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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Physical Therapy Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Nov 2005
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Sep 2005
Volume 12, Issue 2 - May 2005
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Feb 2005
Selecting the target year
The Comparison of Trunk Muscle Activities During Sling and Mat Exercise
Choi, Hee-Soo ; Kwon, Oh-Yun ; Yi, Chung-Hwi ; Jeon, Hye-Seon ; Oh, Jae-Seop ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 12, issue 1, 2005, Pages 1~10
The purpose of this study was to verify the most effective spinal stabilization exercises program by comparing the activities of muscles contributing to spinal stabilization during four types of exercises using a sling and a mat. Twenty healthy males were recruited and each subjects performed four types of exercises. Exercise 1 was performed in a quadruped position with the subjects lifting the left arm and the opposite leg on the mat. Exercise 2 was performed in a prone position while holding a sling with the right hand and the left knee was fully extended while lifting the left arm and right leg. Exercise 3 was performed in quadruped position while holding a sling with one the right hand and lifting the opposite arm and leg. In exercise 4, subjects were instructed to maintain a balance push-up position while holding slings with both hands in 10 cm forward reaching with extended elbows. Electromyographic(EMG) activities were recorded from the multifidus, external oblique, internal oblique, abdominal rectus, and erector spinalis muscles during the exercises. The EMG amplitude of each muscle was normalized to the amplitude in the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of each muscle. Repeated ANOVA and Bonferroni's tests were used to compare the differences in the muscle activity according to the types of exercise. The EMG amplitudes of all the muscles were significantly different according to the types of exercises (p<.05). The highest EMG activities of each muscle was as follow; multifidus was 73.38%MVIC in exercise 3, the erector spinalis was 40.03%MVIC in exercise 3, the external oblique was 135.88%MVIC in exercise 4, the internal oblique was 128.60%MVIC in exercise 4, and the rectus abdominalis was 95.24%MVIC in Exercise 4. The types of exercises showed a significant difference in composition rate of EMG amplitudes of each muscle (p<.05). EMG composition rate of the multifidus was high in exercise 1 and 3. However, EMG composition rates of the external oblique, internal oblique, and the rectus abdominals were high in exercise 2 and 4. These results showed differences in EMG activities of muscles contributing to trunk stabilization during different therapeutic exercises. Therefore, the type of exercise should be carefully selected to effectively strengthen a specific trunk stabilizer.
The Relationship between the Plantar Center of Pressure Displacement and Dynamic Balance Measures in Hemiplegic Gait
Park, Ji-Won ; Nam, Ki-Seok ; Back, Mi-Youn ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 12, issue 1, 2005, Pages 11~21
The purpose of this study was to investigate how COP displacement of a hemiplegic foot in stance phase during gait is related to clinical balance measures and the recovery stage in hemiplegic stroke patients. Twenty-eight functionally ambulant hemiplegic patients who had suffered from strokes and thirty age-matched healthy subjects participated in this study. COP parameters were calculated. Clinical balance was measured using the Functional Reach Test (FRT) and Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT). The recovery stage, proprioception, and clonus of the ankles or lower extremities were also measured for physical impairment status. The COPx max-displacement in the medial-lateral side of the stroke patients was significantly longer than that of the normal group (p=.038). The COPy max-displacement in the anterior-posterior side of the stroke patients was significantly shorter than that of normal group (p<.001). Significant differences in the COPx and COPy displacement asymmetry index were found between the two groups (p<.01). The FRT was correlated with the COPx displacement (r=.552) and COPy displacement (r=.765). The TUGT was correlated with the COPy displacement (r=-.588) only. The recovery stage of the lower extremities was correlated with COPy displacement (r=.438). The results of the study indicate that the characteristic of COP displacement in hemiplegic feet in stance phase during gait is related to balance ability and recovery in stroke patients. COP parameters acquired by the mapping of foot pressure in stance phase during gait will provide additional useful clinical information. This information can be used by clinicians to assess objectively the pathologic gait with other diseases and to evaluate the therapeutic effects on gait in stroke patients.
