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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 33, Issue 5 - Oct 2000
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
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Mineralogical and Gechemical Studies of Titaniferous Iron Ores and Ultramafic to Mafic Rocks from the Boreundo Iron Ore Deposits, South Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 33, issue 1, 2000, Pages 1~18
Lens shaped and stratiform titanomagnetite orebodies in the Boreumdo iron mine are closely associated with amphibolite which intruded into Precambrian metasediments. Mineralogical and petrochemical analyses of amphilbolite and titanomagnetite ores were carried out in order to interpret the origin of amphilbolite and the genesis of titanomagnetite ore deposits. Amphibolites belong to orthoamphilbolite interms of Niggli value and mineralogy, and are characterized by the occurrence of relict olivine. The amphilbolites responsible for titanomagnetite mineralization have extremely high content of
, ranging from 2.12 to 4.59 wt.% with the average value of 3.43 wt.%. Amphibole minerals in amphibolites are consist mainly of calcic amphiboles such as hornblende, ferroan pargasitic hornblende and tremolite. Most plagioclases belong to andesine (
\ulcorner). The metamorphic temperature and geobarometric pressure which are calculated by the calcic amphibole-plagioclase geothermometer and calcic amphilbole geobarometer are estimated to be 537
) and 2.9~6.6 kbar (avg. 4.5 kbars), respectively. It shows a typical amphibolite facies. Based on the mineral chemistry and petrochemisty of amphibolites and iron ores which are composed mainly of titanomagnetite and ilmenite in the Boreumdo iron mine, the titaniferous oxide melts could be immiscibly separatd from the titaniferous ultrabasic magma. The genesis of the Boreumdo titanomagnetite ore deposits are analogous to the Soyeonpyeongdo and Yonchon iron ore deposits in terms of their mineralogy, mineral chemistry and geologic setting.
The Sannae-Eonyang Granitic Rocks and Hydrothermal System, Southeastern Kyongsang Basin
Yang, Kyoung-Hee ; Lee, Joon-Dong ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 33, issue 1, 2000, Pages 19~30
The Sannae-Eonyang granitic rocks are a large fossil hydrothermal system containing the Sannae Mo-W fissure-vein type and the Eonyang amethyst deposits in the southeastern Kyongsang Basin. They evolved through similar stages showing the similarities in chemical and mineralogical compositions, fractionation trends and early magmatic fluids. Major, trace and rare earth element(REE) variations can be accounted for fractional crystallization combined with variable degrees of metasomatism. Based on the aqueous fluids exsolved directly from the crystallizing melt, the Sannae-Eonyang granitic rocks were emplaced at similar depth or pressure conditions. High temperature fluid interaction with the granitic rocks affects the elements such as K, Na, Rb, Ba, Sr, Eu, and heavy REE (HREE) mostly through feldspar re-equilibration. Although hydrothermal fluids produced partly positive Eu anomalies and HREE depletion in the granitic rocks at the Sannae Mo-W mine, the chemical concentrations defining fractionnation trends have survived the effects of alteration. Aqueous fluids exsolved from the crystallizing melt appears to be widespread, whereas fluids of moderate to low salinity and low-density with relatively high homogenization temperatures and
-rich fluids appear to be mainly restricted and responsible for Mo-W and amethyst mineralization, respectively. Hydrothermal system of the Sannae-Eonyang granitic rocks represents repeated fluid events; from exsolution of aqueous fluids from the crystallizing melt, through fluid immiscibility and meteoric convection to later mineralization.
Effect of Groundwater Anions and pH on the Sorption Removal of Heavy Metals by Bentonite
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 33, issue 1, 2000, Pages 31~40
Sorption characteristics of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn onto Ca- and Na-bentonites were investigated by the batch experiments in the condition of various pHs and concentrations of groundwater major anions (
), which can form a complex with heavy metals. The sorption removal of heavy metals steadily increases as pH increases. The sorption capability about heavy metals of both Ca-bentonite and Na-bentonite is in the order of Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd. The effect of pH and selectivity of heavy metals of bentonites were explained by the change of surface charge of bentonite and the speciation of heavy metals. Na-bentonite has a little higher sorption ability about heavy metals than that of Ca-bentonite. A high sorption removal of Pb in 0.1M sulfate solution may be attributed to the precipitation of
(anglesite). However, sulfate has a slight effect on the sorption of CU, Cd and Zn. More than 99% of heavy metals were removed from the 0.1 M bicarbonate solution. However, the efficiency of sorption removal of heavy metals highly decreases in the bicarbonate solution of
M. The speciation and saturation index calculated by the WATEQ4F program indicate that the sorption of anionic complexes such as
and the precipitation of the solid phases such as
(obtavite) are involved in sorption removal of heavy metals in bicarbonate solution. The sorption capability about heavy metals of bentonites in the presence of anions shows the following order: Pb>Cu Cd>Zn.
