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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Physical Therapy Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Nov 2007
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 14, Issue 2 - May 2007
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
Effects of PNF Technique on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness After Eccentric Exercise
Lee, Su-Young ; Yi, Chung-Hwi ; Choi, Mun-Suk ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 14, issue 4, 2007, Pages 1~6
This study examined the effects of hold-relax with agonist contraction (HR-AC) on the symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) induced by intensive eccentric exercise of the non-dominant biceps brachii. Ten men (mean age=26.7 yrs, mean height=172.1 cm, mean weight=66.2 kg) and ten women (mean age=27.4 yrs, mean height=165.9 cm, mean weight=60.7 kg) who had not participated in a regular exercise program for the upper extremities in the previous six months were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: the HR-AC group, or the control group. We measured joint range of motion (ROM), maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and muscle soreness before eccentric exercise, and 24, 48, and 72 hours after eccentric exercise. The subjects in the HR-AC group received the HR-AC technique in the non-dominant biceps brachii. The HR-AC technique was applied 24 and 48 hours after eccentric exercise. There was no significant difference between the HR-AC and the control group. However, the HR-AC group, compared to the control group, had a significant difference between the time points of the various parameters. Increased ROM (p<.05), decreased muscle soreness (p<.05), and reduced MVIC (p<.05) were found in the HR-AC group after 72 hours. Decreased ROM (p<.05) and MVIC (p<.05), and increased muscle soreness (p<.05) were observed in the control group. These findings suggest that the HR-AC technique effectively reduces muscle soreness and increases ROM 72 hours after eccentric exercise.
Correlations Among Objective Measurements of Spasticity in Patients With Brain Lesions
Kim, Yong-Wook ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 14, issue 4, 2007, Pages 7~13
The purpose of this study was to investigate correlations among objective measurements of spasticity in patients with brain lesions. Thirty-two stroke and traumatic brain injury subjects participated in the study. Spasticity was quantified using the knee first flexion angle, relaxation index obtained from a pendulum drop test, and the amplitude of a knee tendon reflex test. Pearson's product correlation coefficient was used to examine relationships among these measurements of spasticity. There was a significant positive correlation between the relaxation index and knee first flexion angle in patients with brain lesions (r=.895, p<.01). There was also significant negative correlation between the amplitude of knee tendon reflex and relaxation index (r=-.612, p<.01), and between amplitude and knee first flexion angle (r=-.537, p<.01). Thus, it is possible to use the knee first flexion angle as an objective measure of spasticity, rather than relaxation index, which is more complicated to obtain. Further studies are needed to explore the effects of functional improvement and long-lasting carryover effects of spasticity using a simple objective measure such as the knee first flexion angle from a pendulum test.
Effects of Lumbar Stabilization on Abdominal Muscles Activity During Double Straight Leg Lowering
Ha, Sung-Min ; Lee, Won-Hwee ; Oh, Jae-Seop ; Weon, Jong-Hyuck ; Cynn, Heon-Seock ; Kwon, Oh-Yun ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 14, issue 4, 2007, Pages 14~20
To improve abdominal muscles strengthening, double straight leg lowering (DSLL) has been widely used in physical therapy, fitness program, and athletic program. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the lumbar stabilization maneuver with a pressure biofeedback unit on the muscle activity of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and internal oblique (IO) during DSLL. Fourteen healthy young men were recruited from university population. The electromyography (EMG) activity was recorded from the RA, EO, and IO of both sides. The normalized EMG activity was compared using a paired t-test. The study showed that EMG activity in the RA, EO, and IO was significantly higher during DSLL with lumbar stabilization (DSLL-LS) compared to performed DSLL (p<.05). These results suggest that DSLL-LS is recommended as an effective method for strengthening exercise for the abdominal muscles.
