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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 35, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Feb 2002
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
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W-Sn-Bi-Mo Mineralization of Shizhuyuan deposit, Hunan Province, China
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 35, issue 3, 2002, Pages 179~189
The Geology of the Shizhuyuan W-Sn-Bi-Mo deposits, situated 16 Ian southeast of Chengzhou City, Hunan Province, China, consist of Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks, Devonian carbonate rocks, Jurassic granitic rocks, Cretaceous granite porphyry and ultramafic dykes. The Shizhuyuan polymetallic deposits were associated with medium- to coarse-grained biotite granite of stage I. According to occurrences of ore body, ore minerals and assemblages, they might be classified into three stages such as skarn, greisen and hydrothernlal stages. The skarn is mainly calcic skarn, which develops around the Qianlishan granite, and consists of garnet, pyroxene, vesuvianite, wollastonite, amphibolite, fluorite, epidote, calcite, scheelite, wolframite, bismuthinite, molybdenite, cassiterite, native bismuth, unidetified Bi- Te-S system mineral, magnetite, and hematite. The greisen was related to residual fluid of medium- to coarse-grained biotite granite, and is classified into planar and vein types. It is composed of quartz, feldspar, muscovite, chlorite, tourmaline, topaz, apatite, beryl, scheelite, wolframite, bismuthinite, molybdenite, cassiterite, native bismuth, unknown uranium mineral, unknown REE mineral, pyrite, magnetite, and chalcopyrite with minor hematite. The hydrothermal stage was related to Cretaceous porphyry, and consist of quartz, pyrite and chalcopyrite. Scheelite shows a zonal texture, and higher MoO) content as 9.17% in central part. Wolframite is WO); 71.20 to 77.37 wt.%, FeO; 9.37 to 18.40 wt.%, MnO; 8.17 to 15.31 wt.% and CaO; 0.01 to 4.82 wt.%. FeO contents of cassiterite are 0.49 to 4.75 wt.%, and show higher contents (4.]7 to 4.75 wt.%) in skarn stage (Stage I). Te and Se contents of native bismuth range from 0.00 to 1.06 wt.% and from 0.00 to 0.57 wt.%, respectively. Unidentified Bi-Te-S system mineral is Bi; 78.62 to 80.75 wt.%, Te; 12.26 to 14.76 wt.%, Cu; 0.00 to 0.42 wt.%, S; 5.68 to 6.84 wt.%, Se; 0.44 to 0.78 wt.%.
Mode of Occurrence and Chemical Composition of Electrums from the Gubong Gold-Silver Deposits, Republic of Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 35, issue 3, 2002, Pages 191~201
The Gubong gold-silver deposits if gold-silver-bearing hydrothermal massive quartz veins which were filled the fractures along fault shear (NE, NW) zones within Precambrian banded or granitic gneiss of Gyeonggi massif. Ore mineralization of this deposits is contained within a single stage of quartz vein which was formed by multiple episodes of fracturing and healing. Ore minerals are comported mainly of arsenopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena with minor amounts of pyrrhotite, marcasite and electrum. The frequency and volume percentages of electrum associated with ore minerals from this deposits are recognized as follows; 44.5% and 54.3% with arsenopyrite, 24.3% and 33.8% with quartz, 12.6% and 0.1% with pyrite, 11.0% and 4.8% with galena, 5.0% and 7.0% with sphalerite and 2.5% and 0.02% with chalcopyrite, respectively. They show irregular (41.6%), subround (34.7%), elongate (17.0%) and granular (6.6%) shapes, respectively. Their grain size ranges from 2 to 150 um, but 90.9 percent of the grains are below 30 um. The chemical composition of electrums ranges from 26.39 to 72.51 Au atomic %. These composition (Au atomic %) on the basis of associated minerals are from 44.97 to 71.75 with arsenopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite and quartz, from 44.37 to 72.51 with quartz, from 35.40 to 41.01 with sphalerite and chalcopyrite, from 26.39 to 54.84 with pyrite, chalcopyrite, quartz and galena, from 28.49 to 53.28 with galena, respectively. We suggest that optimum recovery of gold would be obtained with reference to these results.
