Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Economic and Environmental Geology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 36, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Geochemical and Geophysical Characteristics of Shallow Gases in the Deep Sea Sediments, Southwestern Ulleung Basin
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 3, 2003, Pages 149~157
Deep sea core samples were taken in the southwestern part of the Ulleung Basin in order to characterize the properties of shallow gases in the sediment. Amount of shallow gases in the sediments were calculated by head space techniques, and chemical and isotopic compositions of hydrocarbon gases were analyzed. Geochemical analyses were carried out on the gas bearing sediments to find out relationship between natural gas contents and organic characteristics of the sediments. Seismic characteristics of shallow gases in the sediments were also examined in this study. The amount of the hydrocarbon gases in the sediments range from 0.01% to 11.25%. Calculation of volume of gas per volume of wet sediment varies from 0.1 to 82.0 ml HC/L wet sediment. Methane consists 98% of the total hydrocarbon gases except for two samples. Based on the methane content and isotopic composition
), the hydrocarbon gases from the sediments are generated from bacterial activities of methanogenic microbes. Contents of hydrocarbon gases are variable from site to site. Volume of shallow gases in the sediments shows no apparent trends vs. either characteristics of organic matter or particle sizes of the sediments. Gas concentration is high in the area of seismic anomalies such as blanking zone or chimney structures in the section. Physicochemically the pore water and the formation water systems are saturated with gases in these areas. Concentration of hydrocarbon gases in the sediments in these area shows favorable condition for generation of gas hydrate, as far as the other conditions are satisfied.
The Effects of pH Change in Extraction Solution on the Heavy Metals Extraction from Soil and Controversial Points for Partial Extraction in Korean Standard Method
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 3, 2003, Pages 159~170
Heavy metals are extracted from Chonju stream sediment, roadside soils and sediments along Honam expressway, soils and tailings from mining area using three different methods (partial extraction in Standard Method, partial extraction method with maintaining 0.1 N of extraction solution and Sequential Extraction Method). In samples having buffer capacity against acid, pH 1 (0.1 N HCl) of extraction solution can not be maintained and pH of extraction solution increases up to 8.0 when partial extraction in Standard Method is used. The averages and ranges of HPE(heavy metals extracted using partial extraction in Standard Method)/HPEM(heavy metals extracted using partial extraction method with maintaining 0.1 N of extraction solution) values are 0.479 and 0.145~0.929 for Cd, 0.534 and 0.078~0.928 for Zn, 0.432 and 0.041~0.992 for Mn, 0.359 and 0.011~0.874 for Cu, 0.150 and 0.018~0.530 for Cr, 0.219 and 0.003~0.853 for Pb, and 0.088 and 1.73
~0.303 for Fe. These data indicate that the difference between HPE and HPEM is large in the order of Fe, Cr, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cd and Zn. The amounts of heavy metals extracted decreases in the follow order; Sum III(sum of fraction I, II, III in sequential extraction)>HPEM>Sum III (sum of fraction I and II)>HPE for Zn, Cd and Mn and Sum III>HPEM>HPE for Cr and Fe. In the case Cr, Sum II is lower than HPEM and higher than HPE. In case of Cu, extracted heavy metals is large in the order Sum IV>HPEM>Sum III HPE. HPE/HPEM value decreases with increasing the amount of HCl used for maintaining 0.1 N of extraction solution. For samples with high buffer capacity, HPE/HPEM value in all elements is lower than 0.2. On the other hand, for samples with low buffer capacity, HPE/HPEM value are over 0.2 and many samples have values higher than 0.6 for Zn, Cd Mn and Cu due to the small difference between Sum II and Sum III, and relatively higher mobility. However, for Fe and Cr, HPE/HPEM value is below 0.2 even for samples with low buffer capacity due to their low mobility and big difference between Sum II and Sum III. This study indicates that the partial extraction method in Korean Standard Method of soil is not suitable for an assessment of soil contamination in area where buffer capacity of soil can be decreased or lost because of a long term exposure to environmental damage such as acidic rain.
A Study on the Sorption Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydro-carbons(PAHs) and Cadmium by Organoclays
Seung Yeop Lee ; Soo Jin Kim ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 3, 2003, Pages 171~176
The fate and behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) and heavy metals in the environment are mainly controlled by their interactions with various components of soils and sediments. Due to their large surface area and abundance in many soils, smectites may greatly influence the fate and transport of the contaminants. In our experiment, PAH sorption by hexadecyltimethylammonium(HDTMA)-modified smectite linearly increased in proportion to the amount of HDTMA added on the clay. However, trimethylammonium(TMA)-modified smectite did not show superiority in its sorption of PAH compared with the HDTMA-smectite or dodecyltrimethylammonium(DTMA)- smectite. Meanwhile, the smectites modified with the same cationic surfactants adsorbed Cd
(heavy metal) significantly from water at low surfactant loading level, but the Cd
adsorption linearly decreased as the loading of surfactant increased. The result shows that the sorption tendency of organoclays for organic or inorganic contaminants was significantly influenced by the amount and size of the surfactants added on the clay. This reveals that the stabilization and configuration of cationic surfactant formed on the clay interlayer of different sizes may be an important factor in controlling the sorptive capacity of each pollutant in the environment.
