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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Dec 2005
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Dec 2005
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Aug 2005
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Jun 2005
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Apr 2005
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Feb 2005
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Heavy Metal Contamination around the Abandoned Au-Ag and Base Metal Mine Sites in Korea
Chon Hyo-Taek ; Ahn Joo Sung ; Jung Myung Chae ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 2, 2005, Pages 101~111
The objectives of this study we to assess the extent and degree of environmental contamination and to draw general conclusions on the fate of toxic elements derived from mining activities in Korea. 인t abandoned mines with four base-metal mines and four Au-Ag mines were selected and the results of environmental surveys in those areas were discussed. In the base-metal mining areas, the Sambo Pb-Zn-barite, the Shinyemi Pb-Zn-Fe, the Geodo Cu-Fe and the Shiheung Cu-Pb-Zn mine, significant levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in mine dump soils developed over mine waste materials, tailings and slag. Furthermore, agricultural soils, stream sediments and stream water near the mines were severely contaminated by the metals mainly due to the continuing dispersion downstream and downslope from the sites, which was controlled by the feature of geography, prevailing wind directions and the distance from the mine. In e Au-Ag mining areas, the Kubong, the Samkwang, the Keumwang and the Kilkok mines, elevated levels of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in tailings and mine dump soils. These levels may have caused increased concentrations of those elements in stream sediments and waters due to direct dis-charge downstream from tailings and mine dumps. In the Au-Ag mines, As would be the most characteristic contaminant in the nearby environment. Arsenic and heavy metals were found to be mainly associated with sulfide gangue minerals, and mobility of these metals would be enhanced by the effect of oxidation. According to sequential extraction of metals in soils, most heavy metals were identified as non-residual chemical forms, and those are very susceptible to the change of ambient conditions of a nearby environment. As application of pollution index (PI), giving data on multi-element contamination in soils, over 1.0 value of the PI was found in soils sampled at and around the mining areas.
Geochemical Study of the Cretaceous Granitic Rocks in Southwestern Part of the Korean Peninsula
Wee Soo Meen ; Park Se Mi ; Choi Seon Cyu ; Ryu In Chang ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 2, 2005, Pages 113~127
Cretaceous intrusive and extrusive rocks are widely distributed in the southwestern part of the Korean peninsula, possibly the result of intensive magmatism which occurred in response to subduction of the western proto-Pacific plate beneath the north-eastern part of the Eurasian plate. Geochemical and petrological study on the Cretaceous granitic rocks were carried out in order to constrain the petrogenesis of the granitic magma and to establish the paleotectonic environment of the area. Whole rock chemical data of the granitic rocks from the study area indicate that the all the rocks have characteristics of calc-alkaline series in the subalkaline field. The overall geochemical features show systematic variations in each granitic body, but the source materials of each granitic body are thought to have been different in their chemical composition. Higher values of
of the granitic rocks in the western area suggest that the granitoids had been solidified under highly oxidizing environment. The granitic bodies in the eastern area also show higher contents of Li, Ni, Co, Sr, Cr, Sc and lower Rb and Nb compared to the those of the western area. Chondrite normalized REE patterns show generally enriched LREE and strong negative Eu anomalies in the western wet while slight to flat Eu anomalies in the east-ern area. The REE and
of the granites are
correspond to the range of the continental margin granite. On the ANK vs. ACNK and tectonic discrimination diagrams, parental magma type of the granites corresponds to I-type, VAG and syn-collision granite. Interpretations of the chemical characteristics of the granitic rocks favor their emplacement in a compressional tectonic regime at continental margin during the subduction of proto-Pacific plate.
Sr and Pb Isotopic Properties in Limnetic Gastropod (Semisulcospira libertina) Shell in the Jinan, Jeonbuk Area.
