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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Physical Therapy Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Nov 2014
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 21, Issue 2 - May 2014
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
EMG Activity of Abdominal Muscles During Lumbopelvic Stabilization Exercises
Lee, Gyu-Wan ; Yoon, Tae-Lim ; Kim, Ki-Song ; Lee, Ji-Hyun ; Yi, Chung-Hwi ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2014, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2014.21.2.001
Lumbopelvic stabilization exercise has become the most popular treatment method in lumbar rehabilitation since its effectiveness was shown in some aspects of pain and disability. The abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) has been extensively implemented to promote lumbopelvic stability. However, performing ADIM correctly is difficult even for healthy subjects, and it is time consuming to train people in ADIM. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare abdominal muscle [rectus abdominalis (RA), external oblique (EO), and transverse abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO)] activity during lumbopelvic stabilization exercises (ADIM only, ADIM with a ball, maximum exhalation only, and maximum exhalation with a ball) performed in a supine position with feet against a wall. Fifteen healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Surface electromyography was used to measure abdominal muscle activity during lumbopelvic stabilization exercises. A one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to determine the statistical significance of RA, EO, and TrA/IO muscle activity during four lumbopelvic stabilization exercises. Both-side TrA/IO muscle activity was significantly greater with maximum exhalation with a ball than with ADIM only or ADIM with a ball (p<.008). The results of this study suggest that maximum exhalation with a ball can be used as an effective lumbopelvic stabilization exercise to increase TrA/IO muscle activity in healthy subjects.
Effect of Hip Joint Mobilization on Hip Mobility, Balance and Gait With Stroke Patients
Kim, Young-Hoon ; Jang, Hyun-Jeong ; Kim, Suhn-Yeop ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2014, Pages 8~17
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2014.21.2.008
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hip joint mobilization (HJM) on walking ability, balance ability, and the joint range of motion in stroke patients to minimize the problems of the musculoskeletal system in patients with central nervous system diseases. All volunteers were randomly assigned to the HJM group (
) and the general neurodevelopment therapy (NDT) group (
). The HJM procedure involved applying Maitland mobilization techniques (distraction, lateral gliding, inferior gliding, and anterior gliding) by grade 3 to both hip joint. The mobilization process included mobilization and NDT for 15 min/day, 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The outcome measures were evaluated, including the hip joint passive range of motion (ROM) test and femur head anterior glide test (FHAG) using prone figure four test, dynamic and static balance abilities [timed up and go (TUG) test and center of pressure (COP) analysis], and walking ability [10-meter walking test (10MWT) and 6-min walking test (6MWT)]. Both the groups showed significant post-training differences in the hip joint ROM (FHAG and degree of hip extension) and 10MWT. The post-training improvements in the TUG test were significantly greater in patients of the HJM group than in the NDT group; however, there were no post-training improvements in COP in both groups. Patients in the HJM group showed post-training improvement in the 6MWT; however, statistically significant differences were not observed. Patients in the NDT group showed post-training improvements in the 6MWT. These results suggest that HJM improves hip joint ROM, dynamic balance ability, and walking speed in stroke patients. However, further studies are required to evaluate the long-term therapeutic efficacy of HJM in stroke patients.
Effects of Dual-Task Training on Balance and Gait Performance in Patients With Stroke
Jung, Se-Ra ; Won, Jong-Im ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2014, Pages 18~27
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2014.21.2.018
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of dual-task training (cognitive and exercise tasks) on the balance and gait performance of chronic stroke patients. Eighteen subjects with chronic stroke were divided equally into two groups, an experimental group and a control group. Subjects in both groups participated in an exercise program, performing the same tasks, for 45 minutes per day, three times per week for four weeks. The experimental group also performed additional cognitive task. The experimental group showed a more significant improvement than the control group on the Berg Balance Scale, the Timed Up and Go Test, the Korean Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale, and the Functional Gait Assessment (p<.05). The cognitive task error rates in the final week were significantly less than in the first week in the experimental group (p<.01). These results suggest that dual-task training for chronic stroke patients is effective in improving balance, gait, and cognitive abilities.
