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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Physical Therapy Korea
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Journal DOI :
Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 2 - May 2016
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
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Comparison of the Effects of Task-Oriented Circuit Training and Treadmill Training on Walking Function and Quality of Life in Patients With Post-Stroke Hemiparesis: Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial
Youn, Hye-jin ; Oh, Duck-won ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 23, issue 2, 2016, Pages 1~10
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2016.23.2.001
Background: Many studies regarding task-oriented training have recently demonstrated functional improvement in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. The task-oriented approach is very diverse, and chronic stroke patients must have access to a sustained systematic treatment program to enhance their walking ability. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of the task-oriented circuit training and treadmill training on walking function and quality of life in patients with chronic stroke. Methods: Fourteen patients with chronic stroke volunteered for this study. The subjects were randomly divided into a task-oriented circuit training group and a treadmill training group with 7 patients in each. Each training regimen was performed for 30 min a day and 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Assessment tools included the Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUGT), 10-m Walk Test, 6-min Walk Test (6MWT), and the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS). Results: The change in results of the TUGT, 6MWT, and SIS measured prior to and following the training regimens appeared to be significantly different between the two groups (p<.05). In addition, after the intervention, significant differences were found for all parameters in the task-oriented circuit training group and for the TUGT, 6MWT, and SIS in the treadmill training group (p<.05). Conclusion: The findings suggest that task-related circuit training and treadmill training may be helpful to improve walking function and quality of life of patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. Additionally, a task-related circuit training program may achieve more favorable outcomes than a treadmill program.
Effect of Direction to be Used for the Timed Up and Go Test on Walking Time in Stroke Patients
Lee, Geon ; Cho, Cheol-hoon ; Lim, Kyung-jin ; Lee, Joo-hyun ; Yoon, Gyu-ri ; Woo, Young-keun ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 23, issue 2, 2016, Pages 11~19
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2016.23.2.011
Background: In the stroke patients with the characteristics of hemiplegic gait, turning direction of the affected and unaffected side influences turning time. Therefore, it is important to investigate the walking response to turning directions in stroke patients. Objects: This study aimed to measure the walking time while turning direction in hemiplegic patients depending on balance ability measured by Berg Balance Scale. Methods: A group of forty-five subjects with stroke (Berg Balance Scale score
were twenty-eight, Berg Balance Scale score
were seventeen) were enrolled in this study. Subjects were asked to perform the Timed Up and Go test. Testing indications included two directions for turning in each subject. These indications were for turning toward the affected and unaffected side in stroke patients. The duration of total analysis duration, sit to stand phase, stand to sit phase, mid-turning phase, and end turning phase were recorded. The obtained data were analyzed by using paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test in the group that are below and above 45 points of Berg Balance Scale score. The significance level was set at
. Results: There were significant increase time in the analysis duration and end turning phase duration while subjects were turned the unaffected side in stroke patients that presented a Berg Balance Scale score
(p<.05). However, the comparison between the affected side and the unaffected side in the stroke patients with Berg Balance Scale score
, revealed no significant differences of the measured parameters. Conclusion: This finding should be suggested in the specific definition of turning direction for evaluation with Timed Up and Go test in the Berg Balance Scale score
, and other intervention for hemiplegic patients need to be suggested the direction of turning during walking training program.
