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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Physuical characteristics of crushed aggregates in Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 1, 1999, Pages 1~11
In the last decade, the supply of natural aggregates has been continuously increased due to the other types of aggregates. In general, aggregates constitute 70-80% of the total volume of concrete, so the quality of aggregates is main factor controlling physical characteristics of concrete. For this reason, physical properties of aggregate according to different rock types were studied. The majority of crushed aggregates is taken out of granite, gneiss, sandstone, andesite, basalt and so forth. The physical properties of these rock types were tested and most of them fell within the acceptable limit on the base of Korean standard regulation. The major lithology of the crushed aggregates is granite and gneiss, both of which are marked for more than 50% of total lithology thpes in Korea. A to the physical properties of granite, the high specific gravity coincides with low porosity, low absorption ratio, while the abrasion and soundness index show, in general, no specific trend. It has been assumed that slight differences of the physical properties of granite aggregates are related with those of the mineral composition, grain size, and so on. In comparison to granite, the physical properties of gneiss have little correlation one after another. This trend is related to different mineral composition, grain size and typical sheet fractures typically prevailing in the texture of gneiss. Spatial pattern of physical properties shows that high specific gravity of granite coincides only with low porosity and absorption ratio in all provinces except Cheolla province, and high specific gravity of gneiss coincides with low porosity and absorption ratio only in Cheolla and Gandwon provinces.
A study on utilizatio of metal-mine tailings for polymer cement mortars
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 1, 1999, Pages 13~18
The tailings stocked at two tailing piles in Sangdong aea have raised collapse hazards and various environmental problems. A trial for effective utilization of tailings as fine aggregates for polymer concrete has been performed along with mineralogical and physical characterization of tailings. The tailings from the Sangdong mine, mainly composed of quartz, orthoclase, amphiboles and muscovite, are alkaline and tailings at the new tailing pile are generally finer in grain size than those at the old tailing pile. In case of using New Tailings as fine aggregates, cement mortar with equivalent amounts of tailings and sands shows the highest compressive strength. Cement mortars containing tailings show lower values of compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength than those not-containing tailings. Mixture of polymers such as SBR and EVA in cement mortars raises strengths of cement mortars effectively, which shows potential possiblity to utilize the tailings in Sangdong area as fine aggregates for polymer concretes.
Lineament analysis in the euiseong area using automatic lineament extraction algorithm
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 1, 1999, Pages 19~31
In this study, we have estimated lineaments in the Euiseong area, Kyungbuk Province, from Landsat TM by applying the algorithm developed by Kim and Won et al. which can effectively reduce the look direction bias associated with the Sun's azimuth angle. Fratures over the study area were also mapped in the field at 57 selected sites to compare them with the results from the satellite image. The trends of lineaments estimated from the Landsat TM images are characterized as
E trends. The spatial distribution of lineaments is also studied using a circular grid, and the results show that the area can be divided into two domains : domain A in which NS~
E direction is dominant, and domain B in which west-north-west direction is prominent. The trends of lineaments can also be classified into seven groups. Among them, only C, D and G trends are found to be dominant based upon Donnelly's nearest neighbor analysis and correlations of lineament desities. In the color composite image produced by overlaying the lineament density map of these C-, D-, and G-trends, G-trend is shown to be developed in the whole study area while the eastern part of the area is dominated by D-trend. C-trend develops extensively over the whole are except the southeastern part. The orientation of fractures measured at 35 points in the field shows major trends of NS~
W, and N80
E~EW, which agree relatively well with the lineaments estimated form the satellite image. The rose diagram analysis fo field data shows that WNW-ESE trending discontinuities are developed in the whole area while discontinuities of NS~
E are develped only in the estern part, which also coincide with the result from the satellite image. The combined results of lineaments from the satellite image and fracture orientation of field data at 22 points including 18 minor faults in Sindong Group imply that the WNW-ESE trend is so prominent that Gumchun and Gaum faults are possibly extended up to the lower Sindong Group in the study area.
Seismic image of a new cretaceous(\ulcorner) sedimentary basin of the southwestern Korean continental shelf
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 1, 1999, Pages 33~41
A new sedimentary basin is reported from the marine multi-channel seismic data which were acquired for the hydrocarbon exploration on the southwestern Korean continental shelf in 1970. Along the southeastern part of Line 1192, the about 60-km-long basin with the thickness of 0.55~1.1 s is observed on the near-trace gather. However, both new and previous 24-fold stack sections fail to show the basin image probably due to its rugged top beneath the shallow water. The boundary contact between the basement with the velocity of about 5200m/s and the basin filling with the velocities of 4300~4700 m/s is unclear. These velocites are calculated from the corresponding shot gathers. Compared with the Haenam Basin, a neighbouring onshore Cretaceous sedimentary basin, we interpret that the new basin includes the volcanics and volcaniclastic sequences deposited in the lacustrine environment. This nonmarine basin was possibly formed as the result of the tectonic movement during the Cretaceous, implying the wide occurrence of the Cretaceous basins over the southern Korean Peninsula as well as its southwestern continental shelf.