Three-Dimensional Borehole Radar Modeling
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 33, issue 1, 2000, Pages 41~50
Geo-radar survey which has the advantage of high-resolution and relatively fast survey has been widely used for engineering and environmental problems. Three-dimensional effects have to be considered in the interpretation of geo-radar for high-resolution. However, there exists a trouble on the analysis of the three dimensional effects. To solve this problem an efficient three dimension numerical modeling algorithm is needed. Numerical radar modeling in three dimensional case requires large memory and long calculating time. In this paper, a finite difference method time domain solution to Maxwell's equations for simulating electromagnetic wave propagation in three dimensional media was developed to make economic algorithm which requires smaller memory and shorter calculating time. And in using boundary condition Liao absorption boundary. The numerical result of cross-hole radar survey for tunnel is compared with real data. The two results are well matched. To prove application to three dimensional analysis, the results with variation of tunnel's incident angle to survey cross-section and the result when the tunnel is parallel to the cross-section were examined. This algorithm is useful in various geo-radar survey and can give basic data to develop dat processing and inversion program.
Analysis of Slope Stability Using GIS in the Northern Area of Chungju Lake
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 33, issue 1, 2000, Pages 51~59
As a part of natural hazard assessment, regional slope stability analysis was conducted using Geoscientific Information System (GIS) in the northern area of Chungju Lake. Selected factors which affect the slope stability in the study area were lithology, soil, density of lineament, groundwater level, dip of slope, aspect of slope, and geological engineering properties. Geological structural domains were determined by collected data of joint orientation from about 200 sites in order to produce a slope instability map. Potential type of failure and its direction could be expected through the domains. And a slope instability map was produced, comparing the representative orientations of the domains with the orientations of the slopes which were made through TIN module in ARC/INFO. Under the consideration of environmental geological characteristics of the study area, rating and weighting of each factor of slope stability analysis were decided and spatial analysis of regional slope stability was couducted through overlaying technique of GIS. The result of areal distribution of slope stability showed that the most unstable area was the area between Mt. Pudae and Mt. Jubong, and the northern area of the railway station, Samtan.
Slip Movement Simulations of Major Faults Under Very Low Strength
Park, Moo-Choon ; Han, Uk ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 33, issue 1, 2000, Pages 61~75
Through modeling fault network using thin plate finite element technique in the San Andreas Fault system with slip rate over 1mm/year, as well as elevation, heat flow, earthquakes, geodetic data and crustal thickness, we compare the results with velocity boundary conditions of plate based on the NUVEL-1 plate model and the approximation of deformation in the Great Basin region. The frictional and dislocation creep constants of the crust are calculated to reproduce the observed variations in the maximum depth of seismicity which corresponds to the temperature ranging from
. The rheologic constants are defined by the coefficient of friction on faults, and the apparent activation energy for creep in the lower crust. Two parameters above represent systematic variations in three experiments. The pattern of model indicates that the friction coefficient of major faults is 0.17~0.25. we test whether the weakness of faults is uniform or proportional to net slip. The geologic data show a good agreement when fault weakness is a trend of an additional 30% slip dependent weakening of the San Andreas. The results of study suggest that all weakening is slip dependent. The best models can be explained by the available data with RMS mismatch of as little as 3mm/year, so their predictions can be closely related with seismic hazard estimation, at least along faults where no data are available.
Analysis of Rock Slope Stability by Using GIS in Mt. Keumsu Area
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 33, issue 1, 2000, Pages 77~88
The goal of this study is to assess the spatial distribution of natural slopes and cutting slopes under would-be development. For this goal, a quantitative slope stability analysis method using GIS integrated with a computer program was developed. Through field investigations, the discontinuity parameters were collected such as orientation of discontinuity, persistence, spacing, JRC, JCS, and water depth. The distributions were interpolated from the ordinary kriging method in ARC/INFO GIS after variogram analysis. The layers showing all parameters needed for limit equilibrium analysis were constructed. The final layer using GIS works composed of 162,352 polygons, that is, unit slopes. The rock slope stability analysis program was coded by C++ language. This program can calculate geometrical vectors related to rock block failures using input orientation data and direction and dimension of strength to occur failure. Also, this can calculate shear strength of joints through empirical equations and quantitative factors of safety. This methodology was applied to the study area which is located in Jaecheon city and Danyang-gun of the northeastern Keumsu is about 135
. As a result, the study area was entirely stable but unstable, that is, factor of safety less than 1.0dominantly at the slopes near Keumsil, Daejangri, Keumsungmyun and Sojugol, Mt. Dongsan, Juksongmyun by the natural slope stability analysis. Assuming the cutting slope showing the same direction immediate, and quantitative analysis of factors of safety for a regional area could be conducted through GIS integrated with a computer program of limit equilibrium.