Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Physical Therapy Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Nov 2011
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 18, Issue 2 - May 2011
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Influence of Internal and External Stabilization Methods During Prone Hip Extension on the Selective Activation of the Gluteus Maximus
Noh, Kyung-Hee ; Moon, Se-Na ; Lee, Dong-Kyu ; Yoon, Ji-Yeon ; Kim, Tae-Ho ; Oh, Jae-Seop ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 18, issue 3, 2011, Pages 1~7
The effects of an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) using a pressure bio-feedback unit (PBFU) were compared to the effects of a pelvic belt (PB) on the muscle activities of the hip and back extensor muscles during hip extension in the prone position. Fifteen healthy male participants all performed prone hip extensions under three conditions: 1) preferred hip extension (PHE), 2) performing an ADIM, and 3) using a PB. The muscle activities of the erector spinae, the gluteus maximus, and the medial hamstring on the right side were recorded by surface electromyography. The muscle activity of the erector spinae was significantly lower while performing an ADIM during prone hip extension than during PHE or with a PB (p<.05). Gluteus maximus muscle activity was significantly higher while performing an ADIM (p<.05). No significant difference was found for the medial hamstring muscle among the three conditions (p>.05). We concluded that the internal stabilization of the pelvis and lumbar spine afforded by the ADIM using a PBFU could be more effective than the external stabilization provided by a PB in terms of increasing selectively gluteus maximus activation during prone hip extension.
Comparison of Abdominal Muscle Thickness Between the Nonparetic and Paretic Side During Quiet Breathing in Patients With Chronic Stroke
Lee, Young-Jung ; Lee, Gyu-Wan ; Yi, Chung-Hwi ; Cynn, Heon-Seock ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 18, issue 3, 2011, Pages 8~15
Abdominal muscle plays a crucial role in postural control and respiration control. However, thickness of abdominal muscle in the paretic side of a hemiplegic patient has not been reported in previous studies. The purpose of this research was to compare lateral abdominal muscle thickness between the nonparetic and paretic side in patients with chronic stroke using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging. Twenty two patients with chronic stroke participated in this study. Absolute thickness of transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) was measured at the end of inspiration and expiration during quiet breathing, and relative thickness was calculated (thickness of each muscle as a percentage of total muscle thickness). Ultrasound imaging was recorded three times and the average value was determined for statistical analysis. Differences in absolute and relative lateral abdominal muscle thickness between the nonparetic and paretic side were assessed with paired t-tests. Absolute muscle thickness of the paretic side TrA was thinner than that of the nonparetic side at the end of inspiration and expiration during quiet breathing. Relative muscle thickness of the paretic side TrA was thinner than the paretic side only at the end of expiration during quiet breathing (p>.05). Therefore, it is necessary to strength TrA in patients with chronic stroke during physical therapy intervention. Further study is needed whether physical therapy intervension will induce TrA thickness in patients with chronic stroke in prospective study design.
An Analysis of Factors Affecting Vertical and Horizontal Obstacle Crossing in Independently Ambulatory Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy
Lee, Su-Jin ; Oh, Duck-Won ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 18, issue 3, 2011, Pages 16~25
This study aimed to evaluate factors related to the ability of ambulatory patients with cerebral palsy (CP) to walk over vertical and horizontal obstacles. Twenty patients with spastic CP who were able to walk independently for at least 10 m with or without walking devices were recruited for the study. Participants were required to walk over small obstacles (1, 4, and 8 cm in height or width; total of 6 conditions). A 'fail' was recorded when either the lower limbs or the walking device contacted the obstacle. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the effects of age, sex, walking devices, eyeglasses, subtype (hemiplegia or diplegia), ankle foot orthoses, functional level, and score of body mass index on the ability of obstacle crossing. Fifteen participants (75%) failed to adequately clear the foot or walking device over obstacles in at least 1 condition. The chance of failure in crossing vertical obstacle was affected by the use of ankle foot orthoses, eyeglasses, gender, and CP subtype (p<.05). The failure rate crossing horizontal obstacle was affected by CP subtype. These findings suggest that rehabilitation procedures should (1) consider the clinical characteristics of patients in order to prepare them to be more independent while performing daily activities, and (2) incorporate environmental conditions that patients encounter at home and in the community.