Altered Motor Control in Patients With Neck Pain and Prospective Research Work
Lee, Min-young ; Yoon, Bum-chul ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 23, issue 2, 2016, Pages 20~34
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2016.23.2.020
Background: It is necessary to find and develop the effective way of intervention for patients with neck pain, since the neck pain is becoming increasingly common throughout the world. To identify the altered motor control in patient with neck pain would be informative to find and develop the effective way of intervention. Objects: The aim of this study was to review literature regarding the altered motor control in patients with neck pain, measured by using surface electromyography (sEMG), ultrasonography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and to suggest prospective research work on neck pain. Methods: Case-control (neck pain/healthy) studies published between 2004 and 2015 that investigated neck muscle activation, thickness, cross-sectional area, and fat infiltrate were searched in Scopus, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. Twenty-eight articles were included in this study. Results: sEMG, ultrasonography, and fMRI were used complementarily to investigate the altered superficial and deep neck muscle activation, thickness, cross-sectional area, and fat infiltrate in patients with neck pain. They showed the following altered motor control when compared retrospectively with healthy subjects or during specific functional tasks: (1) increased superficial muscle activation, (2) lesser deep muscle thickness, (3) smaller cross-sectional area of the deep muscle, and (4) greater fat infiltrate in deep muscles. In particular, among the women, the office workers showed higher muscle activation of superficial neck muscles during functional tasks, although they did not have neck pain, than those who were not office workers. Conclusion: Studies revealed that patients with neck pain showed an altered motor control when compared with healthy subjects by using various assessment modalities. Understanding this phenomenon would help researchers design an effective intervention for alleviating neck pain or to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. In addition, we recommend that female office workers take measures to care for their necks before developing neck pain.
Validation of the Korean Functional Gait Assessment in Patients With Stroke
Park, So-yeon ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 23, issue 2, 2016, Pages 35~43
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2016.23.2.035
Background: The Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) was developed to measure of gait-related activities. The FGA was translated in Korean but only a few psychometric characteristics had been studied. Objects: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Korean version of FGA scale using Rasch analysis. Methods: The study included 120 patients with stroke (age range=30~83 years; mean
). The FGA and Berg Balance Scale were performed, and were analysed for dimensionality of the scale, item difficulty, scale reliability and separation, and item-person map using Rasch analysis. Results: The 4 rating scale categories of FGA were satisfied with optimal rating scale criteria. The most items of the FGA showed sound item psychometric properties except 2 items ('gait with the horizontal head turns', and 'gait with narrow base of support'), and the 2 misfit items were excluded for all further analyses. The 8 items were arranged in order of difficulty. The most difficult item was 'gait with eyes closed', the middle difficult item was 'gait level surface', and the easiest item was 'gait with vertical head turns.' A person separation reliability was .93 and the person separation index was 3.57. Conclusion: This study suggests that the 8-item Korean FGA are valid measure of assess the gait-related balance performance, and to set the goal of rehabilitation plan in patient with stroke.
A Qualitative Evaluation of Short-Term Intensive Home-Based Rehabilitation Program for Disabilities Through In-Depth Interview: Community-Based Participatory Research Approach
Lee, Min-young ; Kim, Eun-seung ; Yoon, Bum-chul ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 23, issue 2, 2016, Pages 44~56
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2016.23.2.044
Background: The Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach is recognized in the field of health promotion as a way to optimize intervention for promoting health by taking into account specific social, economical, and institutional situations of the community. However, the CBPR approach has not been applied in the field of community-based rehabilitation. Objects: This study was conducted to explore the self-perceived satisfaction of therapists and disabilities on the Short-term Intensive Home-based Rehabilitation (SIHR) program developed using the CBPR approach as well as determine the points that need improvement. Methods: This research was conducted through in-depth interviews. The SIHR program was developed, applied, and evaluated by both the researchers and four therapists on the basis of the CBPR approach. The SIHR program was administered to four disability for 1 hour a day, 2 or 3 times a week, for 8 weeks, and their self-rehabilitation was monitored once a week for 4 weeks. After all intervention periods, in-depth interviews were conducted by using a semi-structured questionnaire for the therapists and disability. Results: The therapists were satisfied with the contents of the SIHR program, such as behavioral change technique and goal-directed training. They were also satisfied with the process of developing the program through a community network. Disabilities were satisfied with the therapists' persuasive and emotionally interactive way of delivering the SIHR program as well as the individually customized rehabilitation training and physical improvement. The short period (8 weeks) of the SIHR program was noted by both therapists and disabilities as the part that needs improvement. Conclusion: The SIHR program developed using the CBPR approach was feasible and satisfying to therapists and disabilities. However, a longer SIHR program should be developed. Community networks could help therapists effectively utilize community resources and thereby provide more rehabilitation program for persons with disability.
Can Suboccipital Release Followed by Cranio-Cervical Flexion Exercise Improve Shoulder Range of Motion, Pain, and Muscle Activity of Scapular Upward Rotators in Subjects With Forward Head Posture?