Jeon Seo-Ryeong ; Chung Jae-il ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 2, 2005, Pages 129~134
ratios between water and biogenic material are similar in marine and lacustrine environment. Pb isotope ratios we, however, reported not to have been corresponding between the biological tissues and ambient water in aquatic system, contrary to the Sr isotope ratios. In order to explore the potential application of two isotopes as environmental tracers, we report here the isotopic compositions of strontium and lead of gastropod shell in fresh water in Jinan area. The
ratios of carbonate shells of gastropod living in fresh stream water, are similar as that of ambient water but are different by sites. The different
ratios of stream water between the sites is likely caused by the difference of the isotopic composition of Sr derived form rocks in the basin. In contrast, there is a distinct difference of the lead isotopic values between the water and the gastropod shell, suggesting that shell-fish available lead in aquatic system is different from dissolved lead in water. It is assumed that the majority of Pb in stream water is derived from atmospheric Pb accumulated on soil materials over years rather than from rock.
Environmental Contamination and Bioavailability Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Vicinity of the Dogok Au-Ag-Cu Mine
Lee Sung-Eun ; Lee Jin-soo ; Chon Hyo-Taek ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 2, 2005, Pages 135~142
In order to investigate the contamination level and seasonal variation of heavy metals and evaluate the bioavailability of toxic elements, environmental geochemical survey was undertaken at the Dogok Au-Ag-Cu mine area. The main pollution sources in the area were suggested as tailings, mine waste materials and mine water. Elevated levels of
Zn(before rainy season) were found in mine tailings. Concentrations of heavy metals in farmland soils exceeded normal level in nature soil (Bowen, 1979). The highest level of heavy metals was found in water samples near the mine tailing dumps regarded as a main pollution source of toxic elements in the area. These concentrations decreased to downstream due to the effect of dilution. From the results of sequential extraction analyses for tailings and soils, non-residual forms of heavy metals were found, which indicate the contamination to be progressing by continuing weathering and oxidation. Cadmium and Zn would be of the highest mobility in all samples. The bioavailability of Cd, Cu, Zn and As using SBET analysis from paddy soils was
, respectively. The farmland soil sample(S3) showed the highest total concentration and bioavailability of heavy metals.
Subsurface Geology and Geologic Structure of the Euiseong Basin using Gravity, Magnetic, and Satellite Image Data
Yu Sang Hoon ; Hwang Jong Sun ; Min Kyung Duck ; Woo Ik ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 2, 2005, Pages 143~153
Euiseong subbasin, included in the Kyungsang Basin, was created by the result of volcanic activity in the late Cretaceous, and contacts with Milyang and Youngyang subbasins by Palgongsan and Andong faults, respectively. In this study, geophysical survey is implemented fur investigating surface and subsurface geologic structure in Euiseong subbasin which composed with the complex of volcanic and plutonic rocks. To understand surface geologic feature, IRS satellite image and DEM(Digital Terrain Map) are used for analyzing lineament and its density. The numbers of lineaments show major trend in
, and aspects of lineament lengths show major trend in
and N-S directions. 13 delineate subsurface density discontinuity; Power spectrum analysis was implemented for gravity anomaly data, resulting
depth of basin basement and
depth of shallow discontinuity. From the result of power spectrum analysis, 2.5-D modelings were implemented along two profiles of A-A' and B-B', and they show subsurface geology in detail. Analytic signal method for detecting boundaries of magnetic basements show 0.001-130 nT/m values, and high energy area show good correspondency with the boundaries of Palgongsan granite and caldera areas in Euiseong subbasin.