The Influences of Visual Information and Different Elevations of Medially Wedged Insoles on Knee Joint Proprioception in Healthy Persons
Kim, Do-Kyun ; Ko, Eun-Hye ; Lee, Kang-Sung ; Cynn, Heon-Seock ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 12, issue 1, 2005, Pages 22~27
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of visual information and different elevations of medially wedged insoles on the proprioceptive sense of the knee joint. The subjects of this study were 16 able-bodied men who were not athletic. An electrogoniometer was used to determine the error value between calculated 50% of full flexion (target position) and performed 50% of full flexion in a standing position with the upper extremities crossed. Tests were randomly performed in
conditions. Visual variations included open eyes vs. closed eyes, while the elevation was adjusted through the use (or lack thereof) of medially wedged insoles of 10 mm, 14 mm, and 18 mm. The average error value in each condition was statistically analyzed. The findings of this study revealed as follows: 1) The average error value was significantly higher with the subjects' eyes open than with their eyes closed (p<.05). 2) The averaged error value was also significantly higher when the subjects were elevated 18 mm than with no elevation at all (p<.05). The findings of this study should be considered in lower extremity rehabilitation programs when medially wedged insoles used.
Gender Differences of Knee Valgus Angle during Vertical Drop Landing in College Students
Yi, Chung-Hwi ; Park, So-Yeon ; Yoo, Won-Gyu ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 12, issue 1, 2005, Pages 28~35
The purpose of this study was to determine whether gender differences existed in knee valgus kinematics in college students when performing a vertical drop landing. The hypothesis of this study was that females would demonstrate greater knee valgus motion. These differences in knee valgus motion may be indicative of decreased dynamic knee joint control in females. This study compared the initial knee valgus angle and maximum knee valgus angle at the instant of impact on vertical drop landings between healthy men and women. In this study, 60 participants (30 males, 30 females) dropped from a height of 43 cm. A digital camera and two-dimensional video motion analysis software were used to analyze the kinematic data. There was significant difference in the mean knee valgus angle at initial contact landing between the two groups (Mean=
in males, Mean=
in females). The range of knee valgus angle on landing (Mean=
in males, Mean=
in females) was differed significantly (p<.05). The maximal angle of knee valgus on landing (Mean=
in males, Mean=
in females) was also differed significantly (p<.05). The females landed with a larger range of knee valgus motion than the males and this might have increased the likelihood of a knee injury. The absence of dynamic knee joint stability may be responsible for increased rates of knee injury in females. No method for accurate and practical screening and identification of athletes at increased risk of ACL injury is currently available to target those individuals that would benefit from neuromuscular training before sports participation.
The Effects of Self-Controlled Learning on Balance in Hemiplegics
Yoon, Jung-Gyu ; Kim, Myung-Hoon ; Yook, Dong-Won ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 12, issue 1, 2005, Pages 36~44
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-controlled learning using the (KR) feedback schedule versus the yoked KR on the acquisition and retention of balance training for individuals with hemiplegics. Sixteen hemiplegics were randomly assigned to either a self-controlled or yoked KR group. All subjects were ambulatory with or without an assistive device. The self-controlled group was provided with feedback whenever they requested it, whereas the yoked group had no influence on the feedback schedule. All subjects performed 10 acquisition trials and 10 retention trials the day after acquisition. The data were analyzed using an independent t-test and a Mann-Whitney U test. Participants in the self-controlled group achieved significantly more effective learning than the yoked group during the acquisition and retention test except anterior/posterior (AP) body sway. These results suggest that a feedback schedule which is controlled by the individuals with hemiplegics may be more effective in balancing training than a yoked KR which is not controlled by the subject.
Muscle Strength Ratio and Q-angle in Patients With Osteoarthritis of The Knee: A Comparative Study With Healthy Persons
Kim, Suhn-Yeop ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 12, issue 1, 2005, Pages 45~54
The quadriceps-angle (Q-angle) and the ratio of hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) are important for the stability of the knee and for protection from excessive stress. The aim of this study was to examine the association between Q-angle and H/Q ratio with and without knee osteoarthritis. We compared knee osteoarthritis patients with symptom-free women. The mean age of the patients in the arthritis group (25 women, osteoarthritis) was 59.7 years. The non-arthritis group consisted of 25 women with a mean age of 55.2 years. Of the 25 women with osteoarthritis, 5 had the condition in their left knee, 5 had it in their right knee, and 15 had it on both sides. There was no significant difference in the knee Q-angle of the left and right knees of the arthritis group and the non-arthritis-group (p>.05). The strength of all the muscles around the involved right knee in the arthritis group was significantly weaker than that of the non-arthritis group (p<.05). However, in the left knee, only the strength of the knee extensors and internal rotators was significantly weaker than that of the non-arthritis group (p<.05). The Q-angle was not associated with the H/Q ratio and internal rotators/external rotators ratio of the involved knee in the arthritis group (p>.05). Neither was the Q-angle associated with the pain level of an involved knee in the arthritis group (p>.05). The knee pain was not associated with the H/Q ratio of the involved knee in the arthritis group (p>.05). The Q-angle was not associated with the ratio of H/Q and pain level of the involved knee in the osteoarthritis women.
