Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Economic and Environmental Geology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 6 - Dec 2004
Volume 37, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Aug 2004
Volume 37, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Apr 2004
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
Selecting the target year
An Overview of Geoenvironmental Implications of Mineral Deposits in Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 1, 2004, Pages 1~19
Metallic deposits in Korea have a variety of genetic types such as hydrothermal veins, skarns, hydrothermal replacement and alaskite deposits and so on. Geological, mineralogical and geochemical features including host rock, wall-rock alteration, ore and gangue mineralogy, mineral texture and secondary mineralogy related to weathering process control the environmental signatures of mining areas. The environmental signatures of metallic deposits closed from early 1970s to late 1990s in Korea show complicate geochemistry and mineralogy due to step weathering of primary and secondary minerals such as oxidation-precipitation-remobilization. The potentiality of low pH and high heavy metal Concentration s from acid mine drainage is great in base-metal deposits associated with polymetallic mineralization, breccia-pipe type and Cretaceous hydrothermal Au veins with the amount of pyrite whereas skam, hydrothermal replacement, hydrothermal Cu and Au-Ag vein deposits are in low contamination possibility. The geoenvironmental models reflecting the various geologic features closely relate to disuibution of sulfides and carbonates and their ratios and finally effect on characteristics of environmental signatures such as heavy metal species and their concentrations in acid mine drainage.
Environmental Assessment of Heavy Metals Anna Abandoned Metalliferous Mine in Korea
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 1, 2004, Pages 21~33
The objective of this study is to review of environmental assessment of heavy metals derived from various metalliferous mines in Korea. As a results of national wide research for heavy metal contaminations in the vicinity of metalleferous mines, the main contaminants are mine waste materials including tailings. From the materials, toxic elements including As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn can be dispersed into downstream through wind and water. Thus, soils around the mines contain elevated levels of those elements, which are over the guide values for environmental regulation of soils in Korea. Arsenic is one of the most important elements contaminated by mining activities, to a less extent, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. In spite of remediation works for some metal mines by the government, there are still lots of abandoned mines which are necessary for reclamation of mining sites. This study also includes that metal concentrations in soils and tailings can be varied upon various decomposition methods including 0.1N HC1 and aqua regia and sequential extraction scheme, with differences in each element, too. This may be due to geochemical characteristics of the elements, such as solubility, mobility and chemical forms in the geochemical environment. Finally, it is suggested that a certain organization should be runned by Korean government for management of abandoned mines.
Geochemical Approaches for Investigation and Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Abandoned Mine Sites
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 1, 2004, Pages 35~48
This paper provides a comprehensive overview of geochemical approaches for investigating and assessing heavy metal contamination in abandoned mine sites. Major sources of contaminants at the abandoned mine sites are mine water, waste rocks, tailings, and chemicals used in beneficiation and mineral processing. Soil, sediment, surface and ground water, and ecological system can be contaminated by heavy metals, which are transported due to erosion of mine waste piles, discharge of acid mine drainage and processed water, and dispersion of dust from waste rocks and tailings. The abandoned mine sites should be characterized using various methods including chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis, acid generation prediction tests, leaching/extraction tests, and field tests. Potential and practical environmental impacts from the abandoned mines should be assessed based on the site characterization.
Cost-effective Investigation on Contaminated Land and Assessment of Measurement Uncertainty
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 1, 2004, Pages 49~59
The concectration and distribution of contaminants obtained from a contaminated land investigation or an environmental geochemistry survey constitutes the basis of a decision-making process on environmental policies or of scientific researches. As the quality of data determines the reliability of the result, the investigation plan should be adjusted according to the purpose of the investigation. In general, the effort to improve the data quality had been focused mainly on the QA/QC procedures in laboratories. The rapid progress of analytical instrument has also contributed toward improving the analytical precision to a sacrificable degree. Nevertheless, in many cases, it is not the analytical precision that needs improvement for the better precision of overall measurement process: it is rather during the sampling process in the field that is responsible for the poor precision. To assess the data quality on a measured value, ISO recommends to provide information on "measurement uncertainty" along with the measured value. The measurement uncertainty in an environmental measurement context can be explained as the statistical number that expresses the degree of the uncertainty stemming from the sampling and analytical procedures. There is a cost involved in order to improve the precision of sampling and analytical methods so as to decrease the degree of measurement uncertainty. The economical point of compromise in an investigation planning can be achieved when the allowable degree of uncertainty has been set before-hand. The investigation can then be planned accordingly not to exceed the uncertainty limit. Furthermore, if the measurement uncertainty estimated from the preliminary investigation can be separated into sampling and analytical uncertainties, it can be used as a criterion where the resources for the investigation should be allotted cost-effectively to reinforce the weakest link of the whole investigation process. This paper aims to present a method of estimating the level of measurement uncertainty of a measured contamination concentration at a site used as an example and to show how the estimated uncertainty can be applied to serve the particular purpose of an investigation.
