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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 6 - Dec 2004
Volume 37, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Aug 2004
Volume 37, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Apr 2004
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
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Geology of the Kualkulun in the Middle Kalimantan, Indonesia: I. Stratigraphy and Structure
Kim In-Joon ; Kee Won-Seo ; Song Kyo-Young ; Kim Bok-Ghul ; Lee Sa-Ro ; Lee Gyoo Ho ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 5, 2004, Pages 437~457
The geology of the Kualakulun in the Middle Kalimantan, Indonesia comprises Permian to Carboniferous Pinoh Metamorphic Rocks and Cretaceous Sepauk Plutonics of the Sunda Shield, late Eocene Tanjung Formation, Oligocene Malasan Volcanics, Oligocene to early Miocene Sintang Intrusives and Quaternary alluvium. Tanjung Formation was deposited in low-and high-sinuosity channel networks developed on the proximal to distal delta plain and delta front forming southward paleoflow system, which, in turn, gradually change into shallow marine environment. Four main deformational phases are recognized: D1, folding of metamorphic rocks accompanied by development of S1 schistosity under regional metamorphic condition; D2, ductile shearing in Cretaceous granitoids; D3, folding of metamorphic rocks accompanied by S2 crenulation cleavage; D4, faulting under N-S compressional regime during Tertiary times, producing NE-trending sinistral and NW-trending dextral strike-slip faults and N-S to NNE-trending normal faults.
Geology of the Kualkulun in the Middle Kalimantan, Indonesia: II. Mineralogy and Geochemistry
Kim In-Joon ; Lee Gyoo Ho ; Cho Deung-Lyong ; Lee Seung-Ryeol ; Lee Sa-Ro ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 5, 2004, Pages 459~475
The geology of the Kualakulun area in Middle Kalimantan, Indonesia comprises Permian to Carboniferous Pinoh Metamorphic Rocks and Cretaceous Sepauk Plutonics of the Sunda Shield, late Eocene Tanjung Formation, Oligocene Malasan Volcanics, Oligocene to early Miocene Sintang Intrusives and Quaternary alluvium. Sepauk Plutonic rocks are classified as the calc-alkaline series and the S-type granite. Sintang Intrusive rocks are basic-intermediate and intermediate rocks, and consists of basalt, basaltic andesite, basaltic trachyandesite and trachyandesite. The Malasan Volcanics are characterized by intermediate dacitic pyroclasticl and minor lavas and belong to the subalkaline (calc-alkaline and tholeiitic) series. The whole-rock K-Ar ages of the fine-grained biotite granites and medium-grained granitoids were determined to be 100.5-106.5 Ma and 91.9-102.6 Ma, respectively. The whole-rock K-Ar age of the diorite is 89.1 Ma. K-Ar ages of the Malasan Volcanics and Shintang intrusives show 31.5-36.8 Ma and 24.6-34.5 Ma, respectively, and correspond to the Tertiary time.
Petrography and Geochemistry of the Ultramafic Rocks from the Hongseong and Kwangcheon areas, Chungcheongnam-Do.
Song Suckhwan ; Choi Seon Gyu ; Oh Chang Hwan ; Seo Ji Eun ; Choi Seongho ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 5, 2004, Pages 477~497
In the Hongseong and Kwangcheon areas, two ultramafic rocks are exposed as isolated bodies in the Precambrian Kyeonggi gneiss complex. The ultramafic rocks extend for several hundred meters to NNE direction and are contact with adjacent metasediments by steeply dipping faults. The rocks are dunite or harzburgite showing dominantly equigranular-mosaic and protogranular textures with a minor amount of porphyroclastic textures. They contain varying amounts of fosteritic olivine (F
), magnesian pyroxene (E
) and tremolitic to magnesian hornblende with minor amounts of spinel, serpentine, chlorite, magnetite, phlogopite and talc. The rocks are in contrast with adjacent gneiss complex or metabasite (amphibole, biotite, plagioclase, alkali-feldspar and quartz). Geochemically, these ultramafic rocks are characterized by high magnesium number (M
> 0.88) and transitional element (mainly, Ni>1716 ppm, Cr>1789 ppm), low alkali element (e.g.
O<0.09 wt.%, Na
O<0.19 wt.%) and depletion of incompatible elements. The calculated correlation coefficients showed good positive correlations among the ferrous (e.g. Sc, V, Zn) elements, incompatible elements (e.g. REE), and among SiO
with ferrous elements, whereas negative correlations are appeared between Ni and major elements. These results involve increasing of the ferrous- and
-bearing minerals(e.g. amphibole and mica) with decreasing of Mg-bearing minerals (e.g. olivine) depending on the degree of alteration. Calculated geothermometries and mineral assemblages suggest that the ultramafic rocks have been metamorphosed through the condition from the greenschist to amphibolite facies. Compared with ultramafic rocks elsewhere, it is thought that those of the Hongseong and Kwangcheon areas are derivatives of the depleted sources since they are depleted in incompatible elements including REE abundances. Moreover overall characteristics of the ultramafic rocks are similar to the those of orogenic related Alpine type ultramafic rocks, especially, shallow mantle slab varieties.
