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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Physical Therapy Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Nov 2015
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 22, Issue 2 - May 2015
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
The Effect of Thoracic Joint Mobilization on Pain, Proprioception and Static Balance in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain
Yang, Jin-mo ; Kim, Suhn-yeop ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2015.22.3.001
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lumbar stabilization training and additional thoracic mobilization on pain, proprioception and static balance in patients with chronic low back pain. The subjects of this study were 48 chronic low back pain patients who were randomly allocated to an experimental group 1 (
, lumbar stabilization and thoracic mobilization, thoracic hypomobility), experimental group 2 (
, lumbar stabilization and thoracic mobilization, thoracic normal mobility), and a control group (
, lumbar stabilization, thoracic hypomobility) after a thoracic mobility test. Both experimental groups underwent lumbar stabilization training and additional thoracic mobilization. The control group underwent only lumbar stabilization training. The intervention was performed 3 times per week, 30 minutes each time, for a total of 6 weeks. Thoraco-lumbar joint reposition error was measured using an electrogoniometer and static balance ability was measured using the Tetrax posture analysis system. Subjects' pain level was measured using a 100 mm visual analogue scale. Statistical analyses were performed using a one-way analysis of variance and a paired t-test. Post-hoc testing was carried out with a Bonferroni test. The pain level was significantly lower in both experimental groups compared to the control group. Both experimental groups showed significant reductions in joint reposition error angle (flexion, extension, and side bending) compared to the control group. The static balance level was significantly lower in both experimental groups than in the control group. In summary, lumbar stabilization exercises and additional thoracic mobilization significantly improved the pain level, proprioception, and static balance in patients with chronic low back pain.
Study of Effects on Taping of Knee Joint for Patellofemoral Compressive Force During Stair Descent in Elderly Women
Moon, Gon-sung ; Kim, Tack-hoon ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 12~22
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2015.22.3.012
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of taping on knee joint for patellofemoral compressive force (PCF) during stair descent for elderly women. Ten healthy elderly women voluntarily participated in this study. A three-dimensional motion analysis system and force plates were used to analyze the movements of the joints for the lower extremities. The results were as follows: There were no significant differences for the maximum PCF, maximum quadriceps contraction force and maximum knee extension moment (p>.05) but, there was a pattern decreasing all values with the taping during stair descent. There were significant differences for the knee and ankle angle on the event of maximum PCF (p<.05) and there was a pattern decreasing all values with the taping during stair descent. Therefore, taping on the knee would be effective to relieve the pain like patellofemoral pain syndrome in the knee joint.
The Effect of Mechanical Traction on Pain and Physical Function in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis
Lee, Nam-yong ; Kwon, Chun-suk ; Kim, Suhn-yeop ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 23~32
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2015.22.3.023
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of mechanical traction applied to the knee joint on pain, knee range of motion (ROM), timed up and go (TUG) and Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) of Kellgren-Lawrence radiological rating scale II or III. Twenty three patients participated in the experiment for a period of four weeks. After baseline assessment, the patients with KOA were randomized into two groups: the traction group (
), which received traction with general physical therapy; and the control group (
), which received general physical therapy only on unilateral knee joints. Patients received interventions once a day, three times a week, for four weeks. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze the change of dependent variances within the group during pre and post intervention. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the change of dependent variances as TUG and passive ROM between the two groups. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the change of dependent variances as numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) and WOMAC score between the two groups. In Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the traction group improved significantly with regard to NPRS (p<.01), passive knee flexion ROM (p<.01), passive knee extension (p<.05), TUG (p<.01) and WOMAC scores (p<.01) after intervention for four weeks, but not for the control group. In the Mann-Whitney U test and analysis of covariance, no significant difference was seen among all the dependent variances after intervention for four weeks between the two groups. These outcomes suggest that further studies should be carried out to determine the effects of mechanical traction prior to using it for the treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis.
The Effects of Multi Joint-Joint Position Sense Training Using Functional Task on Joint Position Sense, Balance, Walking Ability in Patients With Post-Stroke Hemiplegia
Ko, Kyoung-hee ; Choi, Jong-duk ; Kim, Mi-sun ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 33~40
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2015.22.3.033
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of multi joint-joint position sense (MJ-JPS) training on joint position sense, balance, and gait ability in stroke patients. A total of 18 stroke patients participated in the study. The subjects were allocated randomly into two groups: an experimental group and a control group. Participants in the experimental group received MJ-JPS training (10 min) and conventional treatment (20 min), but participants in the control group only received conventional treatment (30 min). Both groups received training for five times per week for six weeks. MJ-JPS is a training method used to increase proprioception in the lower extremities; as such, it is used, to position the lower extremities in a given space. MJ-JPS measurement was captured via video using a Image J program to calculate the error distance. Balance ability was measured using Timed Up and Go (TUG) and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Gait ability was measured with a 10 m walking test (10MWT) and by climbing four flights of stairs. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to assess normalization. Within-group differences were analyzed using the paired t-test. Between-group differences were analyzed using the independent t-test. The experimental group showed a significant decrease in error distance (MJ-JPS) compared to the control group (p<.05). Both groups showed a significant difference in their BBS and 10MWT results (p<.05). The experimental group showed a significant decrease in their TUG and climbing results (p<.05), but the control group results for those two tasks were not found to be significant (p>.05). There was significant difference in MJ-JPS and by climbing four flights of stairs on variation of pre and post test in between groups (p<.05), but TUG and BBS and 10MWT was no significantly (p>.05). We suggest that the MJ-JPS training proposed in this study be used as an intervention to help improve the functional activity of the lower extremities in stroke patients.