Geochemical Characteristics of Soil Solution from the Soil Near Mine Tailing Dumps and the Contamination Assessment in Duckum Mine
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 1, 2004, Pages 61~72
The soil samples were collected from the paddy field near the mine tailing dumps in the abandoned Duckum mine in Korea. In the laboratory, the soil solution was extracted from the soil using centrifuge, and analysed for the chemical composition. Physical and chemical soil properties were also analysed. Kaolinite is the main clay minerals in the paddy soil and the CEC value is therefore relatively low. Nearly all soil samples show enrichment in their trace elemental concentrations(Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) compared with natural background level. Some soil samples exceed the soil remediation intervention values for Cd, Pb and Zn and target value for Cu, when compared with Dutch standard, whereas As, Ni and Cr are in normal range. Lead concentrations in some samples near the mine tailing dumps also exceed the standard for remediation act for agricultural area set by Korean soil conservation law. The trace elemental concentrations are higher in the paddy soil nearer the mine tailing dumps and lower for the samples from distance. Similar trend with distance is found for the soil solution chemistry but the decrease with distance from the mine tailing dumps are sharper than the changes in soil chemistry. Cadmium, Cu and Pb concentrations in the soil solution are very low, ranging from a tenth and hundredths to a maximum of several mg/l, whereas their concentrations in soils are highly enriched for natural background. Most of the trace elements are thought to be either removed by reduced iron sulphides or iron oxides, depending on the redox changes. Geochemical equilibrium modelling indicate the presence of solubility controlling solid phases for Cd and Pb, whereas Zn and Cu might have been controlled by adsorption/desorption processes. Although pollutants migration through solution phase are thought to be limited by adsorption onto various Fe, Mn solid phases, the pollutants exist as easily releasable fractions such as exchangeable site. In this case, the paddy soil would act as pollutant pool, which will supply to plants in situ. whenever the geochemical conditions favour.
Human Risk Assessment of Toxic Heavy Metals Around Abandoned Metal Mine Sites
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 1, 2004, Pages 73~86
In order to estimate the post-ingestion bioavailability of heavy metals and to assess the risk of adverse health effects on human exposure to toxic heavy metals, environmental geochemical surveys were undertaken around the Dogok Au-Ag-Cu and the Hwacheon Au-Ag-Pb-Zn mine sites. Human risk assessment of toxic heavy metals was performed with the results of the SBET(simple bioavailability extraction test) analysis for soil and chemical analytical data for crop plant and water. Arsenic and other heavy metals were highly elevated in tailings from the Dogok(218 As mg/kg, 90.2 Cd mg/kg, 3,053 Cu mg/kg, 9,473 Pb mg/kg, 14,500 Zn mg/kg) and the Hwacheon(72 As mg/kg, 12.4 Cd mg/kg. 578 Pb mg/kg, 1,304 Zn mg/kg) mines. These significant concentrations can impact on soils and waters around the tailing dumps. The quantities of As, Cd and Zn extracted from paddy soils in the Hwacheon mine using the SBET analysis were 55.4%, 20.8% and 26.4% bioavailability, respectively, and for farmland soils in the Dogok mine, 40.8%, 37.6% and 33.0% bioavailability, respectively. From the results of human risk assessment, HI(Hazard Index) value exceeded 1.0 for As in the Hwacheon mine and for Cd in the Dogok mine. Thus, toxic risks for As and Cd exist via exposure(ingestion) of contaminated soil, water and rice grain in these mine sites. The cancer risk for As by the consumption of rice and groundwater in the Hwacheon mine area was 8E-4 and 1E-4, respectively. This risk level exceeds the acceptable risk(1 in 100,000) for regulatory purpose. Therefore, regular ingestion of locally grown rice and ground-water by the local population can pose a potential health threat due to long-term arsenic exposure.
