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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
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Au-Ag-Te Mineralization by Boiling and Dilution of Meteoric Ground-water in the Tongyeong Epithermal sold System, Korea: Implications from Reaction Path Modeling
Maeng-Eon Park ; Kyu-Youl Sung ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 6, 2001, Pages 507~522
At the Tongyeong mine, quartz, rhodochrosite (kutnahorite), muscovite, illite, pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite. sphalerite, acanthite, and hessite are the principal vein minerals. They were deposited under epithermal conditions in two stages. Ore mineral assemblages and associated gangue phases in stage can be clearly divided into two general associations: an early cycle (band) that appeared with introduction of most of the sulfides and electrum, and a later cycle in which base metal and carbonate-bearing assemblages (mostly rhodochrosite) became dominant. Tellurides and some electrum occur as small rounded grains within subhedral-to euhedral pyrite or anhedral galena in stageII. Sulfide mineralization is zoned from pyrite to galena and sphalerite. We have used computer modeling to simulate formation of four stages of vein genesis. The reaction of a single fluid with andesite host rock at 28
, isobaric cooling of a single fluid from 26
, and boiling and mixing of a fluid with both decreasing pressure and temperature were studied using the CHILLER program. Calculations show that the precipitation of alteration minerals is due to fluid-andesite interaction as temperature drops. Speciation calculations confirm that the hydrothermal fluids with moderately high salinities and pH 5.7 (acid), were capable of transporting significant quantities of base metals. The abundance of gold in fluid depends critically on the ratio of total base metals and iron to sulfide in the aqueous phase because gold is transported as an Au(HS)
- complex, which is sensitive to sulfide activity. Modeling results for Tongyeong mineralization show strong influence of shallow hydrogenic processes such as boiling and fluid mixing. The variable handing in stageII mineralization is best explained by maltiple boilings of hydrothermal fluid followed by lateral mixing of the fluid with overlying diluted, steam-heated ground water. The degree of similarity of calculated mineral assemblages and observed electrum composition and field relationships shows the utility of the numerical simulation method in identifying chemical processes that accompany boiling and mixing in Te-bearing Au-Ag system. This has been applied in models to narrow the search area for epithermal ores.
Characteristics of Environmental Contamination for the Groundwater and Stream Water in the Vicinity of the Woonjeongdong Sanitary Landfill Area in Kwangju-city, Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 6, 2001, Pages 523~537
The physical properties of pH, turbidity, TDS and salt contents in the stream water near the entrance of Woonjcongdong sanitary landfill area with a drainage pipe are higher than those in neighbored drainage system, but DO it lower than that in neighbored drainage system blue to the eutrophication. In the ground water, pH, turbidity, TDS and salt contents at A ,F and C where may be under effect of the Woonjeongdong sanitary landfill area, are also shown higher values in contrast to other groundwater site, like B , D , and E , Particularly, the groundwater in A , F and C are plotted in Na-Cl type (If the piper diagram, which is an another important prolf of the contaminapion by the leachate and washing water from the Woonjeongdong sanitary landfill area. Some elements and physical properties of the waters in rainy season are desplayed a clear characteristics of contaminaton, compared to the theose of winter in thes study. Elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl,
) are accompanied well with each other by the result of water in the vicinity of landfillarea.
Geochemical Characteristics and Origin of Dissolved Ions in the Han River Water
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 6, 2001, Pages 539~553
Geochemical data of the Han river water, including four tributary water samples in the main Han river are presented in this paper. The concentration of dissolved ions in the North Han river water decreases in order of Ca>Na>K>Mg and HCO
>Cl, which it mainly affected by the chemical weathering of granite and gneiss in the drainage basin. Meanwhile, the South Han river water shows a decreasing order of Ca>Mg>Na>K and HCO
>Cl, which is controlled by the bed rock geology of carbornate rooks and the inflow of acid mine drainage from the metal and coal mines in the Taebaegsan and Hwanggangri areas. The main Han river waters are characterized by unusually high concentration of Na, Cl and SO
(Ca>Na>K>Mg and HCO
>CI>NO), indicating a significant anthropogenic pollution by human activities in the metropolitan Seoul city. The geochemical data of the Han river waters from 1981 through 1996 to 1999 records a significant increase in SO
, which responsible for the increasing arid mane drainage and municipal anthropogenic pollution.