Effect of Sagittal Pelvic Tilt on Kinematic Changes of Hip and Knee Joint During Sit-to-Stand
Lim, In-Hyuk ; Choi, Bo-Ram ; Kim, Hyun-Sook ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 18, issue 3, 2011, Pages 26~37
Although there have been various studies related to the body's movement from a sitting to a standing position (sit-to-stand task), there is limited information on the kinematic changes on the frontal and transverse planes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain how pelvic tilt affects kinematic changes in the frontal and transverse planes in the hip and knee joints during a sit-to-stand task. For this study, 33 healthy participants (13 female) were recruited. Each participant rose from a sitting to a standing posture at his or her preferred speed for each of three different pelvic tilt trials (anterior, posterior, and neutral), and the measured angles were analyzed using a 3-D motion analysis system. A one-way repeated measure analysis of variance was performed with Bonferroni's post hoc test. In addition, an independent t-test was carried out to determine the sex differences in hip and knee joint kinematic changes during the sit-to-stand tasks. The results were as follows: 1) The hip and knee joint angle in the frontal and transverse planes showed a significant difference between the different pelvic tilt postures during sitting in the pre-buttock lift-off phase (pre-LO) (p<.05). Compared to the posterior pelvic tilt posture, the anterior pelvic tilt posture involved significantly greater hip joint adduction and internal rotation, knee joint adduction, and reduced internal rotation of the knee joint. 2) Sex differences were found with significant differences for males in the initial and maximal angles in the frontal plane of the hip and knee joint (p<.05). Females had a significantly smaller initial abduction angle of the hip joint and a significantly greater maximal angle of the hip adduction joint. These results suggest that selecting a sit-to-stand exercise for pelvic tilt posture should be considered to control abnormal movement in the lower extremities.
Muscle Strengthening Effects of Exercise Programs for Preventing Falls Among the Elderly in Korea: A Meta-Analysis
Park, So-Yeon ; Shin, In-Soo ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 18, issue 3, 2011, Pages 38~48
The aim of the study was to identify which fall-prevention program offered in community settings in Korea is the most effective in strengthening muscles. Muscle weakness is one of the major risk factors causing falls among the elderly. Randomized controlled trials and clinical controlled trials published between 1996 and February 2011 were included in this study. Seventeen of the 69 identified studies met the study's criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The overall effect size of the program was .822 (95% confidence interval= .717~.927). The general strengthening exercise (1.608), dance sports training (1.538), Thera-band exercise for lower extremities (1.517), Seniorobic exercise (1.146), gait training (.959), balance training (.909), gradual resistive exercise (.888), and multifactorial fall prevention (.842) programs all show positive effects on muscle strengthening. Subgroup analyses found that more relative effects are seen in programs offered to the more elderly. In this study, the effect of increasing muscle strength on the prevention of falls can only be indirectly suggested; there are few available studies that report the frequency or history of falls in Korea. Further studies are needed to examine the direct effect of fall prevention exercise programs among the elderly.