Chemical Speciation and Potential Mobility of Heavy Metals in Tailings and Contaminated Soils
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 1, 2004, Pages 87~98
Tailings and contaminated soils from Cheongyang mine and Seobo mine have been analysed by ICP-AES from 5-step sequential extraction method of multielement determination on extraction solutions at each step. As and Co within tailings and contaminated soils from Cheongyang mine and Seobo mine are mainly in the residual phase. In case of Cd, Cu and Zn, the most dominant fraction for tailings of Cheongyang mine is the oxidizable phase, while tailings of Seobo mine is dominated by the residual phase. In contaminated soils from Seobo mine, the predominant fraction for Cd, Cu and Zn is the Fe-Mn oxide phase. The exchangeable fraction of Pb in tailings from Cheongyang mine and Seobo mine is relatively high compared with those of other metals; whereas Pb fraction in contaminated soils from Seobo mine is largely associated with the residual fraction.
Emerging Remediation Technologies for the Contaminated Soil/Groundwater in the Metal Mining Areas
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 1, 2004, Pages 99~106
Pollution reduction and/or control technology becomes one of the pressing post-semiconductor research field to lead an advanced industrial structure. Soil/groundwater remediation techniques may act as a core technology which will create many demands on pollution reduction areas. A plenty numbers of abandoned metal mines were left without any remediation action in Korea, and it may be potential sources of heavy metal and As contamination in the ecosystem. In order to bring this soil contamination to a settlement, the emerging soil/groundwater remediation techniques should be introduced. Main research topics in the United States and Europe move towards the clean remediation technology without any secondary impact and the feasible application of developing technique into the field scale study. With these advantages, several soil/groundwater techniques such as electrokinetic soil processing, permeable reactive barrier, stabilization/solidification, biosorption, soil flushing with biosurfactant, bioleaching and phytoremediation will be summarized in this paper.
An Overview of Coal Mine Drainage Treatment
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 1, 2004, Pages 107~111
This study was undertaken to summarize of the efficiencies of the passive treatment system and suggest future studies for the solution of mine drainage problem. Flow rates of mine drainage from the abandoned coal mines are about 80,000 ton/day. Contaminated mine drainages over about 50 ton/day of flow rate were treated by passive treatment facilities such as Successive Alkalinity Producing Systems(SAPS), oxidation pond and oxic wetland. Chemical analysis for 13 passive coal mine treatment facilities showed that SAPS was the core of treatment facilities because the variation of Fe removal rates was relatively smaller than any other processes and re-leaching of Fe was not measured. The performance and life of SAPS depended on decrease in permeability and retention time due to accumulation of sludge. It is inferred that upgrade of design of the passive treatment system and in-situ treatment using underground void will be necessary for the amelioration of the mine drainage with high metal loading rates.
Review on Reprocessing Techniques for Mineral Wastes
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 1, 2004, Pages 113~119
Mineral wastes are generated by the minerals, mining, and metal industries. These are generally inorganic waste streams of mainly waste rock or residues from refining during extraction of metals or minerals from the ore. There are many plants where minerals are recovered in secondany circuits, treating tailings, where the feed grades are much lower than would be economic on a mined ore. The world is now becoming aware of the finite nature of its resources at a price, and of the ever-increasing development costs of large new mines. Reprocessing of old tailings on a large scale must be worth examining very seriously by those with access to sufficient material of this type. In the present paper, mineral separation techniques to recover valuable metals and resources from the old tailings are reviewed, and new trends for future developments are also discussed.
