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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
Selecting the target year
Fe-REE Mineralization of the Hongcheon-Jaeun District
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 4, 2001, Pages 319~328
The Fe-REE deposit of the Hongcheon-Jaeun district occurs in Precambrian gneiss, and is classified into two ore bodies: the Jaeun ore body (northern ore body) and the Hongcheon ore body (southern ore body). Ecomonically important minerals consist of magnetite, monazite, strontianite and barite. Based on mineral assemblages and textures, the mineralization can be classified into two stages (Na-carbonatite stage and Fe-carbonatite stage). Main REE minerals were precipitated during the Fe-carbonatite stage. Some evidences of the carbonatite origin include: 1) strontianite-monazite exolution texture, 2) strontianite-barite exolution texture, 3) the occurrence of acmite of igneous origin at the area with abundant rare earth minerals, 4) the occurrence of the mineral assemblage consisting of carbonate minerals + magnetite + REE minerals. Therefore, we suggest that Fe-REE mineralization in the study area was related to carbonatite of igneous origin.
Geochemical Evolution and Deep Environment of the Geothermal Waters in the Bugok Area: Reconsideration on the Origin of Sulfate-type Geothermal Water
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 4, 2001, Pages 329~343
The deep environment and geochemical evolution of the Bugok geothennal waters, located in the Kyeongnam Province, was re-interpreted based on the hydrochemical and isotopic data published by Yun et al. (1998). The geothermal waters of the Bugok area is geochemically divided into three groups; Geothennal water I, II and III groups. Groups I and II are geochemically similar; high temperature (55.2-77.2
C) and chemically belonging to Na-S04 types. However, pH and Eh values are a little different each other and Group II water is highly enriched in S04 compared to Group I water. Group III water, occurring from peripheral sites of the central part of the geothennal waters, shows temperature range of 29.3 to 47.0
C and belongs to
types. The deep environment and geochemical evolution of the Bugok geothennal waters, showing the diversity of geochemistry, can be interpreted as follows; I) Descending to great depth of meteoric waters that originated at high elevation and reacting with sediments and/or granites in depth. The
concentration of the waters has been increased by the dissolution of sulfate minerals in sediments. 2) During the continuous descending, the waters has met with the reduction environment, producing the
gas due to sulfate reduction. The waters has been heated up to 130
C and the extent of water-rock reaction was increased. At this point, pH of waters are increased, S04 concentration decreased and calcite precipitated, therefore, the waters show the
type. 3) Ascending of the geothennal waters along the flow path of fluids and mixing with less-deeply circulated waters. The
concentration is re-increased due to the oxidation of
gas and/or sulfide minerals in sediments. During continuous ascending, these geothennal waters are mixed with shallow groundwater.
Microbial Effects on Geochemical Behavior of Arsenic under Aresnic under Aerobic Condition and Their Applicability to Environmental Remediation
Lee, Sang-U ; Kim, Gyeong-Ung ; Lee, Jong-Un ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 4, 2001, Pages 345~354
The effects on arsenic geochemistry of indigenous microorganisms isolated from an area contaminated with high concentration of arsenic were investigated. Arsenite exerted higher inhibitory effects on the microbes' growth than arsenate. During incubation of the microbes in an arsenate-spiked medium over 24 hours, decrease in microbial growth was observed as arsenate content increased. Arsenate of 150 mM or over apparently inhibited cell growth. However, further incubation for up to 4 days in the high arsenate concentration medium resulted in cell growth, implying that the microorganisms adjusted their biochemical functions to detoxify arsenic and maintain growth. Two types of microbes were observed during 20 hours to reduce arsenate to arsenite in solution through a detoxification mechanism. As well, decrease in the total arsenic content occurred over a 4-day incubation with the same microbes in an arsenate-spiked medium. Therefore it is suggested that microorganisms can influence arsenic speciation in natural settings and this may be applied to efficient bioremediation of arsenic-contaminated sites.
Palaeomagnetism of the Okchon Belt, Korea: Paleozoic Rocks in Yemi Area
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 4, 2001, Pages 355~373
Palaeomagnesim of Paleozoic Tuwibong Type Sequence in Yemi area was studied with a total of 256 core-samples collected from 23 sites. The study area (geographical coordinates: 37.l8
N, l28.610E) is located between Taebaek and Yongwol belonging to the northeastern part of the Okchon Belt. Thermal cleaning was a most effective method to extract stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) direction, even though AF cleaning also worked on some specimens. Mean ChRM direction of the Cambrian Hwajol Formation was different from the present-day field direction and showed maximum clustering (max. k value) at 100% bedding-tilt correction. However, it could not pass the fold test. Ordovician Makkol and Kosong Limestones as well as Permian Sadong and Kobangsan Formations have very weak NRM, and were remagnetized into the present-day field direction. ChRM directions from the Carboniferous Hongjom Formation passed both fold and reversal tests. IRM experiments and blocking temperature spectrum indicate that both magnetite and haematite are carrier of the primary magnetization. Palaeomagnetic pole position from the Carboniferous Hongjom Formation is very similar to that of contemporary North China Block (NCB) suggesting that the study area was a part of, or located very near to, the NCB during Carboniferous.