The Geodynamic Evolution of the Chugaryeong Fault Valley in a View Point of Paleomagnetism
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 6, 2001, Pages 555~571
The dynamic evolution of the Chugaryeong fault valley is studied by paleomagnetic works on 163 samples at 16 sites from Late Cretaceous and Quaternary volcanic rocks in the valley. Conglomerate test and stepwised thermal/alternating field demagnetization indicate that all the characteristic directions are of primary origin. Paleomagnetic pole ponsition(216.8
) for the upper par of the Jijangbong Volcanic Complex Is indistinguishable from the coeval retference pole position from the Gyeongsang Basin, which further substanciates the reliability of the Paleomagnetic data. This indicates the study area has not undergone any tectonic rotation since Late Cretaceous by uy significant reactivation of the Chugaryeong fault valley. The Quaternary pole position (134.2
) from the Jeongog Basalt reflects the present geocentric axial dipole field for the area, supporting the above conclusion. Unlike the upper part, paleomasnelic directions of the lower part of the Jijangbong Volcanic Complex show random distrinution between sites. We interpret that the early stage of the volcanic activity was created by sinistral strike slip motion of the Chugaryeong fault during early Late Cretaceous. The creation and evolution of the Chugaryeong fault valley emphasize the significance of the kinematic FR (folding ruler) model in east Asia.
Early Instrumental Earthquake Data (1905-1942) in Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 6, 2001, Pages 573~581
110 earthquake parameters (origin time, epicentral location and magnitude) were determined from 533 event records between 1905 and 1942 using data mainly from the "Annual Report of the Meteorological Observatory of the Government General of Tyosen" We adopted epicentral coordinates from the original reports for 34 events and from the Japanese Central Meteorological Observatory far another .34 events. We determined epicenters for 37 events using arrival time information from the reports. We adopted 4 epicenters from the International Seismological Summary and I from the Chinese bulletin. To determine the magnitude, we applied Tsuboi (1954) formula which is currently employed by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) for 94 events. For 16 events, we determined magnitude from the reef)reed felt epicentral areal using the correlation equation between known magnitude and felt area.
Timing of the Hydrothermal Alteration Associated with the Fault Activities along the Ulsan Fault Bone, Southeast Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 6, 2001, Pages 583~593
Clay minerals are common component of fault gouge and have been used to determine the fault activity age using K-Ar dating technique. We carried out XRD and K-Ar analyses of the mica clay minerals from the fault gouge along the Ulsan Fault Zone, southeastern Korea to estimate the timing of the major fault activity. Mica clay minerals for four grain size fractions of 5-2 Um, 2-1
m, and 0.35-0.05
m were separated from the gouge samples in the three locations by the hydraulic elutriation and contrifugal separator. Fault gouges are composed of smectite, mica clay minerals, kaolinite, chlorite, quartz, and feldspar. The illite crystallinity of mica clay minerals is the highest in the finest grained fraction with lM polytype, indicating that the aulhigenic mica clay minerals have been concentrated in the fraction. K-Ar ages give some variation from 46 to 35 Ma (330-2), 45 to 39 Ma (16Ww), and 32 to 15 Ma (102Ws) and are the youngest in the finest grained fraction. These results suggest that the hydrothermal alteration associated with the major fault activities along the Ulsan fault Zone took place twice at 39-35 Ma and 15 Ma.
GIS for Subsidence Analysis by Considering Surface Condition
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 6, 2001, Pages 595~600
Recently, interests in subsidence hazard have been increased due to the underground construction such as subway construction and managements of abandoned mines. GIS analysis of subsidence hazard has a lot of advantages in handling of spatial data and managing database. For better result of GIS analysis, there are some necessities of modifying previous subsidence theory and model. To take surface profile into account allows the application of complicated topology. Furthermore. for 3-dimensional analysis. two subsidence profile curves that are perpendicular to each other should be considered simultaneously. Through these modifications, the model for subsidence analysis using GIS can be established. With ideal case of cavities and other conditions, GIS analysis was accomplished and meaningful results were produced. More realistic properties of cavity. soil layers, groundwater condition and topology will enable GIS analysis method to produce more reliable result and to widen the area of applications.