Postural Strategy by the Difference of Shoe Heel Height During Quiet Standing on an Unstable Surface
Sagong, Woo-Won ; An, Duk-Hyun ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2014, Pages 28~36
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2014.21.2.028
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trunk and the lower limb muscles during quiet standing on an unstable surface while wearing low-heeled shoes (3 cm), high-heeled shoes (7 cm) and without footwear (0 cm) in 20 young healthy women. The subjects stood on an unstable surface for 30 seconds. We examined the differences in the EMG data of the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and the gastrocnemius medialis muscle. A one-way repeated analysis of variance was used to compare the effects of shoe heel height on the EMG activity with the level of significance set at
. The EMG activity of the erector spinae and the rectus femoris were significantly increased (p<.05) in the subjects who wore elevated heel height, while the tibialis anterior and the gastrocnemius medialis were significantly decreased (p<.05). However, the rectus abdominis and the biceps femoris exhibited no significant difference among the three conditions. The above results indicate that wearing high-heeled shoes may change the postural strategy. The findings of this study suggest that excessive heel height could contribute to an increased fall risk during quiet standing.
A Comparison of Assessment Tools for Prediction of Falls in Patients With Stroke
Won, Jong-Im ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2014, Pages 37~47
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2014.21.2.037
Falls are common after stroke and most frequently related to loss of balance while walking. Consequently, preventing falls is one of the goals of acute, rehabilitative, and chronic stroke care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of falls and to determine how well the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES), Timed Up and Go test (TUG), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) could distinguish between fallers and non-fallers among stroke patients during inpatient rehabilitation. One hundred and fifteen participants with at least 3 months post-stroke and able to walk at least 3 m with or without a mono cane participated in this study. Fifty-four (47%) participants reported falling, and 15 (27.8%) had a recurrent fall. Logistic regression analysis for predicting falls showed that left hemiplegia [odds ratio (OR)=4.68] and fear of falling (OR=5.99) were strong risk factors for falls. Fallers performed worse than non-fallers on the FES, TUG, and BBS (p<.05, p<.01, respectively). In the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, the TUG demonstrated the best discriminating ability among the three assessment tools. The cut-off score was 22 seconds on the TUG for discriminating fallers from non-fallers (sensitivity=88.9%, specificity=45.9%) and 27 seconds for discriminating recurrent fallers from single fallers and non-fallers (sensitivity=71.4%, specificity=40.2%). Results suggest that there is a need for providing fall prevention and injury minimization programs for stroke patients who record over 22 seconds on the TUG.
Effect of Craniocervical Flexion on Muscle Activities of Scapula Upward Rotator Muscle During Push-Up Plus Exercise in Subject With Winging of Scapula
Song, Si-Jeong ; Lim, One-Bin ; Kim, Jeong-Ah ; Yong, Joon-Hyoung ; Cynn, Heon-Seock ; Yi, Chung-Hwi ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2014, Pages 48~56
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2014.21.2.048
The aim of this study to investigate the effects of craniocervical flexion on muscle activities of scapular upward rotators during push-up plus exercise in subjects with winging scapula. Eighteen males with scapular winging were recruited, and each subject performed knee push-up plus and other exercises, in two conditions (craniocervical flexion vs. natural head positions). A surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper trapezius (UT), serratus anterior (SA), and lower trapezius (LT) muscle activity. A paired t-test was used to determine the statistical significance between the different condition with/without applying of craniocervical flexion. UT EMG activity significantly decreased and SA EMG activity significantly increased during knee push-up plus involving the craniocervical flexion compared to the natural head position. However, no significant differences (p>.05) were found in the activity of the LT muscle. The UT/SA ratios with and without craniocervical flexion showed a significant difference (p<.05). These results showed that the knee push-up plus other exercises performed with craniocervical flexion could strengthen the serratus anterior muscle and minimize the activity of the UT muscle.