Spectral Characteristics of Sea Surface Height in the East Sea from Topex/Poseidon Altimeter Data
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 4, 2001, Pages 375~383
We extracted sea surface heights(SSH) from the TopexJPoseidon(T/P) radar altimeter data to compare with fhe SSH estimated from in-situ lide gauges(T/G) at Ulleungdo, Pohang, and SockcholMucko sites. Selection criteria such as wet/dry troposphere, ionosphere, and ocean tide were used to estimate accurate SSH. For time series analysis, the one-hour interval tide gauge SSHs were resampled al lO-day interval of the satellite SSHs. The ocean tide model applied in the altimeter data processing showed periodic aliasings of 175.5 day, 87.8 day, 62J day, 58.5 day, 49.5 day and 46.0 day, and, hence, the ZOO-day filtering was applied to reduce these spectral noises. Wavenumber correlation analysis was also applied to extract common components between the two SSHs, resulting in enhancing the correlation coefficient(CC) dramatically. The original CCs between the satenite and tide gauge SSHs are 0.46. 0.26, and 0.]5, respectively. Ulleungdo shows the largest cc bec;luase the site is far from the coast resulting in the minimun error in the satellite observations. The CCs were then increased to 0.59, 030, and 0.30, respectively, after 200.day filtering, and to 0.69, 0.63. and 0.59 after removing inversely correlative components using wavenumber correlation analysis. The CCs were greatly increased by 87, 227, and 460% when the wavenumber correlation analysis was followed by 2oo-day filtering, resulting in the final CCs of 0.86, 0.85, 0.84, respectively. It was found that the best SSHs were estimated when the two methods were applied to the original data. The low-pass filtered TIP SSHs were found to be well correlated with the TIG SSHs from tide gauges, and the best correlation results were found when we applied both low-pass filtering and spectral correlation analysis to the original SSHs.
Application of Regional Landslide Susceptibility, Possibility, and Risk Assessment Techniques Using GIS
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 4, 2001, Pages 385~394
There are serious damage of people and properties every year due to landslides that are occurred by heavy rain. Because these phenomena repeat and the heavy rain is not an atmospheric anomaly, the counter plan becomes necessary. The study area, Ulsan, is one of the seven metropolitan, and largest cities of Korea and has many large facilities such as petrochemical complex and factories of automobile and shipbuilding. So it is necessary assess the landslide hazard potential. In the study. the three steps of landslide hazard assessment techniques such as susceptibility, possibility, and risk were performed to the study area using GIS. For the analyses, the topographic, geologic, soil, forest, meteorological, and population and facility spatial database were constructed. Landslide susceptibility representing how susceptible to a given area was assessed by overlay of the slope, aspect, curvature of topography from the topographic DB, type, material, drainage and effective thickness of soil from the soil DB, lype age, diameter and density from forest DB and land use. Then landslide possibility representing how possible to landslide was assessed by overlay of the susceptibility and rainfall frequency map, Finally, landslide risk representing how dangerous to people and facility was assessed by overlay of the possibil. ity and the population and facility density maps The assessment results can be used to urban and land use plan for landslide hazard prevention.
Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Ultramafic Rocks from the Singok Area, Western Part of Chungnam
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 4, 2001, Pages 395~415
In the Singok area, western part of Chungcheongnam-Do, two ultramafic ma~ses, Singok mass and Kaewol mass, occur as isolated lenticular bodies in the Precambrian Kyeonggi gneiss complex. The masses extend for several hundred meter to NNE direction, parallel to the main fault line of this area. The rocks are dunite and harzburgite, but partially and absolutely serpentinized. They dominantly show porphyroclastic and recrystallized textures with equigranular-mosaic and protogranular textures. In spite of differences among the alteration and metamorphism, the ultramafic masses are characterized by varying amounts of high fosteritic olivine (
), magnesian pyroxene (
), and tremolitic to tschermakitic hornblende with minor spinel, serpentine, chlorite, calcite, magnetite, phlogopite and talc. It is compared with adjacent gneiss complex containing amphibole, biotite, plagioclase, alkali-feldspar and quartz. Geochemically, these rocks show high magnesium number (Mg>90.38), and transitional element (Ni=595-2480, Cr==IOlO-4400, Co=36-120 ppm), low alkali element (
<2.95 wt%) and depleted incompatible element contents, which is compared with adjacent rocks (Mg < 83.69,
=9.15-16.86 wt%, Ni < 435 ppm, Cr < 1440 ppm, Co<59 ppm, enriched incompatible element contents). Overall characteristics of ultramafic rocks from the Singok and Kaewol masses are similar to the those of adjacent ultramafic bodies in Chungnam with worldwide orogenic related Alpine type ultramalic rocks. Calculated geothermometries suggest that the ultramafic rocks have experienced metamorphism in the condition ranging from the greenschist facies to granulite facies.
Rational Selection of Surfactant in Surfactant-Based Remediation
;;Robort D. Cody;;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 4, 2001, Pages 417~422
Sutfactants may be used in remediation of subsoil and aquifer contaminated with hydrophobic compounds. The objectives of this study were to select potentially suitable sUlfactants that solubilize toluene present as a contaminant and to determine the effectiveness of toluene removal from Ottawa sand by the selected surfactants. Material used as the model soil was Ottawa sand and the organic used as model contaminant was toluene. Used experimental methods were separatory funnel experiment and shaker table agitation/centrifugation experiments. Based on the experimental results, the following conclusions were drawn; t) In the surfactant selection, six different surfactants were chosen based on surfactant types, toxicity, and water solubility. These six were focused into two on the basis of HLB and surface tension study, separatory funnel experiment, shaker table and centrifugation experiments. The two most suitable surfactants were Sandopan JA36 (an anionic surfactant), and Pluronic L44 (a non-ionic surfactant). 2) In the shaker table agitation and centrifugation experiments, the highest recovery of the toluene was 96% which was obtained with one surfactant wash plus two water rinses using an anionic surfactant (Sandopan JA36).