Rock Slope Stability Analysis in Boeun Region Considering Properties of Discontinuities
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 6, 2001, Pages 601~615
The study area. Boeun-eup Boeun-kun, belongs to Ogchon metamorphic belt which is highly metamorphosed and consisted of complex geologic formations. Even though the geological structures and formations are complex and metamorphosed, the geological investigation and consideration are not enough and consequently the plane failure is occurred in the rock slope which was under construction on 1 : 0.5 gradient. This area is assessed as unstable and additional failure is possible by the discontinuity with same direction of failure surface. Therefore, the authors evaluate the slope stability using various analysis methods such as SMR, stereographic projection method, and the limit equilibrium analysis. In order to analyze stress redistribution and nonlinear displacement behavior caused by stress release, the authors conduct numerical analysis with UDEC and then the behavior of rock mass is analyzed after reinforcements are applied.
Differentiation Trend of Rare Earth Elements of the Skaergaard Intrusion
Yun D. Jang ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 6, 2001, Pages 617~625
The Skaergaard intrusion is widely considered a type example of a strongly fractionated, layered intrusion that has undergone extensive in situ igneous differentiation. The Intrusion, therefore, should be a good locality for modeling trace element vriation in a closed system. Previous studios (Haskin and Haskin, 1968; Faster et al., 1974), however, have suggested thats the rare earth elements in whole rocks and mineeral separates from the Intrusion did not fellow the expected trend for closed system crystatllization. Trace element modeling using published distribution coefficients, modal abundances of the coexisting minerals, and the concentration of trace elements In whole rocks and mineral separates from the Skaergaard Intrusion, reveals that the rare earth elements were significantly Influenced by the crystallization of abundant apatite in the Layered Series suring the final stages of crystallization. The results of trace element modeling also suggcsts that apatite, which appears sporadically in the UBS, is not a primary liquidus phase in these samples as previously suggested (Naslund, 1984) but an interstitial phase that (lid not directly effect trace element abundances In the evolving magma As the Skaergaard magma coaled convection, or convected as small Isolated cells during the final stages of differentiation, an elebated
Induced by accumulation of volatile elements near the roof of the magma chamber ingibited or delayed the precipitation of primary apatite in the UBS If the Skaergaard differentiation Is modeler assuming primary apatite crystallization In the upper par of the LS where abundant modal apatite is present, and only late stage crystallization of apatite In the UBS where apatite Is less abundant, rare earth elements abundances follow a closed system variation trend. These results rule but any differentiation model for the Skaergaard Intrusion that Includesvolumetrically significant injections or discharges of magma Into or out of the chamber during the final 20% of the crystallization history.
Origin of Layering and Its Relation to Magma Convection in the Skaergaard Intrusion
Yun D. Jang ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 6, 2001, Pages 627~648
At least two distinct types of layering are present in the middle zone of the Skaergaard intrusion; alternating plagioclase-rich and pyroxene-rich, macro-rhythmic layers, and smaller scale, modally-graded, rhythmic layers. The macro-rhythmic layers are ubiquitous in the middle zone of the Layered Series, but are not observed in the lower and upper zone of the Layered Series or in the wall or roof tories of the intrusion. They range from 0.3 to 17.3 m in thickness, have sharp upper and lower boundaries, and can be traced laterally for over 2 ]fm in outcrop. Although individual macrorhythmic layers are not internally graded, many contain smaller-scale, modally-graded layers. Modally-graded. rhythmic layers are a common feature of the Layered Series but are not abundant in either the Upper Border Series or the Marginal Border Series. They range in thickness from 1 to 50 cm and can be traced laterally in outcrop for up to 100 m. Their lateral termination ranges from abrupt to gradational, and they are often associated with cut and fill structures and crossbedding suggestive of current activity. They are characterized by sharp lower and gradational upper contacts, and by strong intra-layer modal grading with olivine, ilmenite, and magnetite concentrated at the base, pyroxene concentrated above the base, and plagioclase concentrated at the top. The layers are also grain-size graded with the maximum size for each phase occurring at the horizon in the layer where the phase is most abundant. Modally-graded, rhythmic layers in the middle zone of the Layered Series occur within both plagioclase-rich and pyroxene-rich macro-rhythmic layers.
Occurrence and Structural Properties of Wavellite from the Miryang Clay Deposit
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 34, issue 6, 2001, Pages 649~652