Effects of Various Sensory Stimulation on Surface Area and Velocity of Center of Pressure During One Leg Standing in Healthy Adults
Kim, Ga-hyun ; Tak, Ji-yeon ; Lim, Hak-hyun ; Jeong, Hee-seon ; Woo, Young-keun ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 41~49
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2015.22.3.041
This study aimed to evaluate the surface area and velocity of center of pressure (COP) during one leg standing by stimulating the sensory system in normal adults. Thirty subjects were enrolled in this study. Subjects were asked to stand on one leg during testing conditions. Testing conditions included 6 different sensory stimulations as follows: eyes opened, eyes closed, eyes opened with vibrator, eyes opened with head-mounted display (HMD), eyes opened with vibrator and HMD, and eyes closed with vibrator. During each testing condition, the surface area and velocity of center of pressure were measured. There were significant differences in the mean surface area and the mean velocity of COP between the "eyes opened" condition and the other five testing conditions (p<.05). However, in the comparison between the "eyes closed" and "eyes opened with HMD" conditions, there were no significant differences in the tested parameters. This study shows that closing eyes or keeping eyes opened while using HMD to experience virtual reality has the same effect on one leg standing balance. This finding should be considered in the evaluation or intervention of balance, especially one leg standing balance and balance while standing with a small base of support.
Comparison of Immediate Effects of Pain, Range of Motion and Treatment Satisfaction on Difference of Applying Joint Mobilization Levels in Patients With Acute Mechanical Neck Pain
Lee, Nam-yong ; Kim, Suhn-yeop ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 50~60
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2015.22.3.050
The purpose of this study was to apply the joint mobilization technique to the level of segments with pain and to the level of segments with hypomobility respectively and compare the immediate effects of the joint mobilization technique on the pain, the active cervical range of motion (ROM), and treatment satisfaction of patients with acute mechanical neck pain. After the baseline assessment, forty-two patients were randomized into two groups: a painful group (
) that received joint mobilization at the most painful cervical spine level and a hypomobile group (
) that received joint mobilization at the most hypomobile cervical level. The patients received an intervention that applied unilateral posterior-anterior gliding for 5 minutes and two repetitions of 10 times of active extension motion with distraction. In the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the painful group and the hypomobile group were improved significantly in all pain variables (p<.001), while the painful group was improved significantly in the active cervical flexion (p<.001), extension (p<.001), left side-bending (p<.01), right side-bending (p=.001), left rotation (p<.001), and right rotation (p<.001). The hypomobile group was significantly improved in active cervical flexion (p=.001), extension (p<.001), left side-bending (p<.05), right side-bending (p=.001), left rotation (p=.001), and right rotation (p<.01) after intervention. In the Mann-Whitney U test, there was no significant difference in any of the dependent variables after the intervention between the two groups, but the painful group was slightly superior to the hypomobile group in all variables except for the right lateral flexion ROM and treatment satisfaction. These outcomes suggest that the cervical joint mobilization may be applied to either the level of painful segments or the hypomobile segments for the treatment of patients with acute mechanical neck pain.
Selecting Common Items for Linking the Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire and a Short Form of Self-Reported Activity Measure for Low Back Pain
Choi, Bong-sam ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 61~70
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2015.22.3.061
To develop an effective and efficient measurement system for tracking changes of functional status across two measures, it is essential to integrate information and communicate scores across two measures. The lack of communication between two measures leads to score incompatibility. A potential solution would be the development of a crosswalk table between those measures. Prior to creating a crosswalk table, selecting common items between two measures is critical. By using the Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire (Oswestry) and a short form measuring disability resulting from low back pain, item level statistics as well as differential item functioning (DIF) using the Rasch measurement were investigated. Eighty-two participants with known group validity were recruited. Based on the application of the Rasch measurement model, item difficulties across the two measures were logically and hierarchically ordered. Ceiling effects for both measures were detected, which were not be able to be effectively measured with the two measures. The DIF analysis across the two measures confirmed that five paired items were found to have DIF and five common items were selected for common items. Although five paired items function differently across the Oswestry and the short form, all items of both measures were well targeted study participants. The common items selected by the Rasch measurement model may be effective when creating a crosswalk table between the Oswestry and the short form.