Effects of Using Aid in Enhancing Walking Ability After Rehabilitative Care in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury
Shin, Young-Il ; Lee, Hyoung-Soo ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 12, issue 1, 2005, Pages 54~62
The purpose of this study was to find the effects of using aid in enhancing walking ability inpatients with spinal cord injury who have received rehabilitative care. The study population consisted of 24 spinal cord injury patients referred to the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine in the National Rehabilitation Center (NRC). All subjects were ambulatory with or without an assistive devices. All of the participants were assessed on SCIM II, WISCI II, FIM, MBI, gait speed (m/s), and walking endurance (120 min/m). The data were analyzed using a paired t-test, a one-way ANOVA, and a Duncan test. The results revealed that TSCIM II and all of the items of SCIM II of the cervical ASIA D group patients were higher than those of the Thoracic ASIA A and C group patients (p<.05). The FIM, MBI, and WISCI II of the cervical ASIA D group patients were higher than those of the Thoracic ASIA C group patients (p>.05). The walking velocities of the lumbar ASIA C group patients were higher than those of Thoracic ASIA A group patients (p<.05). The walking endurance of the lumbar ASIA C group patients was higher than that of the thoracic ASIA C group patients (p<.05). The ASIA D group patients used bilateral standard canes or crutches, but none used AFO. The ASIA A and C group patients used bilateral standard walkers with KAFO for standing and walking. The findings suggest that injury level as well as the functionality of walking aids should be considered when formulating a rehabilitative plan for patients with spinal cord injury.
The Effect of Forward Walking and Backward Walking on Quadriceps Muscles with Treadmill Inclination: Surface Electromyographic Analysis
Han, Sang-Wan ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 12, issue 1, 2005, Pages 63~70
To compare the effects of forward walking and backward walking on surface electromyographic analysis of quadriceps muscles at treadmill grades of 0%, 5% and 10%, subjects were randomized to eleven athletics (5 females, 6 males), with a mean age of 17.8 years, and a SD of 4.66 years. The values of the surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis oblique (VMO) were measured during forward walking and backward walking on a treadmill at grades of 0, 5 and 10%. The subjects walked for approximately 10 seconds at 4.0 km/h. The data were analyzed by repeated measuring of the two-way ANOVA and analyzed by a paired t-test between forward walking and backward walking. The SEMG activity levels of the RF, VL and VMO were the highest when both the forward walking and backward walking increased incrementally for treadmill grades of 0% to 10%, but the VMO/VL ratio had no significant changes. The SEMG activity levels of the RF, VL and VMO were significantly different between directions. However, SEMG activity levels of the RF, VL, VMO and VMO/VL ratio did not show significant difference among the treadmill grades. No statistically significant interactions were detected between the direction of walking and treadmill grade. Backward walking on the treadmill at 4 km/h and grades of 0%, 5%, 10% elicited a greater SEMG activity on the quadriceps muscles than did forward walking under the same conditions. The results suggest that the quadriceps may be effectively activated by performance at treadmill grades of 10%. This investigation confirms that backward walking up an incline may place additional muscular demands on individuals.
Ipsilesional Movement Deficit of Proximal & Distal Upper Extremity in Patients With Unilateral Brain Damage
Kwon, Yong-Hyun ; Choi, Jin-Ho ; Shin, Hwa-Kyung ; Bai, Dai-Seg ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 12, issue 1, 2005, Pages 71~79
The purpose of this study was to analyze the presence of ipsilesional movement deficit, with segmental performance in each proximal or distal upper extremity. The visuoperceptual complex task of the ipsilesional upper extremity was investigated in patients with unilateral brain damage and a control group of healthy sex-age-matched controls. Tracking movements were tested in the proximal and distal upper extremities. Movements were measured by the accuracy index, which was normalized to each subject's own range of motion and took into account any differences between subjects in the excursion of the tracking target. The findings revealed that stroke patients experienced difficulties with tracking movement of both proximal and distal segments in the upper extremities on the so-called "non-affected side", irrespectively of the extent of patient's age, time since onset, or severity of contralateral upper extremity. Therefore, the unilateral brain damage affected ipsilateral motor function of the proximal and distal upper limbs in the performance of complex motor tasks, requiring central processing and the higher order cognitive function in the integrity of both hemispheres.
