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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Physical Therapy Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Nov 2009
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 16, Issue 2 - May 2009
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
Anticipatory Postural Adjustment in Selected Trunk Muscles Associated With Voluntary Arm and Leg Movement in the Persons With Stoke
Jung, Kyoung-Sim ; Jung, Yi-Jung ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 16, issue 2, 2009, Pages 1~8
Anticipatory postural adjustments is an example of the ability of the central nervous system to predict the consequence of the mechanical effect of movement on posture and helps minimize a forth coming disturbance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sequence of activation of the trunk muscles during the performance of hip and shoulder movement and to determine the relationship between anticipatory activity and subjects' motor and functional status in subjects with hemiplegia post stroke. Twenty-four poststroke hemiparetic patients enrolled in this study. Electromyographic activity of the lumbar erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, and of the obliquus internus muscles was recorded bilaterally during flexion of both arm and from the rectus abdominis, obliquus externus, and obliquus internus muscles during flexion of both hip. Onset latencies of trunk muscles were partially delayed in the subjects with hemiplegia post stroke (p<.05). With upper limb flexion, the onset of erector spinae muscle and latissimus dorsi muscle activity preceded the onset of deltoid on both side respectively (p<.05). A similar sequence of activation occurred with lower limb flexion. Also the onset of external oblique muscle and rectus abdominis muscle activity preceded the onset of rectus femoris muscle on both side (p<.05). Major impairments in the activity of trunk muscles in hemiparetic subjects were manifested in delayed onset between activation of pertinent muscular pairs. These problems were associated with motor and functional deficits and warrant specific consideration during physical rehabilitation of post stroke hemiparetic patients.
Comparison of Abductor Hallucis Muscle Activity During Toe Curl Exercises According to the Position of the Interphalangeal Joint
Jung, Do-Young ; Koh, Eun-Kyung ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 16, issue 2, 2009, Pages 9~15
The purposes of this study were to compare abductor hallucis (AbdH) muscle activity during toe curl exercise according to position of interphalangeal joint (IPJ). Fifteen healthy subjects with neutral foot were recruit for this study. All subjects performed toe curl exercise with towel while maintaining the IPJ in flexion (condition 1) and extension (condition 2). Toe curl exercise with towel was perform three trials for five second periods in each condition. Surface electromyography (EMG) activities were recorded from three muscles (AbdH, tibialis anterior, peroneous longus) in each condition. EMG activity was normalized to the value of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). The EMG activities acoording to position of IPJ were compared using a paired t-test. This study showed that the EMG activity of AbdH during toe curl exercise with IPJ extension significantly increased compared to those during toe curl exercise with IPJ flexion (p<.05). However, the EMG activity of tibialis anterior and peroneus longus were not significantly different between the conditions (p>.05). These results suggest that toe curl exercise with towel must be performed with extension of IPJ in order to strengthen intrinsic muscle in subjects with overuse injuries related to excessive pronation.
The Effects of Changing the Respiratory Muscles and Acoustic Parameters on the Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy
Kim, Sun-Hee ; Ahn, Jong-Bok ; Seo, Hye-Jung ; Kwon, Do-Ha ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 16, issue 2, 2009, Pages 16~23
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects postural changes on respiratory muscles and acoustic parameters of the children with spastic cerebral palsy. Nine children with spastic cerebral palsy who required assistance when walking were selected. The ages of the children ranged from 6 to 9 years old. The phonation of the sustained vowel /a/ and the voice qualities of each child such as fundamental frequency(
; Hz), pitch variation (Jitter; %), amplitude variation (Shimmer; %) and noise to harmonic ratio (NHR) were analyzed by Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP). The muscle activity of three major respiratory muscles: pectoralis major muscle, upper trapezius muscle and rectus abdorminalis muscle, were measured by examining the root mean square (RMS) of the surface EMG to investigate the impact of changes in the adjusted sitting posture of each subject. However, the RMS of pectoralis major muscle showed a significant differences (p<.05). Secondly, there were no significant differences in
, Jitter and Shimmer between pre and post posture change, but there was a significant difference in NHR (p<.05). The data were collected in each individual; once prior and once after the sitting posture change. The data were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed ranks-test using SPSS version 14.0 for Windows. The findings of this study were as follows; Firstly, the RMS of upper trapezius and rectus abdorminalis muscle were not significant different between pre and post sitting posture changes. From the result, it is concluded that changes in the adjusted sitting posture decreases the abnormal respiratory patterns in the children with spastic cerebral palsy which is characterized by the hyperactivity of the respiratory muscles in breathing. Also, there is increased on the voice qualities in children with spastic cerebral palsy.
Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire
Joo, Myung-Kyu ; Kim, Taek-Yean ; Kim, Jin-Tack ; Kim, Suhn-Yeop ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 16, issue 2, 2009, Pages 24~30
The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FABQ) in assessing Korean patients with low back pain. We performed translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire and enrolled 52 patients (18 males and 34 females) with low back pain. The subjects completed a standardized self-administered questionnaire that included the FABQ assessment along with evaluations for the visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), and Beck depression inventory-Korean version (K-BDI). The reliability of the obtained data was determined by evaluating the internal consistency on the basis of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Cronbach's alpha values, while the validity of the data was examined by correlating the FABQ scores to the VAS, ODI, SAS, and K-BDI scores. The translated versions of the FABQ showed good test-retest reliability: ICC (3, 1)=.90 (FABQ for physical activity) and .97 (FABQ for work) these values were statistically significant (p<.01). The Cronbach's alpha value for FABQ was .90 (p<.01). FABQ moderately correlated with pain, disability, anxiety, and depression (p<.01). The results of this study indicate that the Korean version of the FABQ is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring fear-avoidance beliefs in Korean patients with low back pain.
The Effect of Sitting Postures on Spinal Pelvic Curvature and Trunk Muscle Activation in Low Back Pain
Choi, Moon-Seok ; Chung, Yi-Jung ; Jeon, Hye-Won ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 16, issue 2, 2009, Pages 31~39
This study is performed to investigate the difference of the spinal stability system with and without low back pain. There were 9 participants with low back pain and 9 asymptomatic subjects to be recruited, they were measured thoracic and lumbar curvature, trunk muscle activation in upright sitting postures and slump sitting, back muscle endurance, and lumbar proprioception. Spinal curvature and surface electromyography of 4 trunk muscles were measured in an upright sitting postures and slump sitting in 18 subjects. The result of the study was that there were significant differences between the groups in spinal curvature (p<.05), significantly higher external oblique activity and less internal oblique in the low back pain group than the healthy subjects (p<.05), and significantly less proprioception in the low back pain group (p<.05). But there was not a significant difference between the trunk muscle endurance groups. According to the result, the low back pain group had greater thoracic extension and higher global muscle activity in the upright sitting posture and less proprioception. This study was useful to suggest postural training for normal muscle activation, selective muscle strengthening to prevent chronic deterioration, and helpful in making a treatment plan to indicate a synthetic care method that includes increasing proprioception.
Effects of Low and Moderate Intensity Treadmill Exercise on Functional Recovery and Histological Changes After Spinal Cord Injury in the Rats
Kim, Gi-Do ; Kim, Gye-Yeop ; Kim, Eun-Jung ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 16, issue 2, 2009, Pages 41~49
This study was designed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise of low-intensity and moderate- intensity on the functional recovery and histological change in spinal cord injury (SCI) rats. SCI was induced by the spinal cord impactor dropped after laminectomy. Experimental groups were divided into the Group I (normal control), Group II (non-treatment after SCI induction), Group III (low-intensity treadmill exercise after SCI induction), Group IV (moderate-intensity treadmill exercise after SCI induction). After operation, rats were tested at modified Tarlov scale at 2 days with divided into 4 groups, and motor behavior test (BBB locomotor rating scale, Grid walk test) was examined at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days. For the observation of damage change and size of the organized surface in spinal cord, histopathological studies were performed at 21 days by H & E, and BDNF(brain-derived neutrophic factor) & Trk-b immunohistochemistry studies were performed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 days. According to the results, treadmill exercise can play a role in facilitating recovery of locomotion following spinal cord injury. Specially, moderate-intensity treadmill exercise after SCI induction was most improvement in functional recovery and histological change.