EMG Activities of Core Muscles During Bridging Exercises With and Without a Pilates Resistive Device
Kim, Su-Jin ; Yoo, Won-Gyu ; Kim, Min-Hee ; Yi, Chung-Hwi ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 14, issue 4, 2007, Pages 21~27
The purposes of this study were to compare core muscle activities with and without the use of Pilates resistive equipment during bridging exercises and to investigate the efficacy of a Pilates device. Fourteen healthy individuals (6 males, 8 females) between 20 to 26 years of age were examined. They were engaged in a bridging exercise with and without a magic circle. Three consecutive repetitions of each exercise were performed. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to measure the electrical activities of the right side internal oblique, the adductor longus, the multifidus, and the gluteus maximus muscles. Normalized EMG activities were compared using a paired t-test and the level of significance was set at =.05. The results showed that the EMG activities of the internal oblique (p=.0078), the adductor longus (p=.0007), and the gluteus maximus (p=.0001) muscles were significantly higher when using the magic circle during the Pilates bridging exercise. Also, statistically significant change existed in the multifidus muscle (p=.0106). The bridging exercise, combined with hip adduction using the magic circle, may enhance core stabilization. Therefore, using a magic circle during hip adduction combined with bridging exercise may be recommended usefully for individuals wanting to strength the core muscles. Further research is needed to access the nature of motor control of the Pilates mat exercises and to deliver exercise intervention for lower back pain patients.
Correlation of Berg Balance Scale and Functional Reach Test
Park, Eun-Young ; Kim, Won-Ho ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 14, issue 4, 2007, Pages 28~34
The purposes of this study were to provide the basic data and investigate the reliability of functional reach test and identify correlation of Berg balance scale (BBS) and functional reach test (FRT). The subjects were twenty healthy young adults and forty-five over 65 years old in order to compare balance ability. These data were analyzed by independent t-test and Pearson's correlation test using SPSS WIN 10.0. The results were as follows. Intrarater reliability coefficients of FRT was .976 and interrater was .942. FRT was significantly correlated with age, height, and BBS (p<.05). There were no significant differences in FRT and BBS by sex. There was significant difference in reach distance between below 74 elderly and above in FRT. FRT is very reliable test for balance and significantly correlated with BBS. Therefore, it is suggested that FRT is a clinically useful tool to substitute for BBS measuring balance ability in the elderly.
Characteristics of Sitting Balance and Trunk Muscle Endurance in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
Shin, Seung-Sub ; Woo, Young-Keun ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 14, issue 4, 2007, Pages 35~43
The purpose of this study was to compare the static balance in a sitting position between a group with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and a normal aged-matched group. Forty-nine subjects were included in this study. Thirty-one healthy subjects and eighteen AIS subjects were participated. Each group was tested with the Lumbar Trunk Muscle Endurance Test (LTMET) and Balance Performance Monitor (BPM). The parameters for static balance were sway area, sway path, mean balance, maximum velocity, anterior-posterior angle, and left-right angle of each group with eyes opened and closed. Results from the LTMET showed significantly more increase in the normal group than in the AIS group in the flexor and extensor endurance. The BPM tested showed significantly difference beteen the groups in parameters of sitting balance such as maximum velocity and anterior-posterior sway angle. For the AIS subjects, there were no significant differences in all parameters of sitting balance between eyes opened and eyes closed. In comparisons of the groups with eyes opened there were no significant differences in all parameters of sitting balance. In comparisons of the groups with eyes closed there were significant differences in the sway area, maximum velocity, anterior-posterior sway angle and left-right sway angle. These results suggest that the AIS group relies much more on proprioception than on vision, and develops compensatory passive postures of the spine. Further study is needed to measure many AIS patients with morphologic and electromyographic data for clinical application.
Effects of Auditory Cues on Gait Initiation in Patients With Parkinson's Disease: A Preliminary Study
Kim, Hyeong-Dong ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 14, issue 4, 2007, Pages 44~49
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of auditory cues in the form of a metronome on gait initiation (GI) in Parkinson's disease (PD). 2 patients (mean age: 54 yrs) with idiopathic PD participated in the study. All patients (Hoehn and Yahr disability score of 2.0) were tested in the "on" state approximately 1.5 hours following the administration and fully responding to their PD medications. Subjects first initiated walking at self-initiated speeds to determine their cadences. Then, subjects were asked to initiate gait along the walkway while keeping pace with a metronome. The metronome rate (in beats/min) was set at a cadence 85% (slow condition), 100% (normal condition) and 115% (fast condition) of gait for each subject. Subjects were able to increase the speed of GI with faster cadence, but the speed of GI for the slow condition was similar to that of the normal condition. Swing toe-off was 578.3 ms for the fast condition, 709.4 ms for the normal condition and 736.2 ms for the slow condition. Respective times for swing heel-strike were 894.3 ms, 1110.2 ms and 1119.1 ms, and stance toe-off were 1105.4 ms, 1338.5 ms, and 1343.1 ms. Except for stance unloading ground reaction forces were greatest for the fast condition and smallest for the slow condition. It appears that PD patients were able to modulate GRFs and temporal events in response to auditory cues to achieve the peak acceleration force of the swing and stance limb. The findings from this study provided preliminary data, which could be used to investigate how PD patients modulate GRFs and temporal events during GI in response to tasks.