The Histological Observation of the Effects of Pulsed Ultrasound on Wound Healing of Rats
Kim, Gye-Yeop ; Kim, Tae-Youl ; Na, Soo-Young ; Kim, Kyung-Yoon ; Kim, Gi-Do ; Kim, Jong-Man ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 12, issue 1, 2005, Pages 80~90
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of pulsed ultrasound on wound healing and observe during the wound healing process the distribution of mast cells according to histopathologic findings. Eighty Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into 4 groups received full thickness skin wounds on the back. Each of the 5 animals was sacrificed immediately and then sacrificed again 1, 3, 6, and 12 days after injury. Specimens from the wounds were removed during healing and routinely processed with a hematoxylin-eosin stain and a toluidine blue stain. The authors then observed the distribution of mast cells under a light microscope. The results of this study were as follows: The rate of wound healing and the length of the wounds of the pulsed ultrasound group II was significantly faster than group I on day 6 and day 12 (p<.001). Group III showed the most significant effect after12 days (p<.001). Group IV also showed a significant effect at 12 days (p<.01). A low-intensity ultrasound .5
resulted in a fast healing rate. During the wound healing process mast cells had a tendency to decrease in the acute inflammatory phase. During the wound healing process mast cells were thought to contribute to the healing of the wound.
Evaluation of Upper-Limb Motor Recovery after Brain Injury: The Clinical Assessment and Electromyographic Analysis
Kim, Young-Ho ; Tae, Ki-Sik ; Song, Sung-Jae ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 12, issue 1, 2005, Pages 91~99
We assessed whether the use of a symmetrical upper limb motion trainer in daily repetitive training for a 6-week period reduced spasticity and improved motor function in three chronic hemiparetic patients. Upper limb motor impairment and disability were measured by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Manual Muscle Test (MMT), respectively. The electromyography (EMG) of the affected hand was recorded during isometric wrist flexion and extension. In all patients, FMA and MMT scores were significantly improved after the 6-week training. However, MAS scores of the affected wrist spasticity did not change considerably. Onset and Offset delays in muscle contraction significantly decreased in the affected wrist. The co-contraction ratio of flexor and extensor muscles significantly increased after the 6-week training. Onset and offset delays of the muscle contraction and co-contraction ratio correlated significantly with the patients' FMA. This study showed that repetitive, symmetric movement training can improve upper limb motor functions and abilities in chronic hemiparetic patients. Also, the EMG assessment of motor response is likely to provide insights into mechanisms and treatment strategies for motor recovery in chronic hemiparetic patients.
The Patient Education and Its Strategy in Physical Therapy
Won, Jong-Im ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 12, issue 1, 2005, Pages 100~110
Patient education is one of the most important roles of a physical therapist. Physical therapists have to teach and provide information about illness, instruct for home exercise, and give advice relating to correct posture and daily activities et al. For an efficient education some strategies are required. The purpose of this article is to review general learning methods, to introduce elements that influence the procedure of patient education and learning, and to plan an education strategy.
The Effect of Femoral Anteversion on Composite Hip and Thigh Muscle EMG Amplitude Ratio During Stair Ascent
Nam, Ki-Seok ; Park, Ji-Won ; Chae, Yun-Won ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 12, issue 1, 2005, Pages 111~119
The purpose of this study was to compare the differences of hip and thigh muscle activities between subjects with increased and decreased femoral anteversion during stair ascent. Twelve healthy female volunteers participated in this study. The subjects were divided into two groups (group 1 with increased anteversion of the hip, group 2 with decreased anteversion of the hip). This study analyzed differences in each mean peak gluteus maximus (GM), gluteus medius (GD) and tensor fascia lata (TLF) EMG amplitude: composite mean peak hip muscles (GM, GD, TFL) EMG amplitude ratios and in each mean peak vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (HM) and semitendinosus (HL) EMG amplitude: composite thigh muscles (VMO, VL, HM, HL) EMG amplitude ratios among subjects with decreased or increased relative femoral anteversion. EMG ratios were compared in the stance and swing phase of stair ascent. Group 1 showed an increased standardized mean GM and GD EMG amplitude and decreased standardized mean TFL to composite mean hip muscles EMG amplitude ratios in stair ascent during both stance and swing phase. Also, group 1 showed an increased standardized mean HL EMG amplitude and decreased standardized mean VL and HM to composite mean thigh muscles EMG amplitude ratios in stair ascent during both stance and swing phases. There was no statistically significant difference in vastus medialis oblique between subjects with increased or decreased relative femoral anteversion. In order to provide rehabilitation professionals with a clearer picture of the specific requirements of the stair climbing task, further research must be expanded to include a wider range of age groups that represent the general public, such as including middle-aged healthy persons.