A Study on Groundwater Flow Modeling in the Fluvial Aquifer Adjacent to the Nakdong River, Book-Myeon Area, Changwon City
Hamm Se-Yeong ; Cheong Jae-Yeol ; Kim Hyoung-Su ; Hahn Jeong-Sang ; Ryu Su-Hee ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 5, 2004, Pages 499~508
Changwon City first constructed riverbank filtration plants in Book-Myeon and Daesan-Myeon in Korea in the year 2001. This study evaluated hydrogeological characteristics and groundwater flow simulation between the Nakdong River and the fluvial aquifers adjacent to the river in Book-Myeon, Changwon City. The groundwater simulation calculated the influx rate from the Nakdong River and the fluvial aquifers to pumping wells through the riverbank filtration system. The groundwater flow model utilized drilling, grain size analysis, pumping test, groundwater level measurements, river water discharge and rainfall data. Hydraulic heads calculated by the steady-state model closely matched measured heads in pumping and observation wells. According to the transient flow model, using a total pumping amount of 14,000
/day, the flux into the pumping wells from the Nakdong River accounts for 8,390
/day (60%), 590
/day (4%) is from the aquifer in the rectilinea. direction to the Nakdong River, and 5,020
/day (36%) is from the aquifer in the parallel direction to the Nakdong River. The particle tracking analysis shows that a particle from the Nakdong River moves toward the pumping wells at a rate of about 1.85 m/day and a particle from the aquifer moves toward the pumping wells at a rate of about 0.75 m/day. This study contributes to surface water/groundwater management modeling, and helps in understanding, how seasonal change affects pumping rates, water quality, and natural recharge.
Observation of the Ground Subsidence in the Abandoned Gaeun Coal Mining Area using JERS-1 SAR
Jung Hahn Chul ; Kim Sang-Wan ; Kim Bok Chul ; Min Kyung Duck ; Won Joong-Sun ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 5, 2004, Pages 509~519
The ground subsidence that occurred in the abandoned coal mining area, Gaeun, Korea, was observed using 25 JERS-1 SAR interferograms from November 1992 to October 1998. We carried out measurements on a subset of image pixels corresponding to point-wise stable reflectors(PS: permanent scatterer) by exploiting a long temporal series of interferometric phases and compared it with the distribution map of in situ examined crack level. PSs could be identified by means of amplitude dispersion index and coherence of the interferograms and the density of PS was much higher in an urban area than in a mountainous region. The measured subsidence rate represented the average velocity in a period of image acquisition and excluded complex nonlinear displacements such as an abrupt collapse. The mean line-of-sight velocity in the study area is 0.19cm/yr and the estimation error is 0.18cm/yr. The center of the abandoned Gaeun coal mine(0.49cm/yr) and the area opposite Gaeun station(1.66cm/yr) were observed as the most highly subsiding areas.
Study on Landslide using GIS and Remote Sensing at the Kangneung Area(II)-Landslide Susceptibility Mapping and Cross-Validation using the Probability Technique
Lee Saro ; Lee Moung-Jin ; Won Joong-Sun ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 5, 2004, Pages 521~532
The aim of this study is to evaluate the susceptibility of landslides at Kangneung area, Korea, using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing. Landslide locations were identified from interpretation of satellite image and field surveys. The topographic, soil, forest, geologic, lineament and land cover data were collected, processed and constructed into a spatial database using GIS and remote sensing data. Using frequency ratio model which is one of the probability model, the relationships between landslides and related factors such as slope, aspect, curvature and type of topography, texture, material, drainage and effective thickness of soil, type, age, diameter and density of wood, lithology, distance from lineament and land cover were calculated as frequency ratios. Then, the frequency ratio were summed to calculate a landslide susceptibility indexes and the landslide susceptibility maps were generated using the indexes. The results of the analysis were verified and cross-validated using actual landslide location data. The verification results showed satisfactory agreement between the susceptibility map and the existing data on landslide locations.
Quaternary Toham Basin
Choi Sung-Ja ; Hong Dukgeun ; Chwae Ueechan ; Kim Myungjin ; Lee Seog-kyu ; Murray Andrew S. ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 5, 2004, Pages 533~541
A steadily consolidated conglomerate formation (CCF) is developed thickly around Tabjeong-ri and Janghang-ri to the east of Tohamsan, Gyeongju City. The CCF has been regarded to a basal conglomerate, Cheonbug Conglomerate, of the Yonil Group by Tateiwa (1924). Son et al. (2000) correlated the CCF to the Songjeon Formation, which occupies the southwestern block of Tertiary Waup Basin. However, the Songjeon Formation stratigraphically does not face to the extension of the CCF. OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) data on the reddish brown to bluish gray psammitic layers, which are intercalated in the CCF, yielded to 85∼92 ka. Therefore, the age of CCF constrains to the last interglacial stage (MIS 5c-5e) rather than the Early Miocene Cheonbug Conglomerate. The Late Pleistocene Tohamsan Formation (TF) is newly named to the CCF and is subdivided to megabreccias and boulders. A rectangular basin, in which the TF is accumulated, is bounded by Oedong and Yonil faults (segments of Yonil Tectonic Line) and is given a name of Toham Basin. Neotectonically, Pliocene EW-transpression gave an effect of the top-up-to-the-west reverse faulting and the accompanied normal fault movement during the last interglacial age (ca. 100 ka). The basin is graben type, in which basin fills are composed of collapsed colluvial deposits, TF.
