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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 36, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Stable Isotope and Fluid Inclusion Studies of the Daebong Gold-silver Deposit, Republic of Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 391~405
The Daebong gold-silver deposit consists of mesothermal massive quartz veins thar are filling the fractures along fault shear (NE, NW) Bones within banded or granitic gneiss of Precambrian Gyeonggi massif. Based on vein mineralogy, ore textures and paragenesis, ore mineralization of this deposits is composed of massive white quartz vein(stage I) which was formed in the same stage by multiple episodes of fracturing and healing, and transparent quartz vein(stage II) which is separated by a major faulting event. Stage I is divided into the 3 substages. Ore minerals of each substages are as follows: 1) early stage I=magnetite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, 2) middle stage I=pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, pyrite, marcasite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, electrum and 3) late stage I=pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, electrum, argentite, respectively. Ore minerals of the stage II are composed of pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena and electrum. Systematic studies (petrography and microthermometry) of fluid inclusions in stage I and II quartz veins show fluids from contrasting physical-chemical conditions: 1)
fluid(early stage I=homogenization temperature: 203∼3
, pressure: 1082∼2092 bar, salinity: 0.6∼13.4 wt.%, middle stage I=homogenization temperature: 215∼28
, salinity: 0.2∼2.8 wt.%) related to the stage I sulfide deposition, 2)
fluid (late stage I=homogenization temperature: 205∼2
, pressure: 670 bar, salinity: 4.5∼6.7 wt.%, stage II=homogenization temperature: 201-3
, salinity: 0.4-4.2 wt.%) related to the late stage I and II sulfide deposition.
fluid of early stage I is evolved to
fluid represented by the
unmixing due to decrease in fluid pressure and is diluted and cooled by the mixing of deep circulated meteoric waters (
-NaCl fluid) possibly related to uplift and unloading of the mineralizing suites.
fluid of stage II was hotter than that of late stage I and occurred partly unmixing, mainly dilution and cooling for sulfide deposition. Calculated sulfur isotope compositions (
) of hydrothermal fluids (3.5∼7.9%o) indicate that ore sulfur was derived from mainly an igneous source and partly sulfur of host rock. Measured and calculated oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (
D) of ore fluids (stage I: 1.1∼9.0
, stage II: 0.3
) and ribbon-banded structure (graphitic lamination) indicate that mesothermal auriferous fluids of Daebong deposit were two different origin and their evolution. 1) Fluids of this deposit were likely mixtures of
-rich, isotopically less evolved meteoric water and magmatic fluids and 2) were likely mixtures of
-rich. isotopically heavier
D meteoric water and magmatic
Geology and Ore Deposit of the Apdong Nb-Ta Mine, North Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 407~413
The geology of the Apdong Nb-Ta deposit, is hosted by alkali metasomatites, consist of Upper Proterozoic sedimentary rocks, alkali syenites(Hoamsan intrusive) of Phyonggang Complex(late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic), Jurassic granite and Quaternary basalt. Alkali syenites are distinguished as alkali amphibole-pyroxene syenite, alkali amphibole-biotite syenite, biotite-nepheline syenite, biotite syenite, and quartz-alkali amphibole-pyroxene syenite. Alkali metasomatites are the products of intense post-magnatic metasomatism, and form the Nb-Ta ore bodies as the belt, irregular vein and lenticular types in the southern part of Hoamsan intrusive. The ore mineralization is characterized by the occurrence of pyrochlore, zircon, and small amounts of columbite, fergusonite. magnetite, fluorite, molybdenite, ilmenite, titanite, apatite, and monazite. Pyrochlore is one of the niobium/tantalum oxides and contains substantial amounts of rare earths and radioactive elements. The compositional varieties of pyrochlore can be defined: (1) enriched in tantalum, uranium and cerium, (2) substantially tantalum- and fluorine-poor, and (3) enriched in thorium or barium. The geochemical characteristics, ore textures and mineral occurrences indicate that alkali metasomatism of the mineralizing fluid was the dominant ore-forming process.