Kim, Bo-been ; Lee, Ji-hyun ; Jeong, Hyo-jung ; Cynn, Heon-seock ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 23, issue 2, 2016, Pages 57~66
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2016.23.2.057
Background: For the treatment of forward head posture (FHP) and forward shoulder posture, methods for strengthening scapular retractors and deep cervical flexors and stretching pectoralis and upper cervical extensors are generally used. No study has yet assessed whether suboccipital release (SR) followed by cranio-cervical flexion exercise (CCFE) (SR-CCFE) will result in a positive change in the shoulders and neck, showing a "downstream" effect. Objects: The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of SR-CCFE on craniovertebral angle (CVA), shoulder abduction range of motion (ROM), shoulder pain, and muscle activities of upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) and LT/UT and SA/UT muscle activity ratios during maximal shoulder abduction in subjects with FHP. Methods: In total, 19 subjects (7 males, 12 females) with FHP were recruited. The subject performed the fifth phase of CCFE immediately after receiving SR. CVA, shoulder abduction ROM, shoulder pain, muscle activities of UT, LT, and SA, and LT/UT and SA/UT muscle activity ratios during maximal shoulder abduction were measured immediately after SR-CCFE. A paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine the significance of differences in scores between pre- and post-intervention in the same group. Results: The CVA (p<.001) and shoulder abduction ROM (p<.001) were increased significantly post-versus pre-intervention. Shoulder pain was decreased significantly (p<.001), and LT (p<.05) and SA (p<.05) muscle activities were increased significantly post- versus pre-intervention. The LT/UT muscle activity ratio was increased significantly post- versus pre-intervention (p<.05). However, there was no significant change in UT muscle activity and SA/UT muscle activity ratio between pre- and post-intervention (p>.05). Conclusion: SR-CCFE was an effective intervention to improve FHP and induce downstream effect from the neck to the trunk and shoulders in subjects with FHP.
Effects of Lumbar Stabilization Using Pressure Biofeedback Unit During Hip Abduction in Side-Lying in Patients With Low Back Pain
Seo, Young-taek ; Chon, Seung-chul ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 23, issue 2, 2016, Pages 67~74
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2016.23.2.067
Background: Lumbar stabilization (LS) improve the thickness of the quadratus lumborum (QL) muscle and muscle activity of the gluteus medius (GM) muscle during hip abduction in a side-lying position in patients with low back pain (LBP). Objects: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of LS on muscle thickness of QL and muscle activity of GM during hip abduction in side-lying in patients with LBP. Methods: The study included 32 patients with LBP, who were randomly divided into the control group and experimental group, each with 16 patients. All subjects performed
preferred hip abduction (control group) and
hip abduction with LS (experimental group) during side-lying. An ultrasonography and a surface electromyography were used to measure the thickness of the QL muscle, and the muscle activities of the GM muscle respectively. Independent t-test was used to compare the muscle thickness of the QL and the muscle activity of the GM muscle, respectively. Results: Anterio-posterior diameter in the muscle thickness of QL muscle was decreased significantly in hip abduction with LS more than in preferred hip abduction (p<.001), but medio-lateral diameter in the muscle thickness of QL muscle was not significantly different between in preferred hip abduction and in hip abduction with LS (p=.06). The muscle activity of GM was increased significantly in hip abduction with LS more than in preferred hip abduction (p<.001). Conclusion: These findings suggest that hip abduction with LS could be recommended as a hip abduction for LS and a prevention unwanted compensatory pelvic lateral tilting movement.