Sulfide Chimney from the Cleft Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Mineralogy and Fluid Inclusion
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 35, issue 3, 2002, Pages 203~210
In order to elucidate the growth mechanism of sulfide chimney formed as a result of seafloor hydrothermal mineralization, we carried out the mineralogical and fluid inclusion studies on the inactive, sulfide- and silica-rich chimney which has been recovered from a hydrothermal field in the Cleft segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. According to previous studies, many active and inactive vents are present in the Cleft segment. The sulfide- and silica-rich chimney is composed of amorphous silica, pyrite, sphalerite and wurtzite with minor amounts of chalcopyrite and marcasite. The interior part of the chimney is highly porous and represents a flow channel. Open spaces within chimneys are typically coated with colloform layers of amorphous silica. The FeS content of Zn-sulfides varies widely from 13.9 to 34.3 mole% with Fe-rich core and Fe-poor rims. This variation possibly reflects the change of physicochemical characteristics of hydrothermal fluids. Chemical and mineralogical compositions of the each growth zone are also varied, possibly due to a thermal gradient. Based on the microthermometric measurements of liquid-rich, two-phase inclusions in amorphous silica that was precipitated in the late stage of mineralization, minimum trapping temperatures are estimated to be about 1140 to 145
C with the salinities between 3.2 and 4.8 wt.% NaCI equiv. Although the actual fluid temperatures of the vent are not available, this study suggests that the lowtemperature conditions were predominant during the mineralization in the hydrothermal field at Cleft segment. Comparing with the previously reported chimney types, the morphology, colloform texture, bulk chemistry, and a characteristic mineral assemblage (pyrite + marcasite + wurtzite + amorphous silica) of this chimney indicate that the chimney have been formed from a relatively low-temperature (<250
C) hydrothermal fluid that was changed by sluggish fluid flow and conductive cooling.
Alteration and Mineralization in the Xiaoxinancha Porphyry Copper Deposit, Yianbin, China: Fluid Inclusion and Sulfur Isotope Study
Seong-Taek Yun ; Chil-Sup So ; Bai-Lu Jin ; Chul-Ho Heo ; Seung-Jun Youm ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 35, issue 3, 2002, Pages 211~220
The Xiaoxinancha Cu-Au deposit in the Jilin province, located in NNE 800 km of Beijing, is hosted by diorite. The ore mineralization of Xiaoxinancha Cu-Au deposit show a stockwork occurrence that is concentrated on the potassic and phyllic alteration zones. The Xiaoxinancha Cu-Au deposit in the south is being mined with its reserves grading 0.8% Cu, 3.64 g/t Au and 16.8 g/t Ag and in the north, grading 0.63% Cu, 3.80 g/t Au and 6.8 glt Ag. The alteration assemblage occurs as a supergene blanket over deposit. Hydrothermal alteration at the Xiaoxinancha Cu-Au deposit is centered about the stock and was extensively related to the emplacement of the stock. Early hydrothermal alteration was dominantly potassic and followed by propylitic alteration. Chalcocite, often associated with hematite, account for the ore-grade copper, while chalcopyrite, bornite, quartz, epidote, chlorite and calcite constitute the typical gangue assemblage. Other minor opaque phases include pyrite, marcasite, native gold, electrum, hessite, hedleyite, volynskite, galenobismutite, covellite and goethite. Fluid inclusion data indicate that the formation of this porphyry copper deposit is thought to be a result of cooling followed by mixing with dilute and cooler meteoric water with time. In stage II vein, early boiling occurred at 497
C was succeeded by the occurrence of halite-bearing type III fluid inclusion with homogenization temperature as much as 100
C lower. The salinities of type 1II fluid inclusion in stage II vein are 54.3 to 66.9 wt.% NaCI + KCI equiv. at 383
C, indicating the formation depth less than 1 km. Type I cupriferous fluids in stage III vein have the homogenization temperatures and salinity of 168
C and 1.1 to 9.0 wt.% NaCI equiv. These fluid inclusions in stage III veins were trapped in quartz veins containing highly fractured breccia, indicating the predominance of boiling evidence. This corresponds to hydrostatic pressure of 50 to 80 bars. The
value of sulfide minerals increase slightly with paragenetic time and yield calculated
values of 0.8 to 3.7
. There is no mineralogical evidence that fugacity of oxygen decreased, and it is thought that the oxygen fugacity of the mineralizing fluids have been buffered through reaction with magnetite. We interpreted the range of the calculated
values for sulfides to represent the incorporation of sulfur from two sources into the Xiaoxinancha Cu-Au hydrothermal fluids: (1) an isotopically light source with a
value of I to 2
, probably a Mesozoic granitoid related to the ore mineralization. We can infer from the fact that diorite as the host rock in the Xiaoxinancha Cu-Au deposit area intruded plagiogranite; (2) an isotopically heavier source with a
value of > 4.0
, probably the local porphyry.
