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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Economic and Environmental Geology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Fluid Inclusion and Stable Isotope Studies of Mesothermal Gold Vein Deposits in Metamorphic Rocks of Central Sobaegsan Massif, Korea: Youngdong Area
Chip-Sup So ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 6, 1999, Pages 561~573
Mesothermal gold deposits of the Heungdeok, Daewon and Ilsaeng mines in the Youngdong area occur in fault shear zones in Precambrian metamorphic rocks of central Sobaegsan Massif, Korea, and formed in single stage of massive quartz veins (0.3 to 3 m thick). Ore mineralogy is simple, consisting dominantly of pyrrhotite, sphalerite and galena with subordinate pyrite, chalcopyrite, electrum, tetrahedrite and native bismuth. Fluid inclusion data indicate that hydrothermal mineralization occurred at high temperatures (>240
-NaCI fluids with salinities less than 12 wt. % equiv. NaC!. Fluid inclusions in vein quartz comprise two main types. These are, in decreasing order of abundance, type I (aqueous liquid-rich) and type II (carbonic). Volumetric proportion of the carbonic phase in type II inclusions varies widely in a single quartz grain. Estimated
contents in the carbonic phase of type II inclusions are 2 to 20 mole %. Relationship between homogenization temperature and salinity of fluid inclusions suggests a complex history of fluid evolution, comprising the early fluid's unmixing accompanying
effervescence and later cooling. Estimated pressures of vein filling are at least 2 kbars. The ore mineralization formed from a magmatic fluid with the
values of -2.1 to 2.2
, 4.7 to 9.3
and -63 to -79
, respectively. This study validates the application of a magmatic model for the genesis of mesothermal gold deposits in Youngdong area.
Synthesis of Zeolite From Fly Ash
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 6, 1999, Pages 575~584
Through alkaline hydrothermal activation processes, zeolite minerals were synthesized from fly ashes produced at Youngwol and Boryoung power plants. The syntheses were performed in a closed teflon vessel with a teflon-coated magnetic bar for continuous stirring during the reaction periods. The experiments were caeeied out at three different reaction temperatures (
), with varying NaOH concentations (0.5~8N) and reaction time (24 to 288 hours). Mineralogical characterization of the reaction products indicated that Na-p1, analcime, and hydroxysodalite were dominant zeolites formed from the both fly ashes at the given experimental conditions, The highest amount of zoelites produced from the Youngwol and Boryoung fly ash were:60 and 45wt%for Na-P1, 70 and 45wt% for analicime, 50 and 40wt% for hydroxysodalite, respectively. A small amount of zeolite A was present in NaP-dominant dample is about 250 meq/100g. This suggests the possibility of its utilization as an ion-absorbent.
Lithogeochemistry and Gold Content of Plutonic
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 6, 1999, Pages 585~597
Plutomic rocks of the Mabogsan, located in the southestern part of the Koheung Eup are composed of granite gneiss, diorite, biotite grantie and granophyre. On the basis of Rb-Ba-Sr diagram, the diorires are plotted from granodiorite to quartz diortie, the biotite granites from granodiortie to anomalous granite and the granophyres in normal granite filed. The plutonic rocks tend to show the I-type characteristics in terns of ACF diagram,
diafram, while have values of ilmenite series in magnetic subseptibility. The plutons could have formed in the tectonic environment of VAG+COLG+ORG based on the silica vs. trace element diagrams. Gold contents with major and trace elements have been determined for 21 granophyres, 13 biotite granites and 4 diorites are; (1) for the diorite, the rangs is 0.508~1.73 ppb with an average of 0.5ppb;(2) for the biotite granites, the range is 0.449~13.5ppb with an average of 3 ppb;(3)for the granphyres, the range is 0.508~23.1ppb with an average of 4.5ppb. The gold content of the studied plutons tends to increase from mafic to felsic rocks. Gold contents tend to show positive correlations with those of Ag and Zn, negative correlations with those of As, Ba and Rb. The copper contents of the plutons are comparatively high. Average copper contents of diorite, biotite granite and granophyre are 710ppm, 587ppm and 484ppm, respectively. The copper contents of the plutons tend to have good correlations with those of Ag, Bi and Pb.
Environmental Geochemical Study on Talc for the Application as Mineral Drug
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 6, 1999, Pages 599~609
Talc durg has been used at Oriental Medical Hospital of Kyung San University, and was analysed for mineralogical and geochemical studies. It consists mainly of talc with small amount of tremolite, dolomite and bursite, and its chemical compositions of MgO 31.65% and
61.0%, and cotain less inpurtities. Moreover, talc from the Dong Yang Talc mine is associated with calcite, gypsum and anhydrite, which belong to more soluble mineral drugs than talc, and contains Ca and Fe. These elements may give at least medical medical to talc durg as in the case of actinolite. Therfore, talc of high quality from the Dong Yang Tacl Mine may be used instead of imported expensive talc durg. Diagrams of log
-pH and log
- may be used as basic data to predict and examine soluble contents of durg for medical experiments.