Effect of Hip Adduction Position on the Vastus Medialis Oblique and Vastus Lateralis During Closed Kinetic Chain Exercise in Sitting Posture
Cha, Yong-su ; Jeon, Hye-seon ; Yi, Chung-hwi ; Kwon, Oh-yun ; Choi, Bo-ram ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 23, issue 2, 2016, Pages 75~83
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2016.23.2.075
Background: Several studies have discussed diverse exercise methods considered to be useful for the selective contraction of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) muscle for the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Some studies have reported that exercise methods, including hip adduction, in closed kinetic chain exercises are more effective in terms of the muscle activation of the VMO and the timing of the muscle's initial contraction. We focused on isometric contraction during a closed kinetic chain exercise with hip adduction. Objects: The purpose of this study was to examine muscle activation in the VMO and the vastus lateralis (VL) and the onset time difference between their initial contractions via closed kinetic chain isometric quadriceps femoris exercises including hip adduction. Methods: In total, 36 healthy subjects adopted two hip positions during isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris in a closed kinetic chain exercise (hip neutral and hip adduction position). Statistical analyses were conducted using a paired t-test (
). Results: Isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris in a closed kinetic chain exercise caused a greater increase in VMO muscle activity in the hip adduction position [
percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC)]than the hip neutral position (
). The onset time difference (VL-VMO) decreased more in the hip adduction position (
) than the hip neutral position (
). Conclusion: We recommend this exercise as a clinically useful therapeutic method for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome due to weakening of the VMO muscle and lateral inclination of the patella.
Comparison of Supraspinatus Muscle Architecture During Three Different Shoulder Strengthening Exercises Using Ultrasonography
Moon, Il-young ; Lim, One-bin ; Cynn, Heon-seock ; Yi, Chung-hwi ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 23, issue 2, 2016, Pages 84~92
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2016.23.2.084
Background: Strengthening the supraspinatus is an important aspect of a rehabilitation program for subacromial impingement and tendinopathy. Many authors recommended empty-can (EC), full-can (FC), and prone full-can (PFC) exercises to strengthen the supraspinatus. However, no ultrasonography study has yet investigated supraspinatus muscle architecture (muscle thickness; MT, pennation angle; PA, fiber bundle length; FBL) in relation to supraspinatus strengthening exercises. Objects: The purpose of this study was to compare the architecture (MT, PA, and FBL) of the supraspinatus muscle during three different types of exercises (EC, FC, and PFC) using diagnostic ultrasound. Methods: Participants performed three different exercises: (A) EC; the arm was maintained at
abduction with full internal rotation in the sitting position, (B) FC; the arm was maintained at
abduction with full external rotation in the sitting position, and (C) PFC; the arm was maintained at
abduction with full external rotation in the prone position. Ultrasonography was used to measure the MT, PA and FBL of the supraspinatus. One-way repeated analysis of variance with Bonferroni's post-hoc test was used to compare between the three exercises and the initial position of each exercise. Results: Compared with each initial position, the FC exercise showed the greatest mean difference in muscle architecture properties and the PFC exercise showed the least mean difference. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the FC exercise position may have an advantage in increasing the amount of contractile tissue or producing muscle power and the PFC exercise position may be useful in a rehabilitation program because it offers the advantage of maintaining the muscle architecture properties.
An Overview of Bootstrapping Method Applicable to Survey Researches in Rehabilitation Science
Choi, Bong-sam ;
Physical Therapy Korea, volume 23, issue 2, 2016, Pages 93~99
DOI : 10.12674/ptk.2016.23.2.093
Background: Parametric statistical procedures are typically conducted under the condition in which a sample distribution is statistically identical with its population. In reality, investigators use inferential statistics to estimate parameters based on the sample drawn because population distributions are unknown. The uncertainty of limited data from the sample such as lack of sample size may be a challenge in most rehabilitation studies. Objects: The purpose of this study is to review the bootstrapping method to overcome shortcomings of limited sample size in rehabilitation studies. Methods: Articles were reviewed. Results: Bootstrapping method is a statistical procedure that permits the iterative re-sampling with replacement from a sample when the population distribution is unknown. This statistical procedure is to enhance the representativeness of the population being studied and to determine estimates of the parameters when sample size are too limited to generalize the study outcome to target population. The bootstrapping method would overcome limitations such as type II error resulting from small sample sizes. An application on a typical data of a study represented how to deal with challenges of estimating a parameter from small sample size and enhance the uncertainty with optimal confidence intervals and levels. Conclusion: Bootstrapping method may be an effective statistical procedure reducing the standard error of population parameters under the condition requiring both acceptable confidence intervals and confidence level (i.e., p=.05).