Effects of 4 Weeks Bridging Stabilization Exercise Using Swiss Ball and Whole Body Vibration on Balance and Gait Function in Elderly Women
Kim, Tack-Hoon ; Choi, Houng-Sik ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 18, issue 3, 2011, Pages 49~58
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of bridging stabilization exercise on balance ability and gait performance in elderly women. The subjects of this study were thirty-one elderly women over 65 years old in HongSung-Gun Senior Citizen Welfare Hall. The subjects were randomly assigned into one of three groups (trunk stabilization exercise on the mat, whole body vibration, and Swiss ball) and participated in each exercise program three times a week for 4 weeks. Each exercise began in the bridging position. The dynamic balance and gait were measured by limit of stability area using force plate, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and Timed Up and Go Test (TUG). The results were as follows: 1) The limit of stability in three groups increased significantly in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral lean after 4-weeks intervention (p<.05). 2) There were no significant differences in the limit of stability among three groups after 4-weeks intervention (p>.05). 3) The BBS and TUG in three groups increased significantly after 4-weeks intervention (p<.05). 4) There were significant differences among three groups in BBS. Post-hoc test showed that Swiss ball exercise group was significantly higher than the mat and whole body vibration groups. 5) There were no significant differences TUG among three groups after 4-weeks intervention (p>.05). In conclusion, this study suggested that 4 weeks of the bridging stabilization exercises were effective on balance and gait in all three groups. Particularly Swiss ball exercise group showed higher improvement than two other exercise groups (mat, whole body vibration group).
The Effects of Task Difficulty Controlled by Surface Condition During Bridging Exercise on Relative Multifidus Activation Ratio
Song, Eun-Ju ; Choi, Jong-Duk ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 18, issue 3, 2011, Pages 59~66
The purpose of this study is to examine the activity ratios of global trunk muscles and local trunk muscles in relation to adjustments in the level of task difficulty while performing stability exercises in easily applied bridging lumbar stabilization exercise. Twenty healthy subjects performed bridging lumbar stabilization exercise while the level of task difficulty was plate was used in the same posture for all the exercises. EMG was used to examine the activity ratios of the global muscles and multifidus in relation to the level of task difficulty. Moreover, the activity ratios of the multifidus muscle, the erector spinae and the gluteus maximus muscle were measured. A one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used, and a Bonferroni correction was conducted (
=.05). When the bridging lumbar stabilization exercise were performed at different difficulty levels, the activity of the multifidus muscle, which is a local muscle, was high in all three exercises. Also, compared to low intensity and intermediate intensity exercises, high intensity exercises showed more significant differences (
=.05). Among all the muscles, the multifidus showed the highest activity at intermediate intensity. Based on these results, we suggest that in the case of bridging lumbar stabilization exercise, low intensity or intermediate intensity exercises are more suitable and efficient for local muscle stabilization.
Agreement of Manual Muscle Testing and Test-Retest Reliability of Hand Held Dynamometer for the Posterior Gluteus Medius Muscle for Patients With Low Back Pain
Park, Kyue-Nam ; Kim, Hyun-Sook ; Choi, Houng-Sik ; Lee, Won-Hwee ; Ha, Sung-Min ; Kim, Su-Jung ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 18, issue 3, 2011, Pages 67~75
The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement of manual muscle testing (MMT) and test-retest reliability of a hand held dynamometer for the posterior gluteus medius muscle, with and without lumbar stabilization, using a pressure biofeedback unit for patients with low back pain. The pressure biofeedback unit was used to minimize the substitute motion of the lumbopelvic region during hip abduction in patients lying on their side. Fifteen patients with low back pain participated in this study. A tester determined the MMT grades of the posterior gluteus medius with and without the pressure biofeedback unit. Active hip abduction range of motion with an inclinometer and the strength of their posterior gluteus medius using a hand held dynamometer were measured with and without the pressure biofeedback unit in the MMT position. The agreement of the grade of muscle strength in the MMT, and intra-rater reliability of both the active hip abduction range of motion and the strength of posterior gluteus medius were analyzed using the weighted kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. The agreement of MMT with the pressure biofeedback unit (weighted kappa=.92) was higher than the MMT (weighted kappa=.34)(p<.05). The inclinometer with pressure biofeedback unit measurement of the active hip abduction range of motion had an excellent intra-rater reliability (ICC=.90). Also, the hand held dynamometer with pressure biofeedback unit measure of strength of the posterior gluteus medius had a good intra-rater reliability (ICC=.85). Therefore, the test for muscle strength with pressure biofeedback unit will be a reliable method for the determination of the MMT grades or amount of posterior gluteus medius muscle strength and the measurement of the range of motion for hip abduction in patients with low back pain.
