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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Physical Therapy Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Nov 2010
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 17, Issue 2 - May 2010
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Comparison of EMG Activity for Pectoralis Major Muscle During Shoulder Movement With Various Abduction Angle and Rotation Position
Jung, Doh-Heon ; Lee, Won-Hwee ; Oh, Jae-Seop ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 1~8
The purpose of this study was to compare EMG activity for pectoralis major muscle during shoulder movement with various abduction angle and rotation position in supine position. Fifteen healthy subjects were recruited for this study. All subjects performed shoulder horizontal adduction holding a 2 kg dumbbell in shoulder abduction
with shoulder neutral, internal rotation (IR), and external rotation (ER). Surface EMG activity was recorded from pectoralis major clavicle part and pectoralis major sternum part for 5 seconds and EMG activity was normalized to the value of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). Dependent variables were examined with 3 (Neutral, IR, ER)
) analysis of variance with repeated measures. The EMG activity of pectoralis major muscle was significantly different between shoulder abduction angles and between shoulder rotation positions (p<.05). The highest value of EMG activity of pectoralis major clavicle part among shoulder abduction angles was in
in that order. The highest value of EMG activity of pectoralis major sternum part among shoulder abduction angles was in
in that order. According to the rotation degree, shoulder ER showed the highest value and IR showed the lowest value in both muscle parts. These results suggest that shoulder abduction
will be effective during manual muscle testing (MMT) and strengthening exercise for pectoralis major muscle. It is also supposed that shoulder ER is the efficient posture for strengthening of pectoralis major muscle.
Comparison of the Effect of Inhalation and Exhalation Breathing Exercises on Pulmonary Function of Patients With Cervical Cord Injury
Jean, Yong-Jin ; Oh, Duck-Won ; Kim, Kyung-Mo ; Lee, Young-Jung ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 9~16
This study aimed to compare 2 protocols recommended to patients with chronic cervical cord injury: each protocol included breathing exercises (inhalation-oriented or exhalation-oriented) and facilitation maneuver for the accessory respiratory muscles. Seventeen patients with chronic cervical cord injury volunteered to participate in this study, and we randomized these patients into 2 groups: the inhalation-oriented breathing exercise group (IOBEG) and exhalation-oriented breathing exercise group (EOBEG), consisting of 8 and 9 patients, respectively. Patients in the IOBEG performed inspiratory exercises using intermittent positive pressure breathing devices, while those in the EOBEG performed expiratory exercises using incentive spirometry. All exercises were performed by the subjects twice a day for 4 weeks, with each session lasting an average of 20 min. The outcomes were assessed on the basis of the pre- and post-treatment values of vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC. In the IOBEG, no significant differences were observed between the pre- and post-treatment values of any of the measured variables (p>.05); however, in the EOBEG, significant improvement was noted in the VC, FVC, FEV1 measured (p<.05) after the treatment. In addition, the rates of change in the values of VC, FVC, and FEV1 differed significantly between the 2 groups (p<.05). These findings suggest that the EOBEs can enhance respiratory function and are clinically feasible in patients with chronic cervical cord injury. Further studies will be undertaken to evaluate the clinical application of these findings.
The Influence of Unstability of Supporting Surface on Trunk and Lower Extremity Muscle Activities During Bridging Exercise Combined With Core-Stabilization Exercise
Lee, Sim-Chul ; Kim, Tack-Hoon ; Cynn, Heon-Seock ; Roh, Jung-Suk ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 17~25
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supporting surface instability to trunk and lower extremity muscle activities during bridging exercise combined with core-stabilization exercise. Thirty young healthy adults (15 males and 15 females) voluntarily participated in this study. Each subject was asked to perform bridging exercise combined with core-stabilization exercise on three different supporting surfaces (stable ground surface, the wooden balancing board, and the air cushion). The muscle activities were measured using surface electromyography (EMG) during performing exercise. To test statistical significance, one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used with the significance level of .05. The findings of this study are summarized as follows. (1) There were significant differences in muscle activities on internal oblique, external oblique, gluteus medius, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, medial gastrocnemius and lateral gastrocnemius during exercise (p<.05). (2) The biceps femoris and lateral gastrocnemius showed significantly higher muscle activity on the wooden balancing board rather than on the ground, and semitendinosus, biceps femoris, medial gastrocnemius and lateral gastrocnemius showed significantly higher muscle activity on the air cushion rather than on the ground (p<.05). Therefore, it is concluded that muscle activities in the trunk and the lower limbs during bridging exercise combined with core-stabilization exercise was affected with instability of supporting surface. Further researches are needed to investigate the long term effect of bridging exercise on muscle activity with patient group.