A study on the removal of heavy metals from soils using electrokinetic soil processing and ion exchange membrane
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 1, 1999, Pages 43~51
In order to remediate hazardous waste site, a process of electrokinetically purging chemicals from saturated soil is examined by laboratory experiments. Electrokinetic soil remediation is one of the most promising soil decontamination processes that habe igh removal efficiency and time-effectiveness in low-permeability soils such as clay. Being combined with several mechanisms-electromigration, elec troosmosis, diffusion and electrolysis of water, electrokinetic soil processing can remove non-polar organics as well as ionic contaminants. The objectives of this study are; 1) the exploration of the feasibility of electrokinetic soil processing on the removal of heavy metals, 2) the investigation of applicability to the tailing-soils in aban doned mining area, 3) the examination of effects of soil pH and conductivity on the transport phenomena of elements in soils, and 4) the investigation of the applicability of the ionexchange membrance to the efficient collection of heavy metals removed from contaminated soils. With the result of this study, it is suggested that the removal efficiency is significantly influenced by applied voltage & current, type of purging solutions, soil pH, permeability and zeta potentials of soil. Although further study should be needed, it is possible to collect removed heavy metals with ion-exchange membrance in cathode compartment.
Characteristics of roadside soils and effects of pH and Time on their reaching behaviors of Pb, Zn, Cd and Mn
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 1, 1999, Pages 53~62
The possibility of heavy metal pollution by contaminated roadside soils was studied under controlled conditions. The soil samples from roadside and those from a retention pond consisting of settling particles were characterized by the XRD analyses and the sequential extraction experiments. Characterization by sequential extraction, for roadside soil indicates elevate total concentrations of heavy metals. The leaching behavior of the samples under different pH and time conditions were also studied. Differences between both types of samples result mainly from the buffering effect of carbonates, present in roadside soils and lacking from settling particles. Acid leaching of the settling particles is equivalent to the sum of FI+FII+FIII, while the amounts leached from roadside soil are lower probably from kinetic reasons. The buffering effects of carbonates were found to greatly delay the onset of the leaching reactions and the extent of dissolution in most metals except for Ca and Mn. The study of leaching kinetics at pH of 6.5 and 5 showed that Cd and Zn reached the maximum possible concentration within 3 days, while Pb did not show any sign of dissolution at both ph values. The absolute amounts of dissolved Cd and Zn increased by 7 to 9 times by decreasing the pH from 6.5 to 5, indicating slightly acidified rain may result in significant metal dissolution. As deduced from both sequential extraction and leaching experiments, the relative mobility of heavy metals is found to be : Mn=Cd>Zn>>Pb>Fe, in spite of large differences in heavy metal contents and localizations.
Investigation of trace element contamination in steam sediments in the Chungnam coal mine area using geostatistical approach
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 1, 1999, Pages 63~72
In order to examine the contamination levels of trace elements in stream sediments in the Chungnam coal mine area, stream sediment and water samples were collected and analyzed for trace elements. The pH of stream water was neutral or weak-alkaline and the mobility of metal in stream sediments was supposed to be low. From the result of cluster analysis, non-polluted sampling stations can be distinguished from polluted sampling stations influenced by mining activities. The trace element concentrations in sediments from non-polluted zone were considered to be the natural backround concentrations of this area. The trace element concentrations in sediment samples from the mining area were higher than those from non-polluted area, and contaminated area of enriched trace element levels need to be properly managed. From the results of discriminant and regression analyses, concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb AND zN and predicted values of Be, Mo, and Ni in Chungnam coal mine area were found to be lower than those in metal mining areas in Korea.
Investigation on soil contamination and its remediation system in the vicinity of abandoned Au-Ag mine in Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 1, 1999, Pages 73~82
The objectives of this study are to investigate soil contamination in the vicinity of abandoned Au-Ag mine and to apply a remediation technique of liming to tailings. In the study area of the Imcheon Au-Ag mine, soils were sampled in and around the mine the analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry extracted by both 0.1N HCl and aqua regia. Elevated levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations extracted by 0.1N HCl were found in soils taken from tailings site. These high contents directly influenced metal concentrations in soils taken in the vicinity of the site. This is mainly due to clastic movement by wind and effluent of mine waste water. In addition, relatively enriched concentrations of the metals were found in soils extrated by aqua regia due to strong decomposition of the samples compared with 0.1N HCl extration. According to the statistical approach, metal concentrations in soils by 0.1N HCl had a positive correlation with those by aqua regia extraction. Mine waste waters and stream waters were also sampled around the mine in spring and summer and analyzed by AAS for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, and by Ion Chromatography for anions. Like soils developed over tailings, significant levels of metals and sulphates were found in the mine waste waters ranging of 0.2~0.3, 0.5~2.0, 0.2~2.8, 30~50 and 1,240~4,700 mg/l of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and
, respectively. These elevated levels influenced in the stream waters in the vicinity of the tailings site. In seasonal variation of metal and anion contents, relatively high levels were found in waters sampled on summer due to leaching the metals and anions from tailings by rain. This study also examined the possibility of lime treatment for remediation of acid mine tailings and assumed to be 46 tones of pulverized lime for neutralization of the tailings.
