pages 117~119
The anthers of Yellow Special A, a leading tobacco variety, were cultured on the modified RM-1964 medium. Approximately three weeks after culture, plantlets emerged out of the anthers, and they reached blooming stage in six months. 24 univalent chromosomes were most frequently observed at M1 of PMC. Number of bivalent was 0.8 per PMC.
Effects of the periods and the methods of seeding and the seed bed locations on the sprouting of seed pieces of fall grown potatoes
Sin-Won Kang ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 8, issue 1, 1970, Pages 121~127
In order to find out the suitable periods and methods of seeding and the suitable seed bed location of fall grown potatoes in Seoul, this experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Korea University from 2nd July to 30th September in 1970. Experimental results using Irish cobbler, our leading variety, were as follows; 1. The suitable seeding period of fall grown potatoes seems about 21st July. 2. The direct seeding method is available where the upland farm is well drainage. 3. The sprouting in the field conditions forcing makes healthy stands of seed potatoes.
Study on the Technological System of the Cooperative Cultivation of Paddy Rice in Korea
Min-Shin Cho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 8, issue 1, 1970, Pages 129~177
For the purpose of establishing the systematized technical scheme of the cooperative rice cultivation which has most significant impact to improve rice productivity and the farm management, the author have studied the cultivation practices, and the variation of rice growth and yield between the cooperative rice cultivation and the individual rice cultivation at random selected 18 paddy fields. The author also have investigated through comparative method on the cultivation practices, management, organization and operation scheme of the two different rice cultivation methods at 460 paddy fields. The economic feasibility has been ana lysed and added in this report. The results obtained from this study are summarized as follows; 1. In the nursery, the average amount of fertilizer application, especially, phosphate and potassium, and the frequency of chemicals spray for the disease, insect and pest control at the cooperative rice cultivation are significantly higher than those of the individual rice cultivation. 2. The cultivation techniques of the cooperative rice farming after the transplanting can be characterized by a) the earlier transplanting of rice, b) the denser hills per unit area and the lesser number of seedlings per hill, c) the application of larger quantities of fertilizer including nitrogen, phosphate and potassium, d) more divided application of fertilizers, split doses of the nitrogen and potassium, e) the increased frequencies of the chemicals spray for the prevention of disease, insect and pest damages. 3. The rate of lodging in the cooperative rice cultivation was slightly higher than that of the individual rice cultivation, however, the losses of rice yield owing to the occurrence of rice stem borer and grass leaf roller in the cooperative rice cultivation were lower than that of the individual rice cultivation. 4. The culm length, panicle length, straw weight and grain-straw ratio are respectively higher at the cooperative rice cultivation, moreover, the higher variation of the above factors due to different localities of the paddy fields found at the individual rice cultivation. 5. The number of panicles, number of flowers per panicle and the weight of 1, 000 grains, those contributing components to the rice yield were significantly greater in the cooperative rice cultivation, however, not clear difference in the maturing rate was observed. The variation coefficient of the yield component in the cooperative cultivation showed lower than that or the individual rice cultivation. 6. The average yield of brown rice per 10 are in the cooperative rice cultivation obtained 459.0 kilograms while that of the individual rice cultivation brought 374.8 kilograms. The yield of brown rice in the cooperative rice cultivation increased 84.2 kilogram per 10 are over the individual rice cultivation. With lower variation coefficient of the brown rice yield in the cooperative rice cultivation, it can be said that uniformed higher yield could be obtained through the cooperative rice cultivation. 7. Highly significant positive correlations shown between the seeding date and the number of flowers per panicle, the chemical spray and the number of flowers per panicle, the transplanting date and the number of flowers per panicle, phosphate application and yield, potassium application and maturing rate, the split application of fertilizers and yield. Whilst the significant negative correlation was shown between the transplanting date and the maturing rate 8. The results of investigation from 480 paddy fields obtained through comparative method on the following items are identical in general with those obtained at 18 paddy fields: Application of fertilizers, chemical spray for the control of disease, insects and pests both in the nursery and the paddy field, transplanting date, transplanting density, split application of fertilizers and yield n the paddy fields. a) The number of rice varieties used in the cooperative rice cultivation were 13 varieties while the individual rice cultivation used 47 varieties. b) The cooperative rice cultivation has more successfully adopted improved cultivation techniques such as the practice of seed disinfection, adoption of recommended seeding amount, fall ploughing, application of red soil, introduction of power tillers, the rectangular-type transplanting, midsummer drainage and the periodical irrigation. 9. The following results were also obtained from the same investigation and they are: a) In the cooperative rice cultivation, the greater part of the important practices have been carried out through cooperative operation including seed disinfection, ploughing, application of red soil and compost, the control of disease, insects and pests, harvest, threshing and transportation of the products. b) The labor input to the nursery bed and water control in the cooperative rice cultivation was less than that of the individual rice cultivation while the higher rate of labor input was resulted in the red soil and compost application. 10. From the investigation on the organization and operation scheme of the cooperative rice cultivation, the following results were obtained: a) The size of cooperative rice cultivation farm was varied from. 3 ha to 7 ha and 5 ha farm. occupied 55.9 percent of the total farms. And a single cooperative farm was consisted of 10 to 20 plots of paddies. b) The educational back ground of the staff members involved in the cooperative rice cultivation was superior than that of the individual rice cultivation. c) All of the farmers who participated to the questionaires have responded that the cooperative rice cultivation could promise the increased rice yield mainly through the introduction of the improved method of fertilizer application and the effective control of diseases, insects and pests damages. And the majority of farmers were also in the opinion that preparation of the materials and labor input can be timely carried out and the labor requirement for the rice cultivation possibly be saved through the cooperative rice cultivation. d) The farmers who have expressed their wishes to continue and to make further development of the cooperative rice cultivation was 74.5 percent of total farmers participated to the questionaires. 11. From the analysis of economical feasibility on the two different methods of cultivation, the following results were obtained: a) The value of operation cost for the compost, chemical fertilizers, agricultural chemicals and labor input in the cooperative rice cultivation was respectively higher by 335 won, 199 won, 288 won and 303 won over the individual rice cultivation. However, the other production costs showed no distinct differences between the two cultivation methods. b) Although the total value of expenses for the fertilizers, agricultural chemicals, labor input and etc. in the cooperative rice cultivation were approximately doubled to the amount of the individual rice cultivation, the net income, substracted operation costs from the gross income, was obtained 24, 302 won in the cooperative rice cultivation and 20, 168 won was obtained from the individual rice cultivation. Thereby, it can be said that net income from the cooperative rice cultivation increased 4, 134 won over the individual rice cultivation. It was revealed in this study that the cooperative rice cultivation has not only contributed to increment of the farm income through higher yield but also showed as an effective means to introduce highly improved cultivation techniques to the farmers. It may also be concluded, therefore, the cooperative rice cultivation shall continuously renovate the rice production process of the farmers.