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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Economic and Environmental Geology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 33, Issue 5 - Oct 2000
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
Selecting the target year
Bacterial Effects on Geochemical Behavior of Elements : An Overview on Recent Geomicrobiological Issues
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 33, issue 5, 2000, Pages 353~365
After their first appearance on Earth, bacteria have exerted significant influence on geochemical behavior of elements. Numerous evidence of their control on geochemistry through geologic history has been observed in a variety of natural environments. They have mediated weathering rate, formation of secondary minerals, redox transformation of metals and metalloids, and thus global cycling of elements. Such ability of bacteria receives so considerable attention from microbiologists, mineralogists, geologists, soil scientists, limnologists, oceanographers, and atmospheric scientists as well as geochemists that a new and interdisciplinary field of research called 'geomicrobiology' is currently expanding. Some recent subjects of geomicrobiology which are studied extensively are as follows: 1) Functional groups distributed on bacterial cell walls adsorb dissolved cations onto cell surfaces by electrostatic surface complexation, which is followed by hydrous mineral formation. 2) Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria conserve energy to support growth by oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of some oxidized metals and/or metalloids. They can be effectively used in remediating environments contaminated with U, As, Se, and Cr. 3) Bacteria increase the rate of mineral dissolution by excreting proton and ligands such as organic acids into aqueous system. 4) Thorough investigation on the effects of biofilm on geochemical processes is needed, because most bacteria are adsorbed on solid substrates and form biofilms in natural settings.
Geochemical Study on the Uranium Anomaly around the Shinbo Talc Mine (II) - In the Light of Isotopic Characteristics -
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 33, issue 5, 2000, Pages 367~377
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the source of U anomaly formed in stream water of the drainage system around the Shinbo talc mine area based on the O, H, S and Sr isotopic characteristics of water masses and wall rocks. The
of surface and ground waters show highly restricted range and plotted on the same meteoric water line, indicating that they are all originated from the meteoric water. The
value of the ground water containing high U shows slightly negative (-0.2
) and quite distinct from those of the other surface and ground waters that are similar to those of wall rocks (>5.8
), indicating that they have a different S isotopic fractionation or less probably, source. The
ratios of water masses around the Shinbo talc mine area show a variable range from 0.724325 to 0.744928, but tend to increase with increasing U concentration of water mass. Although it is not possible to determine precisely the source rock of U anomaly formed in the hydrologic system around the Shinbo talc mine, the evidence obtained from the Sr isotopic compositions strongly suggests that coal schist and/or pegmatite vein could be the most likely candidate for the source rock.
Heavy Metal Concentrations in the Soil of Yoecheon Industrialized Complex Area
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 33, issue 5, 2000, Pages 379~389
This study was focused on the investigation for the heavy metal contamination of soils derived from Yoecheon Industrial Complex in Chonnam Province. Total 201 soil samples including farmland, paddy, forest and playground soils were collected, extracted by 0.1N HCl and analyzed for Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn and Zn using AAS. Most pH values in soils were weak acidic ranges of 4-6, while some of them were over 8.0. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe and Zn in the soils tend to be relatively high around the Au-Ag mine area, railroad stations and oil station, however, those of Cr, Mn and Pb show high at the northside of Pohang Steel Co (POSCO). Cadmium-Zn couples, and Cd-Zn and Zn-Cr couples have relatively good correlations in the farmland soils and paddy soils, respectively. Concentrations of Cd, Fe and Zn with depth tend to be higher in the top soils than in the bottom soils, but those of Cu and Pb do not show regular variations with depth.
Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Mine Drainage Water Precipitate and Evaporite Minerals in the Hwasoon Area
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 33, issue 5, 2000, Pages 391~404
This study investigated the geochemical characteristics of mine drainage discharged from an abandoned coal mine in the Hwasoon area. Surface water samples were collected from 23 locations along the Hancheon creek. The concentration of Zn and Cu in stream waters was highest at low pH (3.53), whereas the content of TDS and TDI was highest at high pH (7.78) due to the concentration of Ca,
. At the upstream site, the Ba, Fe, Mn, Zn, and
contents were relatively high but decreased significantly with the distance from the coal mine. On the contrary, the Na and
contents were low at the upstream site but increased downstream. Yellow precipitate material collected in the Hancheon consisted mainly of iron and LOI. This yellow precipitate was heated from 100 to
for 1 hour. With increasing temperature, the intensity of hematite peaks were sharply produced in X-ray pattern and the absorption band Fe-O of hematite increased in IR due to dehydration and melting. The yellow to brown precipitate and evaporite materials were collected by a air-dry from the acid mine water at the laboratory. After drying, the concentration of ions in the acid water samples increased progressively in oversaturation with respect to either gypsum, ferrohexahydrite or quenstedetite. The X-ray powder diffraction studies identified that the precipitated and evaporated materials after drying were well crystallized gypsum, ferrohexahydrite and quenstedetite. Diagnostic peaks used for identification of gypsum were the 7.65, 4.28, 3.03, 2.87 and 2.48
peaks and those for ferrohexahydrite were the 5.46, 5.12, 4.89, 4.44, 4.05, 3.62, 3.46, 3.40, 3.20, 3.03, 2.94, 2.53, 2.28, 2.07, 1.88 and 1.86
peaks. The IR spectra with OH-stretching, deformation of
stretching vibration include the existence of gypsum, ferrohexahydrite and quenstedetite in the precipitated and evaporite materials. In the SEM and EDS analysis for the evaporite material, gypsum with well-crystallized, acicular, and columnar form was distinctly observed.