Laboratory Tests for Trichloroethylene (TCE) and Toluene Remediation in Soil Using Soil Vapor Extraction
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 35, issue 3, 2002, Pages 221~227
Column experiments were performed to evaluate the removal efficiency of soil vapor extraction (SVE) iota TCE (trichloroethylene) and toluene in soil. Homogeneous Ottawa sands and real soils collected from contaminated area were used to investigate the effect of soil properties and SVE operation conditions on the removal efficiency. In column teats with two different sizes of Ottawa sand, the maximum effluent TCE concentration in a coarse sand column was 442 mg/L and 337 mg/L in a fine sand column. However, after 20 liter gas flushing, the effluent concentrations were very similar and more than 90% of initial TCE mass were removed from the column. For two real contaminated soil columns, the maximum effluent concentration decreased 50% compared with that in the homogeneous Ottawa coarse sand column, but 99% of initial TCE mass were extracted from the column within 40 liter air flushing, suggesting that SVE is very available to remove volatile NAPLs in the contaminated soil. To investigate the effect of contaminant existing time on the removal efficiency, an Ottawa sand column was left stable for one week after TCE was injected and the gas extraction was applied into the column. Its effluent concentration trend was very similar to those for other Ottawa sand columns except that the residual TCE after the air flushing showed relatively high. Column tests with different water contents were performed and results showed high removal efficiency even in a high water content sand column. Toluene as one of BTEX compounds was used in an Ottawa sand column and a real soil column. Removal trends were similar to those in TCE contaminated columns and more than 98% of initial toluene mass were removed with SVE in both column.
Optimal Remediation of TCE-contaminated Groundwater using Direct Current and Fe
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 35, issue 3, 2002, Pages 229~239
The objective of this study was to design an optimal electro-remediation system for TCE contaminated water using zero talent iron (ZVI) and direct current (DC). A series of column experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of electrode arrangement and the location of permeable iron barrier in the column on the TCE removal efficiency and iron corrosion process. In twelve different combinations of ZVI and/or DC application in the test columns, the rate of reductive degradation of TCE was improved with simultaneous application of both ZVI and DC compared to that used ZVI only. The moot effective arrangement of electrode and ZVI for TCE removal from water was a column set with ZVI and cathode installed at the down gradient, respectively.
Environmental Geochemical Characteristics of the Acid Mine Drainage and Stream Sediments in the Abandoned Honam Coal Mine Area, Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 35, issue 3, 2002, Pages 241~255
The purpose of this study is to investigate environmental geochemical characteristics for the acid mine drainage and stream sediments in the abandoned Honam coal mine area. For the chemical analysis, stream winter samples were collected at 54 sites and for the mineralogical and chemical analysis, stream sediments samples were collected at 34 sites. Physical and chemical characteristics of stream water were measured at the site and chemical compositions were analyzed by ICP-AES, ICP-MS and IC. Mineralogical characteristics of stream sediments samples were determined using XRD, SEM and EDS. In physical and chemical properties, stream water shows thats pH 2.85~8.12, Eh -62~215 mV, EC 0.205~146 ms/m, ER 0.234~255
m, DO 0.03~1068 mg/L and TDS 10.96~1420mg/L. In chemical compositions, we obtain that K 0.118~3.184 mg/L, Mg 2.1~114.48 mg/L, Ca 2.59~l25.02 mg/L, Al 0.01~44.72 mg/L, Fe 0.108~89.49 mg/L and Na 5.45~125.41 mg/L. Stream sediments are commonly composed of quartz, illite and goethite in the result of x-ray diffraction. After heat treatment at 98
, the hematite peaks are distinctly shown. In consideration of heavy metals (include Fe) for steam sediments, Fe ranges 22575~34713 ppm, Zn 41.66~970.3 ppm, Cd 0.52~52.07 ppm, Cu 1.25~198.5 ppm and Pb 0.43~77.35 ppm.