Heavy Metal Retention by Secondary Minerals in Mine Waste Rocks at the Abandoned Seobo Mine
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 3, 2003, Pages 177~189
The main purposes of this study are to utilize mineralogical studies such as optical microscope, XRD and SEM/EDS analyses to characterize the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the mechanisms controlling the movement of dissolved metals from waste rocks at the abandoned Seobo mine. Mineralogical research of the waste rocks confirms the presence of anglesite, covellite, goethite, native sulfur and nsutite as secondary minerals, suggesting that these phases control the dissolved concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. The dissolved metals are precipitated, adsorbed and/or coprecipitated with(or within) Fe(Mn)-hydroxides and Mn(Fe)-hydroxides. The main phases of secondary mineral, Fe-hydroxide, can be classified as amorphous or poorly crystalline and more crystallized phases(e.g. goethite) by crystallinity. Amorphous or poorly crystalline Fe-hydroxide has relatively high As contents(9-24 wt.%). This poorly crystalline Fe-hydroxide changes toward more crystallized phase(e.g. goethite) which contains relatively low As(0.6-7.7 wt.%). These results are mainly due to the progressive release of As with the crystallization evolution of the As-trapping poorly crystalline Fe-hydroxides. It is also attributed to the differences of specific surface areas between the poorly crystalline Fe-hydroxides and well crystallized phases. The dissolved metals from waste rocks at Seobo mine area are naturally attenuated by a series of precipitation(as Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb), coprecipitation(Fe, Mn) and adsorption(As, Cu, Pb, An) reactions. The results of mineralogical researches permit to assess the environmental impacts of mine waste rocks in the areas, and can be used as a useful data to lay available mine restoration plan.
Optimization of Contaminated Land Investigation based on Different Fitness-for-Purpose Criteria
Jong-Chun Lee ; Michael H. Ramsey ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 3, 2003, Pages 191~200
Investigations on the contaminated lands due to heavy metals from mining activities or hydrocarbons from oil spillage for example, should be planned based on specific fitness-for-purpose criteria(FFP criteria). A FFP criterion is site specific or varies with situation, based on which not only the data quality but also the decision quality can be determined. The limiting factors on the qualities can be, for example, the total budget for the investigation, regulatory guidance or expert's subjective fitness-for-purpose criterion. This paper deals with planning of investigation methods that can satisfy each suggested FFP criterion based on economic factors and the data quality. To this aim, a probabilistic loss function was applied to derive the cost effective investigation method that balances the measurement uncertainty, which estimates the degree of the data quality, with the decision quality. In addition, investigation planning methods when the objectives of investigations do not lie in the classification of the land but simply in producing the estimation of the mean concentration of the contaminant at the site(e.g. for the use in risk assessment), were also suggested. Furthermore, the efficient allocation of resources between sampling and analysis was also devised. These methods were applied to the two contaminated sites in the UK to test the validity of each method.
Discrimination of Natural Earthquakes and Explosions in Spectral Domain
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 3, 2003, Pages 201~212
Recently, the ability of earthquake detection in the Kyungsang Basin of southeastern Korean Peninsula is greatly improved since seismic stations including seismic network of KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) have been significantly increased. However, a large number of signals from explosions are recorded because of frequent medium to large chemical explosions. The discrimination between natural earthquakes and explosions in the Basin has become an important issue. High frequency local records from 43 earthquakes and 43 explosions with comparable magnitude are selected to establish a reliable discrimination technique in the Basin. Several discrimination techniques in spectral domain using spectral amplitude ratios among Pg, Sg, and Lg waves are widely examined with tile selected data. Among them the Pg/Lg spectral ratio method is appeared to be a good discrimination technique to improve the discrimination power. Multivariate discriminant analysis is also applied to the Pg/Lg spectral ratios. The discrimination power of the Pg/Lg ratios for distance corrected three component record compared to uncorrected vertical component one shows distinct improvement. In the frequency band 4 to 14 Hz, Pg/Lg spectral ratio for distance corrected three component record provides discrimination power with a total misclassification probability of only 0.89%.
Extraction of Moho Undulation of the Korean Peninsula from Gravity Anom-alies
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 3, 2003, Pages 213~223
We estimated the Moho depth of Korean Peninsula from gravity anomalies and digital elevation model. The satellite radar altimetry-derived global free-air gravity model was used to ensure the homogeneity in both data and frequency domains of the original data. Two different methods were implemented to calculate the Moho depth; the wavenumber correlation analysis (Kim et al., 2000a) and the power spectrum analysis. The former method calculates depth-to-the-Moho by correlating topographic gravity effect with free-air gravity anomaly in the wavenumber domain under the assumption that the study area is not isostatically compensated. The latter one, on the other hand, considers the different density layers (i.e., Conrad and Moho), using complete Bouguer gravity anomaly in the Frequency domain of the Fourier transform. The correlation coefficient of the two Moho model is 0.53, and methodology and numerical error are mainly responsible for any mismatch between the two models. In order to integrate the two independentely-estimated models, we applied least-squares adjustment using the differenced depth. The resultant model has mean and standard deviation Moho depths of 32.0 km and 2.5 km with (min, max) depths of (20.3, 36.6) kms. Although this result does not include any topographic gravity effect, however, the validity of isostasy and the role of local stress field in the study area should be further studied.