Remediation Design Using Soil Washing and Soil Improvement Method for As Contaminated Soils and Stream Deposits Around an Abandoned Mine
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 1, 2004, Pages 121~131
Removal efficiencies of soil washing and soil improvement processes to remediate farmland soils and stream deposits around Goro abandoned mine were investigated with batch and column experiments. For As-contaminated farm-land soils around Goro mine, batch tests to quantify As extraction rate from contaminated soils and lime treated contaminated soils were performed. The contaminated soil mixed with lime decreased As extraction rate less than one fourth, suggesting that the soil improvement method mixed with lime dramatically decrease As extraction rate. A storage dam will be constructed in the lower part of the main stream connected to Goro abandoned mine and the amount of As extracted from the bottom soils of reservoir could be the main source to contaminate water of reservoir. The decrease of As extraction amount from the bottom in reservoir, caused by the application of the soil improvement method was investigated from the physically simulated column experiment and results showed that As extraction rate decreased to one forty when 1％ lime mixed soil improvement was applied to contaminated soils. For contaminated stream deposits connected Goro mine, the removal efficiency of the soil washing method was investigated with batch experiments. Hydrochloric acid, citric acid, acetic acid and distilled water were used as soil washing solution and 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 N of washing solution were applied to extract As. When washing with 0.05 N of hydrochloric acid or citric acid, more than 99.9% of As was removed from stream deposits, suggesting that As contaminated stream deposits around Goro mine be successfully remediated with the soil washing process. Total volumes of contaminated soils and deposits needed for remediation were calculated based on three different reme-diation target concentrations and the operation cost of soil washing for calculated soil volumes was estimated. Results from this research could be directly used to make a comprehensive countermeasure to remediate contaminated area around Goro mine and also many contaminated areas similar to this research area.
Comparative Study on Laboratory Experimental Results for Removal Efficiencies of Heavy Metals in AMD ＆ ARD using Natural Materials
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 1, 2004, Pages 133~142
The purpose of this study is to evaluate a laboratory test on arsenic removal effciency for ARD(Acid Rock Drain-age) using limestone and apatite, and on heavy metals removal efficiencies for AMD(Acid Mine Drainage) using apatite and fish bone. As a result of the laboratory test, pH, arsenic removal rate of limestone & apatite are inversely proportional to flow rates and apatite removes 100% of arsenic while limestone removes 37% of arsenic at 0.6
/min/kg flow rate in case of ARD treatment. And the dissolution amount of apatite is twenty five times higher than that of limestone. In case of AMD treatment, fish bone shows higher dissolution rate than apatite, and pH of outlet water reacted with fish bone is higher than that reacted with apatite. The heavy metal removal rates of fish bone are also higher than that of apatite except arsenic removal rate. The precipitate resulted from fish bone reaction with AMD seems to be biological sludge type while that resulted from apatite with AMD is inorganic solid which can settle easily compared with the biological sludge and can be cemented by gypsum. As the results, apatite can be used as a precipitant for the polluted mine waters showing wide range of pH and fish bone can be used for highly contaminated AMD.
Development of Porous Support with Mine Waste Materials
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 1, 2004, Pages 143~151
This study focused on examining the possibility of recycling mine solid waste as environmental materials, especially for porous media. Basic properties including mineralogical compositions, chemical compositions, and particle size distribution of the tailings from the Sangdong W mine were checked. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of the tailings samples were not much different in depth. According to Korean Standard Leaching Test for Wastes(KSLT), concentrations of heavy metals leached from the tailings were below the standard values. As a result of particle size analysis, the median diameter (d
) of the tailings was in the range of 10 to 30
. The stable tailings slurry made up of 3
was prepared using Attrition Mill. The milling condition was 40 vol% in slurry concentration, 700 rpm in stirring speed, and 1 hour in milling time. PEI was added as dispersing agent. Concentrated slurry was extended to 3 times by foaming method. In the case of 3 times foamed slurry, the total and open porosity of ceramic supports sintered at 1,075
for 90 minutes was about 80% and 72%, respectively. Pore size was in the range of 30∼350
. Therefore, the tailings could be recycled starting material for environmental materials such as macroporous ceramic support.