Characteristics of Initiation and Termination of Tibialis Anterior Contraction in Adults With Hemiplegia: A Preliminary Study
Chung, Yi-Jung ; Lee, Jung-Ah ; Shin, Won-Seob ; An, Seung-Heon ; Lee, Eun-Woo ; Jung, Kyoung-Sim ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 14, issue 4, 2007, Pages 50~57
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between delays in initiation and termination of tibialis anterior contraction through surface electromyographic (sEMG) analysis in adults with hemiplegia and healthy subjects and clinical assessment of lower-limb mobility. EMG activity of 6 long-term survivors of stroke and 5 healthy subjects was recorded during maximal isometric ankle dorsiflexion in 3 seconds beeper signals. It must be done as fast and forcefully as possible. Lower limb mobility was assessed with Modified Emory Functional Ambulation Profile (mEFAP). Delay in initiation and termination of muscle contraction was significantly prolonged in the affected lower limb relative to the unaffected limb. Termination of muscle contraction in the hemiplegic lower limb was significantly delayed than the initiation on the affected sides. Delay in initiation and termination of muscle contraction correlated significantly with a few range of mEFAP. Abnormally delayed initiation and termination of muscle contraction may contribute to hemiparetic lower limb mobility in hemiparetic patients. Consequently, this study showed that abnormal delay of initiation and termination of muscle contraction may contribute to hemiparetic lower limb mobility in adults with hemiplegia. Further studies are needed to demonstrate a treatment effect.
The Effects of 4-Week Serratus Anterior Strengthening Exercise Program on the Scapular Position and Pain of the Neck and Interscapular Region
Kim, Duck-Hwa ; Kwon, Oh-Yun ; Yi, Chung-Hwi ; Jeon, Hye-Seon ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 14, issue 4, 2007, Pages 58~65
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of serratus anterior strengthening exercises on scapular position and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain measurements taken at the resting position in young adults with adducted scapular. The exercise program included stretching of the scapular retractor and strengthening of the serratus anterior muscle. We measured the distance from the midline of the thorax to the vertebral border of the scapular with a tape line (Superior Kibler), and the distance from the 7th cervical spinous process to the acromial angle with 3-dimension motion analysis system, to compare the resting scapular position before and after exercise. Fifteen subjects with adducted scapular were recruited to compare the resting scapular position and VAS. The distance from 7th cervical spine process to acromial angle of the scapular and VAS decreased significantly (p<.01) after exercise, while the distance from the midline of the thorax to vertebral border of the scapular increased (p<.05). The conclusion is that the serratus anterior exercise program altered the resting scapular position and decreased VAS.
Effects of Step Length Change on Kinetic Characteristics While Stepping Over an Obstacle From a Position of Quiet Stance in Young and Elderly Adults: A Preliminary Study
Kim, Hyeong-Dong ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 14, issue 4, 2007, Pages 66~74
The aim of the present study was to investigate age-related differences in stepping behavior in response to sensory perturbations of postural balance. The participants for this study were 2 healthy elderly adults (mean age=76.0) and 2 younger adults (mean age=25.5). Subjects were asked to step over a 10 cm high obstacle at self-paced speed with the right limb to land on the primary target (normal step length) that is 10 cm in diameter. However, if, during movement, the light was illuminated, then the subject had to step on the secondary target (long step length). It was planned that the onset of the light would be prior to peak Fx of swing limb, between swing peak Fx and swing toe-off, and after swing toe-off. In the younger adults these secondary visual cues were provided at mean times of 240 ms (standard deviation (SD)=11), 402 ms (SD=13), and 476 ms (SD=88) following the movement onset. Corresponding mean times for the healthy elderly were 150 ms (SD=67), 352 ms (SD=39), and 562 ms (SD=115). Results showed great changes in both group and visual cue condition in Fx ground reaction forces and temporal events following the swing toe-off. Swing limb acceleration force (Fx) and stance peak Fx1 was much greater in the young adults compared to the older adults. Both young and older adults increased stance peak Fx2 in the visual cue condition compared to normal stepping. There was no difference in stance peak Fx2 between the visual cue conditions in both groups. Similarly, the time to stance peak Fx2 was much longer for the visual cue condition than for the normal stepping. It was not different between the visual cue conditions in the young adults, but in the elderly mid and late cue was much greater than early cue. In addition, time to stance peak Fx2 and swing and stance time were much longer in the older adults compared to the young adults for the visual cue conditions. These results suggest that unlike young adults, elderly adults did not flexibly modify their responses to unexpected changes in step length while stepping over obstacles.