Structural Evolution of the Northern Okinawa Trough
Sunwoo Don ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 5, 2004, Pages 543~554
Analysis of multi-channel seismic reflection and well data serves to detail the structural evolution of the northern Okinawa Trough, southern offshore Korea. The overall structural style of the area is characterized by a series of half grabens and tilted fault blocks bounded by basement-involved listric normal faults. Most half grabens and tilted fault blocks developed in the direction of NNE-SSW, parallel to the axis of the Okinawa Trough. Orientation and distribution of the listric faults also suggest the development of transfer faults in NW-SE direction. The rifting phase of the northern Okinawa Trough have been established on the basis of structural and stratigraphic analyses of depositional sequences and their seismic expressions. Major phase of rifting probably started in the Late Miocene and the most active rifting occurred during the Early Pliocene. The rifting produced a series of half grabens and tilted fault blocks bounded by listric normal faults. It appears that the rifting activity has become weaker since the Late Pliocene, but the Pleistocene sediments faulted by listric faults bounding tilted fault blocks suggest that the rifting activity is probably still in progress.
Geology and Distribution of Crushed Aggregate Resources in Korea
Hong Sei Sun ; Lee Chang Bum ; Park Deok Won ; Yang Dong Yun ; Kim Ju Yong ; Lee Byeong Tae ; Oh Keun Chang ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 5, 2004, Pages 555~568
The demand of aggregate resources in Korea has been increased with a rapid economic growth since the 1980s. About 25% of the total aggregate production is derived from riverine aggregates, 20% to 25% from marine sands, 40% to 45% from crushed aggregate and the rest 5% to 15% from old fluvial deposits. The abundance of crushed coarse aggregates varies in the uniform distribution of country, but in general it can be concentrated in the most densely populated areas, five main cities. Typical rock types of the Korean crushed stones are classified as plutonic rocks of 27%, metamorphic rocks of 32%, sedimentary rocks and volcanic rocks of 18%, respectively. The most abundant coarse aggregate used in the country is obtained from granite (25% of total) and subordinately gneiss (20%), sandstone (10%) and andesite (10%). Although rock types using as dimension stone are only fifteen, those as aggregate amount up to twenty nine rocks. These rocks consist of plutonic rocks such as granite, syenite, diorite, aplite, porphyry, felsite. dike and volcanic rocks such as rhyolite, andesite, trachyte, basalt, tuff, volcanic breccia and metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, schist, phyllite, slate, meld-sandstone, quartzite, hornfels, calc-silicate rock, amphibolite. And sandstone, shale, mudstone, conglomerate, limestone, breccia, chert are main aggregate sources in tile sedimentary rocks. The abundance of plutonic rocks is the highest in Chungcheongbuk-do, and decreases as the order of Jeollabuk-do, Gangwon-do and Gyeonggi-do. In Jeollanam-do, volcanic aggregates occupy above 50%, on the contrary sedimentary aggregates are above 50% in Gyeongsangnam-do.
Deterioration Diagnosis and Source Area of Rock Properties at the West Stone Pagoda, Gameunsaji Temple Site, Korea
Lee Chan Hee ; Lee Myeong Seong ; Suh Mancheol ; Choi Seok-Won ; Kim Man Gap ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 37, issue 5, 2004, Pages 569~583
The rock properties of the West pagoda in the Gameunsaji temple site are composed mainly of dark grey porphyritic granodiorite with medium grained equigranular texture and developed with small numerous dioritic xenoliths. These xenoliths occurred with small holes due to different weathering processes. As a weathering results, the rock properties of this pagoda occur wholly softened to physical hardness because of a complex result of petrological, meteorological and biological causes. Southeastern part of the pagoda deteriorated seriously that the surface of rock blocks showed partially exfoliations, fractures, open cavities in course of granular decomposition of minerals, sea water spray and crystallization of salt from the eastern coast. The Joint between blocks has small or large fracture cross each other, contaminated and corrupted for inserting with concrete, cement mortar, rock fragments and iron plates, and partially accelerated coloration and fractures. There are serious contamination materials of algae, fungus, lichen and bryophytes on the margin and the surface on the roof stone of the pagoda, so it'll require conservation treatment biochemically for releasing vegetation inhabiting on the surface and the discontinuous plane of the blocks because of adding the weathering activity of stones and growing weeds naturally by soil processing on the fissure zone. Consisting rock for the conservation and restoration of the pagoda would be careful choice of new rock properties and epoxy to reinforce for the deterioration surfaces. For the attenuation of secondary contamination and surface humidity, the possible conservation treatments are needed.