Effects of Balance Training Program for the Elderly Affected by Hansen's Disease
Jung, Soon-Mi ; Park, Rae-Joon ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 26~35
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of improvement in the balance control ability of the elderly affected by Hansen's disease. We tried to compare the effects for the elderly affected by Hansen's disease with and without foot deformity. The subjects consisted of 19 patients 65 years old and older. They participated in a balance training program twice per week for 8 weeks. The following results were obtained from the training program: 1. There were significant improvements in static balance ability in one leg standing (OLS), dynamic balance ability in tandem walk (TW) and four square step (FSS) (p<.05). 2. There was a significant difference between patients with and without single-foot deformity in TW before the program (p<.05). After training, however, the difference became less significant. Also, there was not much difference between recipients with and without single-foot deformity in terms of OLS and FSS. The results of this study suggest that we need to provide training programs and rehabilitation services for the elderly affected by Hansen's disease suffering from nerve injury and disability. Furthermore, further research efforts should be made concerning rehabilitation to overcome various forms of disability.
Analysis of Movement Time and Trunk Motions According to Target Distances and Use of Sound and Affected Side During Upper Limb Reaching Task in Patients With Hemiplegia
Kim, Ki-Song ; Yoo, Hwan-Suk ; Jung, Doh-Heon ; Jeon, Hye-Seon ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 36~42
The aim of this study was to investigate effects of reaching distance on movement time and trunk kinematics in hemiplegic patients. Eight hemiplegic patients participated in this study. The independent variables were side (sound side vs. affected side) and target distance (70%, 90%, 110%, and 130% of upper limb). The dependent variables were movement time measured by pressure switch and trunk kinematics measured by motion analysis device. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used with Bonferroni post-hoc test. (1) There were significant main effects in side and reaching distance for movement time (p=.01, p=.02). Post-hoc test revealed that there was a significant difference between 110% and 130% of reaching distance (p=.01). (2) There was a significant main effect in side and reaching distance for trunk flexion (p=.01, p=.00). Post-hoc test revealed that there were significant differences in all pair-wise reaching distance comparison. (3) There was a significant side by target distance interaction for trunk rotation (p=.04). There was a significant main effect in target distance (p=.00). Post-hoc test revealed that there were significant differences between 70% and 110%, 70% and 130%, 90% and 110%, 90% and 130% of target distance. It was known that trunk flexion is used more than trunk rotation during reaching task in hemiplegic patients from the findings of this study. It is also recommended that reaching training is performed with limiting trunk movement within 90% of target distance whereas reaching training is performed incorporating with trunk movement beyond 90% of target distance in patients with hemiplegia.
Validation of the Korean Translated Dynamic Gait Index in Community-Dwelling Elderly
Park, So-Yeon ; Hwang, Su-Jin ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 43~52
The Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) was developed and widely used as a clinical tool to assess balance performance during gait. The purpose of this study was to validate the Korean translated DGI using Rasch analysis. A total of 105 community-dwelling elderly was participated in this study (age range = 65~95 years; mean = 78.0 years). The translated DGI showed sound item psychometric properties, and the 8 items were arranged in order of difficulty for the total participants. The most difficult item was 'Steps' and the easiest item was 'Level surface'. Also, each of the original 4 rating scale categories satisfied the Linacre's essential criteria suggestions for optimal rating scale category effectiveness. Although, thirty eight person (36.2%) showed the maximal high score, but the most of them was no history of fall in the preceding year. For subjects who has falling history, all of the person's ability was arranged within the item's difficulty. The 8-item Korean translated DGI can be used to measure gain in elderly person with balance disorders without compromising important clinical measurement characteristics in Korea.
Work-Related Musculoskeletal Pain and Job Stress in Physical Therapists
Yong, Joon-Hyoung ; Yi, Chung-Hwi ; Kwon, Oh-Yun ; Jeon, Hye-Seon ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 53~61
This study investigated the relationships between Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), contributing factors, and the occupational stress of physical therapists. Self-reported questionnaires were given to 180 physical therapists in Gangwon Province. Variables examined included the prevalence of pain sites related to WMSDs; pain intensity; pain pattern; and job stress, which is thought to involve the physical environment; job demand; insufficient job control; interpersonal conflict; job insecurity; organizational system; reward system; and occupational culture. Among physical therapists, work-related musculoskeletal pain commonly affected the low back (30.1%), shoulder (29.3%), and wrist (12.2%). The sites of work-related musculoskeletal pain treated medically were the low back (22.8%), shoulder (19.8%), neck (12.7%), and wrist (12.1%). "Repeating the same work constantly" was suggested to be the major cause of the pain. The younger therapists were significantly more likely to feel high job stress due to the physical environment (p<.05), job demand (p<.05), and organizational system (p<.01). Women were more likely to feel greater job stress related to job demand, insufficient job control, the organization system, and job rewards. Men were more likely to feel greater job stress related to job insecurity. Weak positive relationships were observed between work-related musculoskeletal pain and job stress, which is thought to involve the physical environment; job demand; insufficient job control; interpersonal conflict; job insecurity; organizational system; reward system; and occupational culture. Physical therapists appear to be at higher risk of WMSDs because 80.1% of the physical therapists studied experienced work-related musculoskeletal pain. To reduce the risk, we need intervention strategies such as preventive education, ergonomically designed medical equipment, a psychosocial approach to work conditions, improved mechanical conditions related to therapeutic patterns, and an institutional infrastructure with sufficient personnel and scheduling.