Environmental Geochemistry and Heavy Matel Contamination of Ground and Surface Water, Soil and Sediment at the Kongjujuil Mine Creek, Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 6, 1999, Pages 611~631
Enviromental geochemisty and heary metal contamination at the Kongjueil mine creek were underaken on the basis of physicohemical properties and mineralogy for various kinds of water (surface, mine and ground water),soil, precipitate and sediment collected of April and December in 1998. Hydrgeochemical composition of the water samples are characterized by relatively significant enricant of Ca+Na, alkiali ions
and Cl inground and surfore water, wheras the mine waters are relatively eneripheral water of the mining creek have the characteristics of the (Ca+Mg)-
type. The pH of the mine water is high acidity (3.24)and high EC (613
S/cm)compared with those of surface and ground water. The range of
values (relative to SMOW) in the waters are shpwn in -50.2 to -61.6% and -7.0 to -8.6
(d value=5.8 to 8.7). Using computer program, saturation index of albite, calcite, dolomite in mine water are nearly saturated. The gibbiste, kaolinite and smectite are superaturated in the surface and ground water, respectively. Calculated water-mineral reaction and stabilities suggest that weathing of silicate minerals may be stable kaolinite owing to the continuous water-rock reaction. Geochemical modeling showed that mostly toxic heavy metals may exist larfely in the from of metal-sulfate
and free metal
in nmine water. These metals in the ground and surface water could be formed of
and OH complex ions. The average enrichment indices of water samples are 2.72 of the groundwater, 2.26 of the surface water and 14.15 of the acid mine water, normalizing by surface water composition at the non-mining creek, repectively. Characteristics of some major, minor and rate earth elements (Al/Na, K/Na, V/Ni, Cr/V, Ni/Co, La/Ce, Th/Yb,
, Co/Th, La/Sc and Sc/Th) in soil and sediment are revealed a narrow range and homogeneous compositions may be explained by acidic to intermediate igneous rocks. And these suggested that sediment source of host granitic gneiss colud be due to rocks of high grade metamorphism originated by sedimentary rocks. Maximum concentrations of environmentally toxic elements in sediment and soil are Fe=53.80 wt.% As=660, Cd=4, Cr=175, Cu=158, Mn=1010, Pb=2933, Sb=4 and Zn=3740 ppm, and extremely high concentrations are found are found in the subsurface soil near the ore dump and precipitates. Normalizing by composition of host granitic gneiss, the average enerichment indices are 3.72 of the sediments, 3.48 of the soils, 10.40 of the precipitates of acid mine drainage and 6.25 of the soils near the main adit. The level of enerichment was very severe in mining drainage sediments, while it was not so great in the soils. mineral composition of soil and sediment near the mining area were partly variable being composed of quartz, mica, feldspar, chlorite, vermiculite, bethierin and clay minerals. reddish variable being composed of quartz, mica, feldspar, chlorite, vermiculite, bethierin and clay minerals. Reddish brown precipitation mineral in the acid mine drainage identifies by schwertmanite. From the separated mineralgy, soil and sediment are composed of some pyrite, arsenopyite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, malachite, goethite and various kinds of hydroxied minerals.
The Assesment of Heavy metal Pollution in Sewage Sludeges from Gully Pots Alongside Some Main Roads in Seoul, Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 6, 1999, Pages 633~644
Gully pot is a part of urban darainage system to butter the runoff water fluxes from road to rivers and to minimize environmental pollution by prevending over the surrounding area. A series of studies have been carried out concerning the physicochemical characteristics of the sewage sludge sediments sttling down in such a gully pot in order to over to evaluate the contamination for heavy metals such as pb, Zn, Cu and Cd. The roadside soil and sewage sludge samples from gully pots were characterized by XRD analyses and sequential extraction : Zn 2595.7
g/g),because of a long-term accumulation of vehicle- and industrial-related pollutants. Mean Zn concentration in Yeouido (3873
g/g) and Junggu(3262
g/g)areas are 4-5 times higher than those in Dobonggu area, suggesting that Zn may be derived from automobile traffic (including the rubber of automobile tires). The mean concentrations of Cu and Cr are very significantly high in Junggu and Gurogu areas, possibly due to the industrial activities in these areas. The low Pb levels throughtotut the whole study areas in Seoul can be accounted for the use of unleaded gasoline since 1987. Sequential extraction experiments illustrate that a major part of Zn is bound to FII and FIII, representing about 88% of the total Zn concentration. Fraction IV, related to orgnic matter, is mostly significant for Cu accounting for 60% of the total Cu, and FII is next in importance. The main carriers of Pb are the fractions III, II and FIV, and in that order. The behavior of Cd is quite different from other elements (Zn, Cu, Pb), and most of the Cd is associated with FV. Changes in the physicochemical environments (such as acidification) may result in severe environmental pollution of surface water and rivers with respect to heavy metals (especially Zn and Cu).