Stratigraphy of Late Quaternary Core Sediments and Comparative Study of the Tephra Layers from the Northwestern Ulleung Basin of the East Sea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 3, 2003, Pages 225~232
Three piston cores. obtained from the northwestern Ulleung Basin of the East Sea, are analyzed to study the tephrostratigraphy of the late Quaternary core sediments and to reveal the comparative characteristics of the tephra layers. The cores consist mainly of the muddy sediments that are partly interbedded with lapilli tephra and ash layers. The muds are further divided into hemipelagic and turbiditic mud facies. The hemipelagic facies is dominated by bioturbated mud and crudely laminated mud, whereas the turbiditic facies includes mainly thinly laminated mud and homogeneous mud, and often alternates with non-turbiditic muds. According to microscopic observation and EDX analysis, three tephra layers of the Ulleung-Oki (U-Oki; ca. 9.3 ka), Aira-Tanzawa (AT: ca. 22~24.7 ka) and Ulleung-Yamato (U-Ym; ca. 25~33 ka) are identified in the study cores. Among these, the U-Oki and U-Ym layers, originating from the Ulleung Island, consist mainly of massive-type glass shards with alkali feldspar. Both of the tephra layers contain a lower content of SiO
(57~66.5 wt.%) and a higher content of Na
O (11~16 wt.%) than the AT layer (SiO
=75~78.5 wt.%, Na
O=6.5~9 wt.%) that consists of typical plane-type and/or bubble-wall glass grains. Compared with that of the U-Ym layer, a sedimentary facies of the U-Oki layer is very thick and contains three stratigraphic units, probably due to relatively large and different supplies of pyroclastic sediments. Thus, the eruption of Ulleung Volcano (ca. 7,300 B.C.) is thought to have had a more powerful effect on depositional environment than the U-Ym eruption.
Marine Terrace of the Jinha-Ilgwang Area, Southeast Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 3, 2003, Pages 233~242
The southeasternmost coastal area of the Korean peninsula has been regarded as a seismologically stable area as neither Quaternary faults nor earthquake activity has been reported. To clarify whether the active tectonic movement has occurred or not, a digital marine terrace mapping and fracture mapping have been done in the coastal area. Bed rocks are composed of the Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks and the Paleogene granite. Wave-cut platform in the area is smaller and narrower relative to that of the northern coastal area. Most of the platforms in the area have little Quaternary sediment. The platforms except the Holocene terrace (1 st terrace) can be divided into three steps. The lowest platform (2nd terrace) has an altitude of 8-11 m. The broad middle one (3rd terrace) is 17 to 22 m high. The highest terrace (4th terrace) is a narrow and sporadic bench with an altitude of about 44 m high. The lowest terrace is correlated to the 2nd terrace of the northern area, which corresponds to the oxygen isotopic stage 5a. The uplift rate calculated from a graphic method is 0.19 m/ky. This low uplift is typical of an intra-plate, suggesting that the area is tectonically stable. The elevation of the platforms tends slightly lower from the north to the south in the survey area. The decreasing altitude of the platforms towards the south is interpreted to result from a local block tilting during the Latest Pleistocene. This also indicates that the eastern coast of the Korean peninsula has been suffering a subsidence to the south.
GIS-based Data-driven Geological Data Integration using Fuzzy Logic: Theory and Application
;;Chang-Jo F. Chung;;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 3, 2003, Pages 243~255
The mathematical models for GIS-based spatial data integration have been developed for geological applications such as mineral potential mapping or landslide susceptibility analysis. Among various models, the effectiveness of fuzzy logic based integration of multiple sets of geological data is investigated and discussed. Unlike a traditional target-driven fuzzy integration approach, we propose a data-driven approach that is derived from statistical relationships between the integration target and related spatial geological data. The proposed approach consists of four analytical steps; data representation, fuzzy combination, defuzzification and validation. For data representation, the fuzzy membership functions based on the likelihood ratio functions are proposed. To integrate them, the fuzzy inference network is designed that can combine a variety of different fuzzy operators. Defuzzification is carried out to effectively visualize the relative possibility levels from the integrated results. Finally, a validation approach based on the spatial partitioning of integration targets is proposed to quantitatively compare various fuzzy integration maps and obtain a meaningful interpretation with respect to future events. The effectiveness and some suggestions of the schemes proposed here are illustrated by describing a case study for landslide susceptibility analysis. The case study demonstrates that the proposed schemes can effectively identify areas that are susceptible to landslides and
operator shows the better prediction power than the results using max and min operators from the validation procedure.