Formation of Acid Mine Drainage and Pollution of Geological Environment Accompanying the Sulfidation Zone of Nonmetallic Deposits: Reaction Path Modeling on the Formation of AMD of Tongnae Pyrophyllite Mine
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 33, issue 5, 2000, Pages 405~415
This study was carried out to understand the formation of acid mine drainage (AMD) by pyrophyllite (so-called Napseok)-rainwater interaction (weathering), dispersion patterns of heavy metals, and patterns of mixing with non-polluted water in the Tongnae pyrophyllite mine. Based on the mass balance and reaction path modeling, using both the geochemistry of water and occurrence of the secondary minerals (weathering products), the geochemical evolution of AMD was simulated by computer code of SOLVEQ and CHILLER. It shows that the pH of stream water is from 6.2 to 7.3 upstream of the Tongnae mine. Close to the mine, the pH decreases to 2. Despite being diluted with non-polluted tributaries, the acidity of mine drainage water maintains as far as downstream. The results of modeling of water-rock interaction show that the activity of hydrogen ion increases (pH decreases), the goncentration of
decreases associated with increasing
activity, as the reaction is processing. The concentration of
first increases minutely, but later increases rapidly as pH drops below 4.3. The concentrations of cations and heavy metals are controlled by the dissolution of reactants and re-dissolution of derived species (weathering products) according to the pH. The continuous adding of reactive minerals, namely the progressively larger degrees of water-rock interaction, causes the formation of secondary minerals in the following sequence; goethite, then Mn-oxides, then boehmite, then kaolinite, then Ca-nontronite, then Mgnontronite, and finally chalcedony. The results of reaction path modeling agree well with the field data, and offer useful information on the geochemical evolution of AMD. The results of reaction path modeling on the formation of AMD offer useful information for the estimation and the appraisal of pollution caused by water-rock interaction as geological environments. And also, the ones can be used as data for the choice of appropriate remediation technique for AMD.
Application of SP and Pole-pole Array Electrical Resistivity Surveys to the Seawater Leakage Problem of the Embankment
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 33, issue 5, 2000, Pages 417~424
We applied SP monitoring and resistivity surveys using the pole-pole electrode array to seawater leakage problems in the Youngsan estuary dam and the Eoeun embankment to estimate and detect the zone of seawater leakage. The embankment is generally affected by tidal variation and has low resistivity characteristics due to the high saturation of seawater. For this reason, SP monitoring and the pole-pole array resistivity surveys, which are relatively more effective to the conductive media, were carried out to delineate the leakage zones of sea water through the embankment. We checked out electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature variations along the inner part of Youngsan estuary dam to detect the zone of seawater leakage and found that the measured EC value agreed to that of seawater in the leakage zone and the temperature was lower than that of the vicinity of leakage zone. SP monitoring results were coincided with tidal variations at each embankment. At the leakage zones in the Youngsan estuary dam and the Eoeun embankment, SP anomalies are in the range of -60~-85 mV and -20~-50 mV, respectively, and true resistivity values obtained by 2-D inversion are 3~15 ohm-m and below 0.3 ohm-m, respectively. Both SP monitoring and the pole-pole array resistivity method are found to be quite effective for investigation of seawater leakage zones in the embankment.
Sediment Distribution of the Yeosu Sound on the Southern Coast of Korea Based on the 3.5 kHz Profiles
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 33, issue 5, 2000, Pages 425~434
The 3.5 KHz seismic survey was carried out for studying the distribution pattern of the unconsolidated sediments of the Yeosu Sound on the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. Field data originally recorded in analog are converted and processed digitally to recover the high-resolution acoustic profiles. Across the north-south trending channel with the depth of 20~30 m, different seismic facies types are observed in the top section of sediments. The western part is characterized by the continuous high-amplitude subparallel reflectors within which the acoustic turbidity as a token of the presence of gas is commonly observed, whereas the counterpart largely shows poor reflectors and has shallow acoustic basement toward the north. The dissimilarity of the seismic expression across the channel can be interpreted as the result of the change of depositional environment caused by relative sea-level fluctuations of the late-Quaternary. During the last glacial period, the Yeosu Sound was exposed and eroded by the paleo-Seomjin River. By the following rapid rise of sea level, it was covered by the transgressive sand sheet. When the sea level reached near the present position, the muddy sediment has accumulated only in the western part of the Yeosu Sound as its depositional front has moved toward the north. It is partly caused by the asymmetrical tidal current in the Yeosu Sound where the flood near the bottom has stronger current flow and contains more suspended sediments.
An Investigation into the Characteristics of the Burial Ground Materials around Mummies in Andong
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 33, issue 5, 2000, Pages 435~442
Although the mummies of Lee Myeong-Jung and his wife who were a member of the Moon family, were buried in similar sites in around 1560, the degree of decay of the dead bodies and antiquities between two people were quite different. This study was focused on the cause of-those differences in terms of engineering geology. Cranular soil found several metered depth around the study site has good drainage ability and such characteristic could be a factor of excellent conservation of dead body. From the physical characteristics of the lime-containing material that is considered to be a barrier from water and air, it was observed that the material around dead body of wife was more compact and denser than that of husband. Such results could be a clear evidence that the lime containing material around dead body of wife was excellent barrier for keeping away from water and air. To investigate those differences of physical characteristics and constituent materials between two lime-containing materials, minerals had to be identified from the two materials. It was revealed that lime-containing material around dead body of wife contains gypsum and more calcite, which could be the reason for better barrier preventing from water and air than those around husband.