The Effect of Balance Training With Upper Extremity Exercise on the Improvement of Balance Performance After Stroke
Song, Ju-Min ; Kim, Soo-Min ; Kim, Jin-Sang ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 14, issue 4, 2007, Pages 75~83
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of balance training with upper extremity exercise on the improvement of balance performance in people who have had a stroke. Eighteen candidates who have all experienced a stroke, were living in Dong-Gu, Ulsan and were participating in a community based rehabilitation program, have been included in this study. The program was conducted three times weekly, 1 hour per session, for 7 consecutive weeks. Subjects were tested with 7 m and 100 m Timed Gait Test (sec), Timed Get Up and Go Test (sec), Functional Reach Test (cm) and 5 items of Berg's Balance Test at pre-training and post-training. Total balance index and balance ratios were measured by K.A.T. 3000. The balance training program performed by sitting on a chair and gymnastic ball and standing on stable and unstable surfaces during upper extremity exercises such as Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) upper extremity pattern, picking a ball up from floor, throwing and catching it. After seven weekends of balance training, subjects showed a significant difference in balance test results. The exceptions were three items of Berg's Balance Test (p<.05). Balance index score and affected and unaffected side balance ratio had a larger improvement than pre-training (p<.05). The result of this study showed that intervention of this balance training program could improve the balance performance in people who have had a stroke.
Reliability of Treadmill Exercise Testing in Adults With Chronic Hemiplegia and Elderly People
Kim, Nam-Joe ; Lee, Suk-Min ; Chung, Yi-Jung ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 14, issue 4, 2007, Pages 84~90
The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability of heart rate (HR) and velocity measurements during peak effort and free treadmill walking tests in older patients with gait-impaired chronic hemiparetic stroke and control group. Twenty-two adults (13 men, 9 women; mean age,
yrs) with chronic hemiparetic stroke are the experimental group. Nineteen elderly people (5 men, 14 women; mean age,
yrs) were recruited as control group. Patients had mild to moderate chronic hemiparetic gait deficits, making handrail support necessary during treadmill walking. Free and peak effort treadmill walking tests were measured and then repeated at least two days later. Reliability was calculated from HR and walking velocity during free and peak effort treadmill walking test. Among the people who had strokes, HR [ICC(2,1)=.85, r=.86] and velocity [ICC(2,1)=.93, r=.93] were good parameters during free testing. Maximal testing generated good results for HR [ICC(2,1)=.81, r=.82] and velocity [ICC(2,1)=.96, r=.96] with the chronic hemiparetic stroke. In elderly people, HR [ICC(2,1)=.59, r=.62] and velocity [ICC(2,1)=.77, r=.76] were moderately reliable during free testing. Maximal testing produced moderate parameters for HR [ICC(2,1)=.74, r=.74] and velocity [ICC(2,1)=.66, r=.66] in the elderly. This study provides that free and maximal treadmill testing produce highly reliable HR and velocity measurements in adults with chronic hemiplegia using minimal handrail support.
Analysis of Hand Usage Behavior According to the Dominant Hand in Normal Person
Jung, In-Ju ; Shin, Hong-Cheul ; Jung, Hwa-Shik ; Jeong, Dong-Hyuk ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 14, issue 4, 2007, Pages 91~98
In this study, 1,933 Korean male and female subjects ranging in age from 10 to 82 were selected to investigate the various statistics about hand dominance and employment characteristics of preferred hand in handling diverse products and facilities. The statistics show that 5.6% are left-handed and 7.6% are ambidextrous. The average left-hander has a strong tendency to use his or her left hand more often when taking a forceful action than one that requires accuracy. On the contrary, the average ambidextrous or right-handed person generally uses his or her right hand more with action that requires accuracy than force. Derived from such results, the conclusion is that depending on which hand is the dominant one, people seem to use their hands differently when they handle objects and is a point that should be considered in designing hand control devices.