The Effects of Bed-rock Formations on Water Quality and Contamination : Statistical Approaches
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 415~429
This study was objected to identify the difference of water quality and the characteristics of water contamination in adjacent bed-rock areas of Upper Hwajeonni and Guryongsan Formations in Miwon, Choongchungbuk-do, Korea. Water samples showed mainly (Ca, Mg)-
type in Upper Hawjeonni Formation and (Ca, Mg)-
and (Ca, Mg)-
types in Guryongsan Formation indicating the enrichment of
in major compositions. Groundwater quality could be divided into two groups based on the major weathering processes, implied by the ratio of bicarbonate to silica. Carbonate-silicate weathering predominates in Upper Hwajeonni Formation, and silicate weathering in Guryongsan Formation. Stream-water quality also appeared to be controlled by water-rock interaction. Cluster analysis identified three groups of groundwater and four groups of stream-water with distinctive geochemical characteristics. The results of factor analysis indicated that the levels of each chemical constituent in water samples derived from both natural weathering reactions and anthropogenic contamination sources. To delineate the pollution potential of water resources, Modified Pollution Index(M.P.I.) was developed. M.P.I. scores of water samples ranged from -0.08 to 0.18, with mostly positive along the rock quarry in Guryongsan Formation areas. M.P.I. scores appeared to be a useful predictor of metal contamination of water resources.
Numerical Modeling on the Prediction of Groundwater Recovery in the Youngchun Area, Kyungbook Province
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 431~440
A modeling was performed to predict the groundwater recovery in the vicinity of the waterway tunnel area using a groundwater flow model MODFLOW. The model was calibrated to reproduce measured groundwater levels and observed flow rates into the tunnel prior to lining, and then used for flow simulation under transient condition. Model predictions under steady-state condition revealed that if tunnel conductance had been reduced by 25% to 90%, groundwater levels would recover between 8% and 72.4% of their initial levels and flow into the tunnel will decrease between 5.5% and 82.7%. In case of 75% tunnel condutance ruduction in transient simulation. most of wells were predicted to recover within 20 years or so. The complete recovery for the wells with the groundwater level over 70 m was found to be impossible. For the 90% tunnel conductance reduction, all wells were found to be recovered within 15 years.
The Hydrochemical and Stable Isotope Characteristics of Shallow Groundwater Near the Gwangju Stream
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 441~455
The most common water types are found to be Ca-
-Cl in Gwangju groundwater. Groundwater near the Gwangju stream are characterized Ca-Cl water type, with over 50 mg/L of C1- and 400
S/cm of EC. The systematic variation of
,- EC and
values in groundwater with distance away from drainages is caused by streamwater infiltration. Stable isotope data indicate that
values of groundwaters near drainages were enriched by evaporation effect, showing a equation of
values over -6
are anomalous in the unconfined groundwater zones, which are influenced by the local surface water enriched in
composition. Groundwater in highland shows remarkably light
values below -8
. The infiltration of streamwater is dominant in unconfined alluvium aquifer near drainages.
CDIC values (-17.6∼-15.2
) of groundwaters near drainages revealed that dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is predominantly originated from natural soil-derived
values of nitrate are 0∼17.0
, respectively. Relationship between
shows a systematic isotopic fractionation caused by denitrification of 40∼60%, suggesting that the major source of groundwater nitrate originated from nitrate of soils, and mixing nitrate of soil and sewage or manure.
Environmental Assessment and Decision of Remediation Scope for Arsenic Contaminated Farmland Soils and River Deposits Around Goro Abandoned Mine, Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 457~467
Soil Precise Investigation(SPI) for river deposits and farmland soils around Goro abandoned Zn-mine, Korea was performed to assess the pollution level of heavy metals(As. Pb, Cd, Cu) and to estimate the remediation volume for contaminated soils. Total investigation area was about 950000
, which was divided into each section of 1500
corresponding to one sampling site and 545 samples for surface soil(0-10cm in depth) and 192 samples for deep soil(10-30cm in depth) from the investigation area were collected for analysis. Concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb at all sample sites were shown to be lower than Soil Pollution Warning Limit(SPWL). For arsenic concentration, in surface soils, 20.5% of sample sites(104 sites) were over SPWL(6mg/kg) and 6.7%(34 sites) were over Soil Pollution Counterplan Limit(SPCL: 15mg/kg) suggesting that surface soils were broadly contaminated by As. For deep soils, 10.4% of sample sites(18 sites) were over SPWL and 0.6%(1 site) were over SPCL. Four pollution grades for sample locations were prescribed by the Law of Soil Environmental Preservation and Pollution Index(PI) for each soil sample was decided according to pollution grades(over 15.0 mg/kg, 6.00-15.00 mg/kg, 2.40-6.00 mg/kg, 1.23-6.00 mg/kg). The pollution contour map around Goro mine based on PI results was finally created to calculate the contaminated area and the remediation volume for contaminated soils. Remediation area with over SPWL concentration was about 0.3% of total area between Goro mine and a projected storage dam and 0.9% of total area was over 40% of SPWL. If the remediation target concentration was determined to over background level concentration, 1.1% of total area should be treated for remediation. Total soil volume to be treated for remediation was estimated on the assumption that the thickness of contaminated soil was 30cm. Soil volume to be remediated based on the excess of SPWL was estimated at 79,200
, soil volume exceeding 40% of SPWL was about 233,700
, and soil volume exceeding the background level(1.23 mg/kg) was 290,760 TEX>$m^3$.