The Effect of Motor Skill Training on Motor Function and Cerebellar Development After Alcohol Exposure in Neonatal Rats
Koo, Hyun-Mo ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 16, issue 2, 2009, Pages 50~58
The purpose of this study was to test that motor skill training enhance motor function and cerebellar development. Using an animal model of fetal alcohol syndrome-which equates peak blood alcohol concentrations across developmental period-critifical periods for the effect of alcohol on body and cerebellar weigh was examined. The effect of motor skill training on motor function and cerebellar development of rat exposed alcohol on postnatal days 4 through 10 were studied. Newborn rats were assigned to one of two groups: (1) Control group (CG), via artificial rearing to milk formula and (2) experimental groups (EG), via 4.5g/kg/day of ethanol in a milk solution. After completion of the treatments, the pups were fostered back to lactating dams, and wearing they were raised in standard caged until they were postnatal 48 days. Rats from experimental group of postnatal treatment then spent 10 days in one of two groups: Experimental group II (EGII) was had got motor skill training (training traverse a set of 6 elevated obstacles) for 4 weeks. Experimental group I (EGI) was not trained. Before sacrificing, the rat got examined two behavioral test, body weigh and cerebellar weigh, then coronal sections were processed. The section was investigated the Purkije cell in the cerebellum using light microscope. The results of this study were as follows. 1. In body weight test, the outcome of alcohol groups were significantly lower than the normal group. 2. In cerebellar weight test, the outcome of EGI were significantly lower than CG and EGII. 3. In motor behavioral test, the outcome of EGI was significantly lower than NG and EGII. 4. In Purkinje cells counting test, the outcome of EGI was significantly lower than the NG and EGII. These result suggest that improved motor function induced by motor skill training after postnatal exposure is associated with dynamically altered expression of Purkinje cells and that is related with cerebellar function. Also, these data can potentially serve as a model for therapeutic intervention.
Effect of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation on Muscle Irradiation Patterns of the Affected Side of in Stroke Patients: A Preliminary Study
Kim, Won-Ho ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 16, issue 2, 2009, Pages 59~66
This study investigated the irradiation pattern of muscles on the affected side in stroke patients after application of diagonal 2 extension (D2 ex) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in the unaffected upper extremity. Seven stroke patients participated. Electromyographic activities were recorded in the iliopsoas, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii were recorded by surface electrodes at rest, D2 ex with knee extension, and D2 ex with knee 90 flexion, normalized by maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) values. The medial frequencies of biceps brachii in both sides were also measured to compare muscle type recruited. %MVIC of biceps brachii and triceps brachii were significantly higher in D2 ex than at rest (p<.05). There was no difference in median frequency of biceps brachii between the affected and unaffected side (p>.05). This suggests that proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation using D2 ex may improve muscle activities of the paretic side and that the irritation pattern of the affected side may respond to maintain body equilibrium according to movement of the sound side.
Comparison of Upper Extremity Muscle Activity With Transverse Plane Angle Changes During Vertical Keyboard Typing
Lee, Kang-Jin ; Roh, Jung-Suk ; Kim, Tack-Hoon ; Cynn, Heon-Seock ; Choi, Houng-Sik ; Oh, Dong-Sik ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 16, issue 2, 2009, Pages 67~76
In order to prevent upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, effective keyboard selection is an important consideration. The aim of this study was to compare upper extremity muscle activity according to transverse plane angle changes during vertical keyboard typing. Sixteen healthy men were recruited. All subjects had a similar typing ability (rate of more than 300 keystrokes per minute) and biacromion and forearm-fingertip lengths. Four different types of keyboard (vertical keyboard with a transverse plane angle of
, and a standard keyboard) were used with a wrist support. The test order was selected randomly for each subject. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper extremity muscle activity during a keyboard typing task. The collected EMG data were normalized using the reference contraction and expressed as a percentage of the reference voluntary contraction (%RVC). In order to analyze the differences in EMG data, a repeated one-way analysis of variance, with a significance level of .05, was used. Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons. There were significant differences in the EMG amplitude of all seven muscles (upper trapezius, middle deltoid, anterior deltoid, extensor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor carpi ulnaris) assessed during the keyboard typing task. The mean activity of each muscle had a tendency to increase as the transverse plane angle increased. The mean activity recorded during all vertical keyboard typing was lower than that recorded during standard keyboard typing. There was no significant difference in accuracy and error scores; however, there was a significant difference between transverse plane angles of
with regard to comfort. In conclusion, a vertical keyboard with a transverse plane angle of
would be effective in reducing muscle activity compared with vertical keyboards with other transverse plane angles.