Comparison of the Relationship Between Impairment, Disability and Psychological Factors According to the Difference of Duration of Low Back Pain
Won, Jong-Im ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 18, issue 3, 2011, Pages 76~84
The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between pain intensity, physical impairments, disability, and psychological factors according to the difference in duration of low back pain. This study was a cross-sectional survey of 102 participants with low back pain, divided into two groups equal in number: The first group consisted of patients with acute and subacute low back pain, while the second group consisted of patients suffering from chronic low back pain. The results showed that gender, age, pain intensity, physical impairment, disability and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs (FABs) for work activities were not significantly different between two groups. FABs for physical activities of the first group were significantly more prevalent than in the second group. More than moderate correlations were found between pain intensity, physical impairment, and disability in the first group. Less than moderate correlations were found between pain intensity, physical impairment, disability, FABs, and depression in the second group. These findings suggest that we must consider psychological factors in the treatment of patients with chronic low back pain. Regression analyses revealed that pain intensity and FABs for work activities significantly contributed to the prediction of disability in the first group. Also, pain intensity and FABs for physical activities significantly contributed to the prediction of disability in the second group. Pain intensity was most important predictor of disability in two groups.
The Reliability and Validity of the Passive Lumbar Extension Test and the Prone Instability Test
Sa, Jae-Min ; Kim, Sun-Yeop ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 18, issue 3, 2011, Pages 85~93
The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of the passive lumbar extension (PLE) test and prone instability test (PIT). Thirty-three subjects (14 males, 19 females) with lower back pain enrolled in the study and the subjects were divided into 2 groups (positive and negative instability groups) on the basis of radiographies of flexion and extension. Reliability was determined by the kappa coefficient and validity was examined using calculated sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio. The results showed that the reliability of the PLE test was higher than the PIT (intra-rater reliability: k=.86 and k=.81, interrater reliability: k=.65 and k=.62) and the validity of the PLE test was also higher than the PIT (sensitivity: 91% and 62%, specificity: 95% and 85% positive likelihood ratio: 20.00 and 4.10, negative likelihood ratio: .10 and .45). In conclusion, we think that the PLE test was a more reliable and valid method for lumbar instability than the PIT.
A Comparison of Three Low Back Disability Questionnaires With Rasch Analysis
Kim, Gyoung-Mo ; Park, So-Yeon ; Yi, Chung-Hwi ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 18, issue 3, 2011, Pages 94~102
The purpose of this study was to review existing assessment tools for patients with low back pain and improve them through combination. A total of 314 patients with low back pain participated. Their condition was assessed using the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ), the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QBPD), and the Back Pain Functional Scale (BPFS). Rasch analysis was applied to identify inappropriate items, item difficulties, and the separation index. In this study, the 'sex life' item of the ODQ (10 items) and the 'sleeping' item of the BPFS (12 items) showed misfit statistics, whereas all items of the QBPD (20 items) were appropriate. After combining the ODQ, QBPD and BPFS, Rasch analysis was applied. The 'pain intensity', and the 'sex life' item of the ODQ and the 'throw a ball' item of QBPD showed misfit statistics. These 3 items were retained for further analysis. The remaining 42 combined ODQ-QBPD-BPFS items were arranged according to difficulty. For all subjects, the most difficult item was 'pain intensity', whereas the easiest was 'take food out of the refrigerator'. As the separation index of 42 combined ODQ-QBPD-BPFS was higher than that of the three questionnaires separately, difficulty of items varied with some need for rearrangement. The results of this study confirmed the possibility and need for a new back pain disability assessment tool, and produced one. Further study is needed to refine the questionnaire in consideration of psychosocial and occupational factors.