The Effects of pH Control on the Leaching Behavior of Heavy Metals within Tailings and Contaminated Soils : Seobo and Cheongyang Tungsten Mine Areas
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 469~480
Laboratory leaching experiment study carried out to estimate a extent of heavy metals that could be leached out when acid rain(pH 5.0-3.0) and strong acidic solution(pH 2.5-1.0) reacted with tailings and contaminated soils from abandoned metal mines. In slightly to moderately acid conditions(pH 5.0-3.0), As, Pb and Zn dissolutions became significantly increased with decreased pH in tailing, while dissolution of these elements was very limited in contaminated soil. These results suggested that moderately acid rainwater leaches Pb, As and Zn from the tailings, while these elements would remain fixed in contaminated soil. In the pH range of 2.5-1.0(strongly acid condition), Zn, Cd and Cu concentrations of leachate rapidly increased with decreased pH in contaminated soil, while Pb, As and Co dissolutions became importantly increased in tailings. The experimental solubility of Zn. Cd and Cu was very low even at very low pH values(up to pH 1), except for CY4(Cheongyang mine). These can result from an incomplete dissolution or the presence of less soluble mineral phases. So, the solubility of heavy metals depends not only on the pH values of leachate but also on the speciation of metals associated with contaminated soils and tailings. The relative mobility of each element within failings at the pH 5.0-3.0 of the reaction solution was in the order of Pb>Zn>Cd>Co=Cu>As. In case of pH 2.5-1.0 of the reaction solution, the relative mobility of each element within contaminated soils and tailings were in the order of Zn＞Cd>Cu>Co>Pb=As for contaminated soils, and Pb>Zn>Cd>hs>Co>Cu for tailings. The obtained results could be useful for assessing the environmental effects and setting up the restoration plan in the areas.
Chemical Speciation of Arsenic in the Water System from Some Abandoned Au-Ag Mines in Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 481~490
The objectives of this study are (1) to determine the extent and degree of As contamination of the water and sediments influenced by mining activity of the abandoned Au-Ag mines, (2) to examine As speciation In contaminated water, (3) to monitor variation of As contamination in water system throughout the dry and wet seasons, and (4) to investigate the As chemical form in the sediments through the sequential extraction analyses. Natural water(mine water, surface water and groundwater) and sediments were collected in six abandoned Au-Ag mine(Au-bearing quartz veins) areas. The contamination level of As in mine water of the Dongil(524
/L) is more higher than the tolerance level(500
/L) for waste water of mine area in Korea. Elevated levels of As in stream water were also found in the Dongil(range of 63.7∼117.6
/L.) and Gubong(range of 56.1∼62.9
/L) mine areas. Arsenic contamination levels in groundwater used by drinking water were more significant in the Dongil(11.3∼63.5
/L) and Gubong(2.0∼101.0
/L) mine areas. Arsenate[As(V),
] is more dominant than arsenite[As(III),
] in water system of the most mine areas. The concentration ratios of As(III) to As(total), however, extend to the 95% in stream water of the Okdong mine area and 70∼82% in groundwater of the Okdong and Dongjung mine areas. As a study of seasonal variation in the water system, relatively high levels of As from the dongil mine area were found in April rather than in September. Sequential extraction analysis showed that As was predominantly present as coprecipitated with Fe hydroxides from sediment samples of the Dongjung and Gubong mine(35.9∼40.5%), which indicates its possibility of re-extraction and inducing elevated contamination of As in the reductive condition. In sediments from the Dongil, Okdong and Hwachon mine area, high percentage(55.2∼83.4%) of As sulfide form was found.