Comparison of the Duration of Maintained Calf Muscle Flexibility After Static Stretching, Eccentric Training on Stable Surface, and Eccentric Training on Unstable Surfaces in Young Adults With Calf Muscle Tightness
Jang, Hee-Jin ; Kim, Suhn-Yeop ; Jang, Hyun-Jeong ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2014, Pages 57~66
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2014.21.2.057
The objective of this study was to determine the duration of maintained calf muscle flexibility gained in young adults with calf muscle tightness, as measured by increases in ankle active and passive dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM) after three stretching interventions. Twenty subjects (5 men and 15 women) with calf muscle tightness received the following three stretching interventions in one leg (assigned at random): static stretching (SS), eccentric training on stable surface (ETS), and eccentric training on unstable surfaces (ETU). The subjects received all three interventions to the same leg, applied in a random order. Each intervention had a break of at least 24 h in-between, in order to minimize any carryover effect. Each intervention used two types of stretching: with the calf muscle stretched and both knees straight, and with the knee slightly bent in order to maximize the activation of the soleus muscle. All three interventions were performed for 200 seconds. We measured the duration of maintained calf muscle flexibility through active and passive ankle DFROM before intervention, immediately after intervention (time 0), and then 3, 6, 9, 15, and 30 min after intervention. We found a difference in the duration of maintained calf muscle flexibility between the three interventions. In the ETS and ETU interventions, a significant improvement in calf muscle flexibility, both ankle active and passive dorsiflexion ranges of motion (ADFROM and PDFROM), was maintained for 30 min. In the SS intervention, however, ADFROM before 9 min and PDFROM before 6 min were statistically different from the baseline. Our results suggest that ETS and ETU may be more effective than SS for maintaining calf muscle flexibility in young adults.
Comparison of Muscle Activity Ratio of Upper Trapezius to Serratus Anterior During Shoulder Elevation Between Subjects With and Without Pain Experienced in Upper Trapezius
Ahn, Sun-Hee ; Kwon, Oh-Yun ; Choung, Sung-Dae ; Kim, Si-Hyun ; Jeon, In-Cheol ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2014, Pages 67~73
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2014.21.2.067
The aim of this study was to compare the activity of the upper trapezius (UT) and serratus anterior (SA) and ratio of UT to SA during shoulder elevations. Ten subjects with UT pain (UTP) and 13 subjects without UTP participated in this study. Subjects with a UTP of over five in a pain intensity visual analogue scale (0-10 ㎝) for more than 2 months and latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the UT muscle were included in the UTP group. Electromyography (EMG) data of UT and SA at 1st and 10th elevations were analyzed. Two-way repeated analyses of variance were used to compare the EMG activity of UT and SA and the ratio of UT to SA during shoulder elevations between groups with and without UTP. There was a significant increase in UT/SA ratio in the group with UTP compared to the group without UTP (p=.01). The activity of UT and SA measured at the 10th elevation was significantly greater than that in the first elevation (p<.05). The activity of SA was significantly greater in the group without UTP than the group with UTP (p=.03). However, there was no significant difference between groups with and without UTP in terms of UT activity (p=.28). These results indicate that UTP may have relevance to the increased muscle activity ratio of UT to SA during shoulder elevations.
Keyform Analysis of Rasch Measurement Accessible to Clinicians in Rehabilitation Clinics
Choi, Bong-Sam ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 21, issue 2, 2014, Pages 74~81
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2014.21.2.074
The versions of the Oswestry disability questionnaire (ODQ) is regarded as one of the most extensively used condition-specific instruments measuring disability resulting from low back pain. It has been shown to have adequate psychometrics, reliability, validity, and responsiveness as a whole, yet the summated total score of the instrument often provide little information to rehabilitation clinicians. A keyform analysis based on Rasch measurement model is an innovative way of illustrating the specific test items that an individual may or may not perform. By applying the keyform of the Rasch measurement model to the ODQ, rehabilitation clinicians may able to select more challenging ODQ items matching an individual's ability and document them as attainable treatment goals. The results demonstrated how a keyform analysis assist to setting possible goals for the treatment of individuals with low back pain. Forty-two individuals with low back pain were recruited from rehabilitation clinics in Gainesville, Florida. A series of Rasch analyses on the 10 items of the ODQ were performed using Winsteps software. The performance of two individuals on those 10 items was illustrated on the keyform. The keyform analysis of the Rasch measurement model may be translated into a useful tool for making clinical judgements.