Relationship between maceral composition and some parameters indicating the degree of coalification
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 1, 1999, Pages 83~91
Coal properties are controlled by the following two factors : One is the maceral components and the other is the degree of coalification. In other words, even if coals in question indicate the same degree of coalification, their chemical and physical properties considerably vary one another when their maceral components are different. It is well known that virtrinite reflectance is the best single criterion for the degree of coalification covering the whole range of coal rank. Some authors have recently insisted that sporinite fluorescence is more leliable coal rank parameter than vitrinite reflectance in case of low rank coals. In this paper, to examine the relince of sporinite fluorescence as coal rank parameter, fluidity analysis of coals is newly performed and the data are analyzed in comparision with those of virinite reflectance, sporinite fluorescence and maceral components. The results of this study are as follows; 1) Vitrinite reflectance becomes low when degradinite content is high within one columnar samples, and vice versa. 2) variation of vitrinite reflectance depend on degradinite content and on difference of roiginal plant. 3) In dealing with the Japanese paleogene coals, sporinite fluorescence is more reliable parameter indicating the degree of coalification than vitrinite reflectance. 4) Maximum fluidity increases exponetially in proportion to the increases of degradinite content.
A study of stress distribution and subsequent failure in crystalline rock specimens under uniaxial compression
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 1, 1999, Pages 93~100
In rock, there are many microsopic structures which influence the mechnical behavior of rock. Many microstructures interact with each other, and furthermore, material constants vary discontinuously within rock, as most rocks are composed of several minerals. Taking into account this feature, it may be possible to contemplate a microstructure of rock as a unit cell by which the rock is constituted periodically. If this idealization is acceptable, the homogenization method can be applied. In this research, various microcracks on rock specimens were observed through a stereoscopic microscope under uniaxial compression. On the other hand, local stress distribution in the periodic-micro structure was calculated by the homogenization method. Then it is shown that there is a possibility to establish a relation between the behavior of microcrack and macroscopic load quantitatively by the linear fracture mechanics.
Weathering of coal and kerogen : implications on the geochmical carbon and oxygen cycle and the environmental geochemical reactions
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 1, 1999, Pages 101~111
Sedimentary organic matter, exposed to continental surficial environment, reacts with oxygen supplied from the atmosphee and forms carbon-containing oxidation products. Knowledge of the rate and mechanisms of sedimentary organic matter weathering is important because it is one of the major controls on atmospheric oxygen level through geologic time. Under the abiological conditions, the oxidation rate of coal organic matter by molecular oxygen is enhanced by the increase of oxygen concentration and temperature. At ambient temperature and pressure, aqueous coal oxidation results in the formation of dissolved
dissolved organic carbon and solid oxidation products which are all quantitatively significant reaction products. The effects of pH, ultraviolet light, and microbial activity on the weathering of sedimentary organic matter are poorly contrained. Based on the results of geochmical and environmental studies, it is believed that the photochemical reaction should play an important role in the decomposition and oxidation of sedimentary organic matter removed from the weathering profile. At higher pH conditions, the production rate of DOC can be accelerated due to base catalysis. These high molecular weight oranic matter can react with man-made pollutants such as heavy metal ions via adsorption/desorption or ion exchange reactions. The effect of microbial activity on the oxidative weathering of sedimentary organic matter is poorly understood and remains to be studied.
Coalbed methane potential for Korean anthracite and possibility of its utilization
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 1, 1999, Pages 113~121
Coal is both source rock and reservoir rock for the coalbed gas. Coalbed gas. Coalbed gas is predominantly methane and has a heating value of approximatly 1000 BTU/
. Most of methane is stored in the coal as a monomolecular layer adsorbed on the internal surface of the coal matrix. The amount of methane stored in coal is related to the rank and the depth of the coal. THe higher the coal rank and the deeper the coal seam is presently buried, the greater its capacity to hold gas. Most of Korean Coal is anthracite or metaanthracite, Ro. 3.5~5.5%, and total reserves are 1.6 billion metric tons. The domestic demand for coal was drastically decreased and the rationalization policy carried out from 1987 on coal industry. Now that a large number of coal mines was closed only a few mines continued to produce not more than 5 million tons for year. It is therefore recommended to formulate a strategy to explore and exploit the resources of coalbed methane in Korea.