Seismic Structure in the Northwestern Margin of the Okinawa Trough
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 491~499
The Okinawa Trough is a rift basin formed by extension. Analysis of multichannel seismic reflection profiles from the northwestern margin of the northern Okinawa Trough reveal that the trough is characterized by a series of tilted fault blocks bounded by listric normal faults and half-grabens developed between blocks, showing typical rifted structures. The trough display three kinds of sedimentary sequences with different seismic reflection characteristics: prerift, synrift and postrift sediments. The prerift sequence develops parallel to the dip direction of tilted fault blocks. The synrift sediments, mostly deposited in the half-grabens between tilted fault blocks, are generally well characterized by divergence of the reflectors towards the blocks indicating contemporaneous deposition during tilting. The postrift sediments are featured by continuous and parallel reflectors. The width of the half-graben and the throw-displacement rate of the basin bounding fault are closely connected. The throw-displacement rate is the maximum when the rifting event is the most active and the width of the half-graben is proportional to the rate.
Geophysical Surveys for the Detection of Gallery and Geomembrane at the Imcheon Abandoned Mine
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 501~510
Several geophysical surveys(electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, seismic refraction, CPR) were conducted to primarily investigate the gallery and the geomembrane at an abandoned mine(Imcheon mine). The subsurface structure mapped from seismic refraction survey mainly consists of three velocity layers(>1000 m/s, 1000∼2000 m/s,＜2000 m/s). Top of the bedrock, whose velocities exceed 2000 m/s, appears to be at depth of 7.5∼10m. Higher resistivities (of ten thousands-hundred of thousands ohm-m) are interpreted to be associated with a open(cavities) gallery. The events at depth of approximately 0.5∼0.7m in GPR sections are probably caused by high-density-poly-ethylene geomembrane. Taking into consideration of the differences in the spatial resolution between georadar and electrical surveys, the events of geomembrane correspond to the top of the high resistivities at depth of about 2m. The segments, characterized with the higher conductivities in the electromagnetic data and the lower resistivities in the electrical resistivity data, are probably associated with surface water or tear zone of geomembrane.
A Preliminary Study on Stratigraphy and Petrochemistry of the Okcheon Group, Southwestern Okcheon Metamorphic Belt
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 511~525
The Okcheon Group in the southwestern part of the Okcheon Metamorphic Belt is subdivided into two distinct tectonostratigraphic units: the Boeun unit in the south and the Pibanryeong unit in the north. The Boeun unit consists of petites, psammites, carbonaceous petites, limestones and pebble-bearing quartzites. The Pibanryeong unit is composed of petites, well-sorted fine-grained psammites, carbonaceous psammites and quartzites. In order to outlining stratigraphy and depositional environments of the Okcheon Group, detailed stratigraphic sections were measured in three locations; one section(Gosan section) of the Boeun unit and two sections(Sorungjae and Hwangryeongzae sections) of the Pibanryeong unit. The Gosan section of the Boeun unit is interpreted to be deposited in the shallow marine environments, whereas the Sorungjae and Hwangryeonaiae sections of the Pibanryeong unit appear to be deposited in slope and deep basin environments. This result indicates rapid subsidence between deposition of the Boeun and Pibanryeong units in sedimentary environment. The trace of sedimentological environments in the Hwasan area was investigated by geochemical analysis of 109 metapelitic and psammitic rock samples. Distinct chemical variations of politic and psammitic rocks from the Boeun and Pibanryeong units in the study area are evident from plots of major elements and
versus Basicity Index(
). The rocks show a progressive chemical trend from the Boeun unit to the Pibanryeong unit on these diagrams. They in the southern sector of the Boeun unit display lower values and a comparatively wide range of
and Basicity Index, as compared with those from the northern sector of the Boeun and Pibanryeong units. The southern sector of the Pibanryeong unit including narrow staurolite-bearing zone is characterized by values that are transitional between the Boeun and Pibanryeong units. These data, combined with depositional environment progressively deepened towards the northwest, support a half-graben model for the Okcheon basin, as proposed by Cluzel et al.(1990)
Eruption Cycles and Volcanic Form of the Dokdo Volcano, Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 527~536
The Dokdo volcano in the south-central part of the East Sea is classified into 8 rock units. The units and sequence suggest that the Dok Island forms a small stratovolcano constructed from at least 3 times eruption cycles above the sea level and proceeded with transformation of a few different eruption styles during each cycle. Reconstruction of the volcanic form, from the geologic structures and spatial lithofacies changes, suggests that the island is remnants of the southwestern caldera rim of the stratovolcano whose central part lies several hundred meters to the northeast. The subaqueous volcano shows abig guyot, which looks like a shield volcano, that represents gentle slope at 90-175 m deep and relatively steep one in 200∼2,000m, and 25∼30km wise base on sea floor. Therefore the total Dokdo volcano represents a multiple volcano that stratovolcano with small caldera overlies the big guyot.