The Effects of Carbonate Minerals in Gully-pot Sediment on the Leaching Behavior of Heavy Metals Under Acidified Environment
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 35, issue 3, 2002, Pages 257~271
One of the main interests in relation to heavily contaminated gully-pot sediment in urban area is the short term mobility of heavy metals, which depends on the pH of acidic rainwater and on the buffering effects of carbonate minerals. The buffering effects of carbonates are determined by titration (acid addition). Leaching experiments are carried out in solutions with variable initial HN03 contents for 24h. The gully-pot sediment appears to be predominantly buffered by calcite and dolomite. In case of sediment samples, which highly contain carbonates, pH decreases more slowly with increasing acidity. On the other hand, for the sediment samples, which less contain carbonate minerals, pH rapidly drops until it reaches about 2 then it decreases slowly. The leaching reactions are delayed until more acid is added to compensate for the buffering effects of carbonates. The Zn, Cu, Pb and Mn concentrations of leachate rapidly increase with decreased pH, while Cd, Co, Ni, Cr and Fe dissolutions are very slow and limited. The solubility of heavy metals depends not only on thc pH values of leachatc but also on the speciation in which metals are associated with sediment particles. In slightly to moderately acid conditions, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni and Cu dissolutions become increasingly important. As deduced from leaching runs, the relative mobility of heavy metals at pH of 5 is found to be: Zn > Cd > Co > Ni > Cu » Pb > Cr, suggesting that moderately acid rainwater leach Zn, Cd, Co, Ni and Cu from thc contaminated gully-pot sediment, while Pb and Cr would remain fixed. The buffering effects of Ca- and Mg-carbonates play an important role in delaying as well as limiting the leaching reactions of heavy metals from highly contaminated gully-pot sediment. The extent of such a secondary environmental pollution will thus depends on how well the metals in sediment can be leached by somewhat acidic rain water. Changes in the physicochemical environments may result in the severe environmental pollution of heavy metals. These results are to be taken into account in the management of contaminated sediments during rainstorms.
Gravity-Geologic Prediction of Bathymetry in the Drake Passage, Antarctica
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 35, issue 3, 2002, Pages 273~284
The Gravity-Geologic Method (GGM) was implemented for bathymetric determinations in the Drake Passage, Antarctica, using global marine Free-air Gravity Anomalies (FAGA) data sets by Sandwell and Smith (1997) and local echo sounding measurements. Of the 6548 bathymetric sounding measurements, two thirds of these points were used as control depths, while the remaining values were used as checkpoints. A density contrast of 9.0 gm/㎤ was selected based on the checkpoints predictions with changes in the density contrast assumed between the seawater and ocean bottom topographic mass. Control depths from the echo soundings were used to determine regional gravity components that were removed from FAGA to estimate the gravity effects of the bathymetry. These gravity effects were converted to bathymetry by inversion. In particular, a selective merging technique was developed to effectively combine the echo sounding depths with the GGM bathymetiy to enhance high frequency components along the shipborne sounding tracklines. For the rugged bathymetry of the research area, the GGM bathymetry shows correlation coefficients (CC) of 0.91, 0.92, and 0.85 with local shipborne sounding by KORDI, GEODAS, and a global ETOPO5 model, respectively. The enhanced GGM by selective merging shows imploved CCs of 0.948 and 0.954 with GEODAS and Smith & Sandwell (1997)'s predictions with RMS differences of 449.8 and 441.3 meters. The global marine FAGA data sets and other bathymetric models ensure that the GGM can be used in conjunction with shipborne bathymetry from echo sounding to extend the coverage into the unmapped regions, which should generate better results than simply gridding the sparse data or relying upon lower resolution global data sets such as ETOPO5.
Properties of the Variation of Fe and Mn in the Vicinity of Soil Affected by Forest Fire for the Development of Technics that Reduces Forest Fire-induced 2nd Damage from Gangwon Provinces, Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 35, issue 3, 2002, Pages 285~297
This study was carried out to prove the factor properties of the soil affected by a forest fire through the physical and chemical analysis and the data from the conclusion of those analysis are applied to the development of technics that reduces a forest fire-induced 2nd damage. The forest fire was in December 2000 at Gangreung city and Donghae city, Gangwon provinces, Korea. Soil samples were collected at upper layers (0-5 cm) and bottom layers (5-40 cm) in November 2001 from the burned and control sites. Values of pH in burned soils of the upper layers affected by forest fire are higher than those in control soils. Both the fragments of fire-burned plant and differences of geological properties are resulted in a class of soil. Contents of organic matters in burned soils are higher than those in control soils, exceptionally the contents of organic matters in burned soils that contain coaly shale are lower than those in control soils. Weathering indices in burned soils are higher than those in control soils and it concerned with loss of soil. Iron ions Fe(Fe
) are easily extracted from the burned soils by rainfall, but Mn ions are straightly exist in the burned soils by physiochemical adsorption of colloid. Through the sequential extraction in the burned soils and control soils, we are certificate the extraction of Fe ions and the disturbance of Mn ions from the burned soils. As a consequence of factor analysis in burned soil and control soil, we are certificate that the influence of forest fire results in a disturbance of positive correlation factors.