Gravity and Magnetic Surverys for Volcanic Rocks in Yeoncheon Area, kyonggi-do
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 6, 1999, Pages 645~651
The gravity and magnetic measurements have been obtained from 34 stations with 50m intervals along the survey line positioned between Jangtanri and sindapri for studying subsurface geology and structures of the volcanic rocks in Yeoncheon area. The Bouguer gravity and magnetic anomaly values were evaluated from the reduction of the field observation, and then interpreted by Nettleton's method and maximum-pepth rules, are approximately 160m based on magnetic data and 135m based on gravity data. High Bouguer gravity anomaly zone between 0m in Jangtanri and 900m along the survery line, is caused by thick and high density, older dasalt which is positioned beneath jijangbong tuff breccia, and this result corresponds to the interpretation result based on magnetic anomly. Lower gravity and magnetic anomaly zones ariund 900m are caused by between 1300m and 1550m are caused by high density of Quarternary basalt exposed in the surface, and lower gravity and magnetic anomalies at 200m and 1250m are caused by faults.
A Study on the Free Oscillation of the Earth with Earth Tide Gravimeter
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 6, 1999, Pages 653~660
Any mechanical system has a natural oscillation which can be excited, and the earth is no exception. The earth can oscillate in an indefinite number of normal modes of oscillation, rather like a giant bell. The various free modes are generally sparated into two categoridal modes and toroidal modes. Clearly the toroidal modes will produce no perturvation of the gravity field and no vertical acceleration on the surface of the earth. Hence only spheroidal modes can be detected with a gravimeter. EarthTide gravimeter was installed at AIMST in order to observe free modes of the earth. Eight major earthquakes including chinese earthquake (magnitude 7.3) with free oscillations of the earth are observed during one year (1998. 8. 1∼1999.7.31). And then the earth tides components were eilminated from earthquake records using a numerical Butterworth highpass filter. Spectral analysis of gravity readings repersent that 48 observations of shheroidal modes. The relationships between instrumental observations and theoretical predictions based on the Gutenberg earth model agree well those resulting from free oscillation in Korea.
Calcu;ation of Groundwater Inflow Rates with respect to the Subusection of Tunnel: Application of the Current Meter
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 6, 1999, Pages 661~667
Estimation of inflow rates into subsection of a tunnel is establishing the proposed grouting part, measuring the degree of grouting, and settling the dispute over deplrtion of groundwater which may be resulted from tunneling. A current meter was used to calculate inflow rates of groundwater to each subsection of the tunnel. The study area is composed of section 1 and 2 of Imha-Youngchun waterway trnnel which has 32.976km length, with each section having 3,745m and 4,079m, respectively. The depth from groung surface to tunnel ranges from 122.45m to 358.3m. Total inflow rates of groundwater into each section measured three times by the current meter, together with bottle and eye measurement, were compared with groundwater inflow rates of each section measured by datalogger. The calcuated inflow rates of the sections by bottle and eye measurement were 8.8%∼54.7% of inflow rate (averaging 27,4%), whwewas those by the current meter were 76.9%∼110.6%(averaging 92.9%). Therfore, the current meter is regarded as useful method to calculate groundwater inflow rates into subsections of a tunnel.
Intrusive Phases and Igneous Pricesses in the Yeongju Batholith
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 32, issue 6, 1999, Pages 669~688
The Yeongju granitoid batholith is a plutonic complex of huge area (1180km2) intruding the metamorphic rocks of the Yeongnam massif. The batholith, which is divided into fivelithofacies, consists of three separate plutons. The oldest Buseok pluton comprises four lithofacies: hornblende biotite tonalite, porphyrotoc biotite granodiorite, equigranular biotite grandiorite and biotite granite. The middle Chunyang pluton has been called as Chunyang granite that ranges in compostion from granodiorite to granite. The youngest Jangsu pluton is intrusions that has lithofacies of two mica granite. The contact between Buseok pluton and the rest two plutons shows obvious intrusive relations, but relation between the Chunyang and the Jangsu pluton is far away, so gives no indication of relative ages. Changes in nextures and micristructures, as well as in the mineral contents, take place between rock types og the plutons. only the Buseok pluton shows faliations of two type: magmatic foliation and regional mylonal foliation. K-Ar age deteminations fall into 171.7
3.1 Ma in the Buseok pluton, 153.9
2.9 Ma in the Chunyang pluton and 145.3
2.7 Ma in the jangsu Pluton. The batholith presents three separate intrusive phases which range in composition from tonalite to granite to granite. Each intrusive phase apperars to have been intruded in a pulse from an underlying, differentiating magma. The petrochemical data showthat three plutons are within the diagnostic range for continental arc orogenic tectonic setting, whereas Jangsu pluton approaches postorogenic setting. The data suggest that three plutons are calc-aclkalline series, and that temporal compositional variations change progerssively from tonalite through grandiorite to granite between the intrusive phases. so we consider that the magmas for all the phases were probably derived from a differentiation by fractional crystallization of a parental magma. The tonalite magma of the Buseok phase was tapped was tapped from a chamber deep in the crust, and then would have to rise at a rapid rate to its final level of emplacement. The tonalite magma in the chamber was gradually enolved through granodiorite magma into granite magma by fractional crystallization. The magmas of the younger phases were respectively tapped with temporal interval from a evolved magma of the chamber that rose into a shallower lever in the crust, and rose to their present level of emplacement.