Reliability of the Manual Ability Classification System for Children With Cerebral Palsy
Park, Eun-Young ; Lee, Young-Jung ; Kim, Won-Ho ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 62~68
The purposes of this study were to examine inter-rater reliability of the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) by children's age and to identify the correlation between the MACS and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-six children with CP older than two years participated. Children with CP were classified according to the MACS and the GMFCS by two physical therapists. Inter-rater reliability was analyzed using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs). The results showed that the reliability of the MACS for children aged 2~3 years was .88 and for children aged above 4 years was .98 (p<.05). Children with quadriplegia had a higher level of MACS than children with spastic hemiplegia and diplegia. A moderate relationship between the MACS and the GMFCS was found in all children (rater 1, r=.631; rater 2, r=.438). The MACS will be used for classification of children with CP according to the manual abilities. Thus, it offers a reliable method for communicating between therapists about the manual ability of children with CP who are older than 2 years.
Effect of NEES on the Occurrence of c-Fos in the Cerebrum of a Rat With Transient Global Ischemia
Lee, Jung-Sook ; Kim, Sung-Won ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 69~76
Ischemia that causes stroke induces inflammation of brain cells and apoptosis and as a result, it influences much on the functional part of a man. The needle electrode electrical stimulation (NEES) that combines acupuncture of oriental medicine with electric therapy of western medicine relieves inflammation of cells and has effect on regrowth of nerve tissues. This study was conducted to verify the influence of NEES on the occurrence of c-Fos of cerebrum after applying NEES to the meridian point, Zusanli (ST 36) of a rats with induced ischemia. Global ischemia was induced by using ligation method on common carotid artery of male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The ligation was maintained for 5 minutes and then suture was removed for blood reperfusion. After inducing global ischemia, NEES was done to the left and right meridian points of Joksamri of a rat for 30 minutes after 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours. The findings were as follows. 1. In the result of immunohistochemical method, the number of c-Fos immune response cells significantly decreased (P<.05) in NEES group than the control group (GI) that did not get NEES. 2. In the result of western blotting, the occurrence of c-Fos after 24 hours from the inducement of ischemia significantly decreased (P<.05) in NEES group than the control group (GI) that did not get NEES. Therefore, as the effect of NEES was shown highest after 24 hours from the ischemia, it is suspected that NEES would take important role in early treatment after cerebral stroke.
Effects of the Scapular Taping on the Muscle Activity of the Scapula Rotators and Pain in Subjects With Upper Trapezius Pain
Ki, Han-Sang ; Kwon, Oh-Yun ; Yi, Chung-Hwi ; Jeon, Hye-Seon ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 17, issue 1, 2010, Pages 77~85
This study was conducted to find the effects of scapular taping on muscle activities of the scapular rotators and upper trapezius pain in subjects with upper trapezius pain. Fifteen male subjects were recruited from Yonsei University for this study. Muscle activity of upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior was measured using surface electromyography. Visual analog scale was used for measuring upper trapezius pain. The subjects were asked to maintain
shoulder flexion position with holding a 1 kg dumbbell in standing position. Scapular taping was applied over the muscle belly of the upper trapezius and attached parallel with the lower trapezius muscle fibers. For normalization, % maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) was conducted. Paired t-test was applied to compare the muscle activities of scapular rotator and upper trapezius pain before and after applying the scapular taping. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius muscle and serratus anterior decreased significantly after tape application (p<.05). However, no significant difference was observed in lower trapezius muscle. The level of pain in the upper trapezius muscle significantly decreased after tape application (p<.05). The results of this study suggest that scapular taping can be used an additional therapy for reducing muscle activity of upper trapezius, serratus anterior and upper trapezius pain during shoulder flexion in patient with upper trapezius pain.