Effects of Different Types of Isometric Hip Contraction on Gluteus Medius and Tensor Fasciae Latae Activity During Squat Exercises
Han, Hae-rim ; Kim, Jeong-ah ; Lim, One-bin ; Cynn, Heon-seock ; Yi, Chung-hwi ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 71~80
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2015.22.3.071
Hip muscle activation and strengthening exercise programs are often used to prevent and treat various lower extremity injuries. Common exercise programs include squat exercises. The purposes of this study were to investigate gluteus medius (GMED) and tensor fasciae latae (TFL) muscle activity, and to assess the GMED/TFL ratio during squat exercises involving different isometric hip contraction conditions. Different types of isometric hip contraction were standard squat without hip contraction, squats with isometric hip adduction, and squats with isometric hip abduction. Twenty (10 males and 10 females) healthy subjects (
years old) were recruited. Subjects performed the squat exercises with the back supported by a wall and knees flexed to
. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure GMED and TFL activity. One-way repeated analysis of variance was used to compare GMED and TFL muscle activity and the GMED/TFL ratio. GMED and TFL EMG activity was significantly higher during squats with isometric hip adduction and abduction compared with the standard squat without hip contraction (p<.05). Between the isometric hip adduction and abduction contraction conditions, only the TFL EMG activity was significantly higher during squats with isometric hip adduction than isometric hip abduction (p<.05). The GMED/TFL ratio was significantly higher during squats with isometric hip adduction than isometric hip abduction (p<.05). Squats with isometric hip adduction and abduction improved GMED and TFL muscle activity. Furthermore, the GMED/TFL ratio was higher during isometric hip adduction than isometric hip abduction. Our data indicate that squat exercises involving isometric hip adduction enhance GMED muscle activity.
Effects of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation Using Music on Gait With Stroke Patients
Oh, Yong-seop ; Kim, Hee-soo ; Woo, Young-keun ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 81~90
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2015.22.3.081
This study aimed to determine the effects of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) using music and a metronome on the gait of stroke patients. 13 female and 15 male volunteers were randomly allocated to two groups: namely a group to receive RAS using music and a metronome group (the experimental group;
) and a group to receive RAS using a metronome only (the control group;
). The affected side was the left side in 15 subjects and the right side in 13 subjects. The mean age of the subjects was 56.6 years, and the mean onset duration of stroke was 8.6 months. Intervention was applied for 30 minutes per session, once a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. To measure the patients' gait improvement, we measured gait velocity, cadence, stride length, double limb support using GAITRite, body center sway angle using an accelerometer, and Timed Up-and-Go test. Functional Gait Assessment were conducted before and after the experiment. The paired t-test was used for comparisons before and after the interventions in each group. Analysis of covariance was used for comparisons between the groups after the interventions. Statistical significance was set at
. Within each of the two groups, significant differences in all of the dependent variables before and after the experiment (p<.05) were observed. However, in the comparison between the two groups, the experimental group showed more significant improvements in all dependent variables than the control group (p<.05). Our results also suggest that in applying RAS in stroke patients, the combination of music and a metronome is more effective than using a metronome alone in improving patients' gait.
Effects of Removable Ankle-Foot Orthosis in Chronic Patients With Hemiplegia During Gait Training: A Pilot Study
Kim, Hyung-geun ; Oh, Yong-seop ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 91~97
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2015.22.3.091
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the removable ankle-foot orthosis (RAFO) which was developed to improve the gait of stroke patients. The subjects of this study were five stroke patients who agreed to participate in this study by signing a written consent form. To verify gait improvement after wearing the orthosis, a Timed Up and Go test and Functional Gait Assessment were performed, and spatiotemporal gait variables such as gait speed, cadence, stride length, double limb support, and the efficient gait test of body sway angle were performed. For every variable, the differences prior to and after wearing the RAFO were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Every gait variable improved significantly after wearing the RAFO compared to prior to wearing it. The pilot study will enhance future efforts to evaluate orthotic function objectively during gait in stroke patients.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Biomarker for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Lim, Woo-taek ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 22, issue 3, 2015, Pages 98~105
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2015.22.3.098
Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary musculoskeletal disorder caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common, and progresses relatively faster than other muscular dystrophies. It is characterized by progressive myofiber degeneration, muscle weakness and ultimately ambulatory loss. Since it is an X-linked recessive inheritance, DMD is mostly expressed in males and rarely expressed or less severe in females. The most effective measurement tool for DMD is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which allows non-invasive examination of longitudinal measurement. It can detect progressive decline of skeletal muscle size by measuring a maximal cross-sectional area of skeletal muscle. Additionally, other techniques in MRI, like
-weighted imaging, assess muscle damage, including inflammation, by detecting changes in
relaxation time. Current MRI techniques even allow quantification of metabolic differences between affected and non-affected muscles in DMD. There is no current cure, but physical therapist can improve their quality of life by maintaining muscle strength and function, especially if treatment (and other forms of medical intervention) begins in the early stages of the disease.