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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Hydrothermal Gold mineralization of the trabong district, vietnam : Mineralogical and geochemical study
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 2, 1999, Pages 129~139
Hydrothermal gold deposits of the Trabong district in Vietnam occur as single-stage quartz
calcite veins (0.3-1.2 m thick) which fill fault fractures in graphite-bearing gneiss and schist of the Chulai Complex and Kham Duc Formation of the Proterozoic age. Ore grades are 1.3 to 92.4 g/ton Au. Ore mineralogy is very simple, consisting mainly of pyrite with minor amounts of base-metal sulfides and electrum. Gold grains occur in two assemblages as follows: (1) early, Fe-rich (7.2-10.4 mole % FeS) sphalerite + electrum (50.4-64.3 atom % Au) assemblage occurring as inclusions in pyrite; (2) late, Fe-poor «4.7 mole % FeS) sphalerite + galena + electrum (47.6-81.7 atom % Au) assemblage occurring along fractures of pyrites. Based on fluid inclusion data and thermochemical considerations of ore mineral assemblages, ore minerals were formed at high temperatures (about
-NaCI fluids with the sulfur fugacity of about
atm. Fluid inclusion data also indicate that ore mineralization occurred mainly as a result of fluid unmixing accompanying
effervescence. Calculated oxygen and measured hydrogen isotope compositions of mineralizing waters (
values = 5.3 to 8.6
values = - 60 to - 52
), along with the sulfur isotope compositions of vein sulfides (
values = - 1.2 to 2.8
) and carbon isotope compositions of inclusion
values = - 4.7 to - 2.0
) indicate that the high temperature (mesohypothermal) gold mineralization formed from a magmatic fluid.
K-Ar ages and geochemistry of granitic rocks in the northeastern geongsang basin
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 2, 1999, Pages 141~150
The granitic rocks are distributed in the northeastern Gyeongsang basin, and are subdivided into the Youngduk, Younghae, Jangsadong and Onjeong granite. Based on the chondrite normalized patterns of REE by primitive mantle, the Jangsadong granite is more negative Eu anomaly than other granites. On the patterns of trace and rare earcth elements normalized by primitive mantle, Sr, P, Nd, Sm and Ti contents of t도 Youngduk and Younghae granites are higher than those of Jangsadong and Onjeong granites. Based on K-Ar ages, the Youngduk granite is 166.5 Ma for biotite, Younghae granite is 158.7 to 178.0 Ma for hornblende, Jangsadong granite is 113.8 to 118.4 Ma for K-feldspar and hornblende, and Onjeong granite is 67.4 Ma for biotite. Thus, geochemical and geochronological results suggest two plutonic episodes :the Youngduk-Younghae granites and Jangsadong-Onjeong granites suggest two plutonic episodes : the Youngduk-Younghae granites and Jangsadong-Onjeong granites. Jurassic plutonism cooled faster than Cretacous plutonism in the study area.
Evaluation of the engineering property of clay minerals nearby seoul area as clay liner material
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 2, 1999, Pages 151~159
This research was carried out to evaluate the possible usage of natural clay materials collected from the Kimpo landfill site and nearby clay mines as a clay liner material. In order to evaluate the possible usage as a clay liner material, specific gravity, pH, loss-on-ignition, organic carbon content and mineralogical composition of clay materials were measured. The Atterberg limit test and the size analysis were performed for the engineering classification and the prediction of hydraulic conductivity of clay materials. Caution exchange capacity and batch tests were also carried out for the assessment of attenuation capacity. Clay specimens of KPNCL, KP-1, KP-2 and SH were recommended as suitable clay linder materials from viewpoint of their basic quality and attenuation capacity.
Deep structure of Ulsan fault by electric and EM surveys in ipsil area, South of Kyeongju
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 2, 1999, Pages 161~167
Electric and electromagnetic surveys were conducted to investigate the deep structure of the Ulsan fault in Ipsil area, south of Kyeongju. On this study, especially high-frequency magnetotelluric method of electromagnetic survey in the frequency range of 10~100,000 Hz was mainly employed to study the deep subsurface configuration. High-frequency MT survey was performed at 70 points of spacing 30~50 m, making 3.8 km survey line. As a survey result, a 2-km-depth 2-D cross-section was achieved. It shows vertical and horizontal subsurface variations of resistivity values. Near-surface layer having low resistivity value becomes thicker eastward up to 800m. There is a steep low resistivity zone in the west side of survey line, and there exists two low resistivity zones dipping west in the east side of survey line. Two low resistivity zones are interpreted to be related to major movement pattern of the Ulsan fault. This suggests that major fault lines are developed on both peripheral sides of the broad fault zone.