The As-removal Effects of Pyrite Including Arsenopyrite after Process for Use in Medicine.
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 537~543
As pyrite is commonly associated with arsenopyrite, the use of pyrite including arsenopyrite for medicine requires close attention on arsenic toxicity. The toxicity was reduced by traditional processing operations include heating and quenching in vinegar. To verify the scientific effects of this process, pyrite containing many crystals of arsenopyrite was processed at temperatures from 45
and through as many as 5 processing cycles. Arsenopyrite completely disappeared when processed only once at
while it remained even after 5 processing cycles at 45
. Arsenic was most abundant in medicinal mineral samples processed at 45
and sharply decreased when processed at
And arsenic extraction test in water was carried out from the processed pyrite medicine on the assumption that pyrite medicines with the lowest As metal content would be most desirable. Arsenic were most abundant in water extracted from medicinal mineral samples processed at 45
and sharply decreased when processed at
. But the extracted As concentrations in water exceeded drinking water standards even when processed at 85
. Increasing temperature promoted elimination of arsenopyrite and reduction of As in medicinal minerals and the extraction solutions. But the effects of processing cycles at the same processing temperature were not clear. Heating temperature is more important than number of processing cycles for the removal of arsenic, and it is necessary to heat pyrite to over
to remove it.
Late Quaternary Stratigraphy and Depositional Environment of the Yeongsan River Estuary, Southwestern Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 545~556
Detailed interdisciplinary investigations demonstrate that the Yeongsan River estuarine-filled sediments clearly record important paleoenvironmental changes during the Last Glacial and Holocene. The sediments from 18.9 m(20.5∼l.6m in depth) long core MW-1 are differentiated by changes in sedimentary textures and palynomorph assemblages. Chronology was provided by AMS
C dating and regional pollen correlation. Three paleoenvironrnental phases are recognized: (1) The Last Glacial deposits consist mainly of fluvial sediments and paleosols, experienced deposition alternating with pedogenesis. The appearance of the paleosols suggests that the paleoclimate might be cold and humid. (2) The early and middle Holocene phase started abruptly in response to the rapid global climatic warming. and is characterized by abundant marine palynomorphs. (3) The late Holocene is marked by more cool conditions. The paleoenvironmental changes recorded in the sediments coincide not only with local but also with broad-scale, probably global climate changes.
Experimental Study on the Mitigation of Harmful Algal Blooms by Mono-Minerals
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 557~561
It is important to find out a new material having high removal efficiency for the harmful algal blooms because the dispersion of Hwangto in a large amount to the sea water may bring some ecologically unfavorable problems. For this purpose, the efficiency of several natural and synthetic mineral species for the mitigation of algal blooms was measured. The mixing ratio of monominerals and the sea water with 3,000∼5,000 cells/
of Cochlodinium polykrikoides was 10 g/
and the removal ratio was measured by counting the living cells after the dispersion time of 10, 30 and 60 min., respectively. According to the experimental results, the removal ratio by illite, kaolinite, montmonmorillonite, red mud, Na-A type of zeolite ranged 84-92% after 1hr of contact time, which is comparable to that of Hwangto. The size of above monominerals ranged 3∼50
. Meanwhile, the amorphose material and hematite with the size of 50∼100 nm showed excellent removal ratio of more than 99% after 30min. of dispersion. The results of the study showed that the removal ratio was not related to the chemical composition and pH of the minerals applied but to the grain size. The experimental results strongly suggest that the main mitigation mechanism would be the contact and coagulation.