Delineation of water seepage in a reservoir embankment from ground temperature measurements
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 2, 1999, Pages 169~175
The water leakage of reservoir embankment usually occurs through water vein, which gives little influence on the embankment in a normal state. However, the embankment can be destroyed when the water level of reservoir increases with heavy rain in summer. Investigating the water vein and its path is therefore very important from the viewpoint of disater prevention and embankment protection. This paper presents survey results of one-meter-depth ground temperature and multi-point temperature logging in an embankment in Japan to delineate water veins and permeable formations. Four water veins have been predicted in the embankment by comparing measured one-meter-depth ground temperatures with the background ones which have no effect of water vein. The multi-point temperature logging was carried out in the borehole drilled at one of the predicted water veins. Depth and thickness of the permeable formation in the borehole can be determined from temperature restoration ratios with elapsed time. From these results we can find that the water leakage of reservoir embankment mainly occurs in sandy soil formation in the embankment.
Gravity, Magnetic and VLF explorations in the ubong industrial waste landfill, Pohang
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 2, 1999, Pages 177~187
Gravity, magnetic and VLF surveys were conducted to investigat the structural stability and hazards associated with the Ubong landfill in Pohang City, which has been built to dump industrial wastes. In 1994, the collapse of a bank happened in the 6th landfill site due to sudden heavy rain, and a large quantity of waste materials flowed out to the nearby landfill sites, factories and roads. We used
resolution DEM data for gravity reductions. The maximum variation of the terrain effect in the survey area is about 0.5 mgal and the terrain effect is large in the vicinity of bank boundary. The Bouguer gravity anomaly map shows the effect due to the variatino of thickness and type of waste materials. The small negative gravity anomaly increases from the 9th site to the 6th site. The small negative gravity anomaly of the 9th site reflects the relatively shallow dumping depth of average 14.5 m in this site and increased density of waste materials by the repeated stabilization process of soil overlaying. The 6th site is located at the center of the former valley and rainfall and groundwater are expected to flow from south-east to north-west. Therefore, considering the previous accident of mixing waste and bank materials at the north-west boundary of the landfill, there may be some environmental problems of leakage of contaminated water and bank stability. The complex inversion technique using Simulated annealing and Marquardt-Levenberg methods was applied to calculate three-dimensional density distribution from gravity data. In the case of 6th site, it is apparent that the landfill had been dumped in four sectors. However, most part of the 9th site and showed that high magnetic industrial wastes were concentrated in the 6th site. The result of magnetic survey showing low magnetic anomalies along the boundaries of two sites is similar to that of gravity data. The VLF data also reveals four divided sectors in the 6th site, and overall anomaly trend indicates the directio of former valley.
Paleomagnetism of the cretaceous sedimentary rocks in the Yongyang Sub-Basin
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 2, 1999, Pages 189~201
Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic investigations have been carried out for the Cretaceous Hanyang Group, exposed in the Yongyang Sub-Basins within the Kyeongsang Basin, eastern South Korea. A total of 452 oriented core samples was drilled from 31 sits for the study. The in-situ site mean direction is more dispersed than the mean direction after bedding correction, indicating that the fold test is positive at 95% confidence level. In addition, the stepwise unfolding of the characteristic remanent magfold test is positive at 95% confidence level. In addition, the stepwise unfolding of the characteristic remanent magnetization reveals that a maximum value of k is observed at 90% unfolding. Furthermore, the rock magnetic investigations and electron microscope observations of the representative samples show that the main magnetic carrier of the Hayang Group is the detrital specular hematite of single and pseudo-single domain sizes with negligible contribution of pigmentary hematite grains. These results collectively imply that the ChRM direction is the primary component acquired at the time of the formation of the strata. Provided the primary nature of the ChRM, a magnetostratigraphic correlation between polarities of the studied formation and the Geomagnetic Time Scale indicates that the Hayang Group in the Yongyang Sub-Basin can be correlated to the Cretaceous Long Normal superchron. The paleomagnetic pole position from this study is significantly different from those of the Hayang group in the Euiseong the Milyang sub-Basins. Rather the paleomagnetic pole position of the Hayang Group of the study area is closer to that of the Quaternary period or present time of the Korean Peninsula. It is hypothesized that the study area might be rotated about 25
aticlockwise with respect to the Euiseong and Milyang Sub-Basins after the formation of the strata and aquisition of the ChRM, although there is not enough geologic evidence supporting the rotation hypothesis.
Effects of salt crystallization on stone durability
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 2, 1999, Pages 203~208
The main objective of this study is to suggest a new assessment method of the influence of weathering due to salt crystallization on the engineering property of rock. For this purpose, various sources of salt and salt crystallization were investigated, and artificially accelerated weathering tests were carried out. In natural envionment, weathering rate is very slow and weathering process involves complex mechanisms. Therefore artificial weathering test is essential for systematic analysis. Arificial weathering test is defined as test which controls weathering rate and agents by controlling arificial environmental condition. In this study, salt crystallization test was selected among various artificial weathering test methods, for its important role in weathering. Change of various stone properties were detexted. The change of physical properties by salt crystallization were observed as follows : 72% in Brazilian tensile strength and 72% in Slake durability. These results explain the importance of salt crystallization in the mechanical behaviour and properties of stone.