An Analysis on the Geomagnetic Transfer Function at Yongin Observatory Using by RR (Remote Reference) and SNS (Signal Noise Separation) Technique
Yang Junmo ; Lee Duk-Kee ; Kwon Byung-Doo ; Ryu Yong-Gyu ; Youn Yong-Hoon ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 2, 2005, Pages 155~163
For an unbiased TF (Tansfer Function) estimations we investigate geomagnetic TF derived from ICHEON and YONGIN sites, employing RR (Remote Reference) and SNS (Signal Noise Separation) techniques. The Rh technique, which requires synchronized field variations recorded at a clean remote site, is a reliable method to minimize the bias of TF by uncorrelated noises in magnetic channels. Meanwhile, SNS technique based on the assumption of noise-free remote data can improve the signal-noise level by separating signal TF and noise TF, which is successfully applied to the environments with strong correlated noises. In this study, TF at YONGIN is analyzed using geomagnetic data from ICHEON site as a remote reference, which seem to have somewhat better data quality. The application of Rh technique reduces the bias of TF, which appears in single site robust estimation, and makes curves in the amplitude and phase of TF more smooth as frequency. Futhermore, in order to investigate noise source quantitatively, SNS technique is applied. The results of SNS suggest that dominant noise source seems to be located at western region of YONGIN. This noise source is considered to originate from railway system such as KTX and national subway. which passes through the west regions of YONGIN.
Gas Hydrate Exploration by using PCS(Pressre Core Sampler): ODP Leg 204
Lee Young-Joo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 2, 2005, Pages 165~176
Natural gas in deep sediment may occur in three phases based on the physical and chemical conditions. If the concentration of gas in pore water is less than the solubility, gas is dissolved. If the concentration of gas is greater than its solubility (water is saturated or supersaturated with gas), gas occurs as a fee gas below the gas hydrate stability Lone (GHSZ) and is present as solid hydrate within the GHSZ. The knowledge of gas concentration in deep sediment appears critical to determine the phase of natural gases and to understand the formation and distribution of gas hydrate. However, reliable data on gas concentration are usually available only from the upper section of marine sediment by the headspace gas technique, which is widely used for sampling of gases from the sediments. The headspace gas technique represents only a fraction of gases present in situ because sediments release most of the gases during recovery and sampling. The PCS (Pressure Core Sampler) is a downhole tool developed to recover a nominal
diameter core containing
of sediment, pore water and gas at in situ pressure up to 68.9 MPa. During Leg 204, the PCS was deployed at 6 Sites. In situ methane gas concentration and distribution of gas hydrate was measured by using PCS tool. Characteristics of methane concentration and distribution is different from site to site. Distribution of gas hydrate in the study area is closely related to characteristics of in situ gas concentration measured by PCS.
Analysis of Aquifer Test Data in Fractured Aquifers and the Application of the Generalized Radial Flow
Seong Hyeonjeong ; Kim Yongie ; Lee Chul-Woo ; Kim Kue-Young ; Woo Nam-Chil ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 2, 2005, Pages 177~185
Data from 122 pumping tests were obtained from 100 boreholes in granites, volcanic rocks, metamorphic rocks, and Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary rocks, and then were analyzed using AQTESOLV. Results from 86 of the 122 tests (
) have an analytical solution corresponding to Theis (1935), Cooper-Jacob (1946), Papadopulos-Cooper (1967), Hantush (1962), Moench (1985), or Hantush-Jacob (1955), whereas the remaining 36 results (
) do not correspond to any of the analytical methods. Of the 86 results, only 17 match the Theis and Cooper-Jacob methods, indicating that the basic methods fer pumping test analysis are useful far only
of the total data. This suggests that analytical solutions derived using leaky boundary conditions are appropriate for the analysis of pumping test data in fractured aquifers in this study. Furthermore, the results show the importance of carefully selecting an appropriate model for the analysis of pumping test data. Results from the 122 pumping tests were also analyzed using the GRF model. Using the Barker method, the results show that 77 of the 122 tests (
) have dimensions ranging between 1.1-2.9. Of these 77 solutions, (
) have a fractional dimension of 1.1-1.9, (
) show 2-dimensional radial flow also applicable to the Theis method, and (
) have dimensions of 2.1-2.9. The results show that groundwater flows according to a fractional flow dimension in fractured aquifers.
Synthesis of Garnet in the Ca-Ce-Gd-Zr-Fe-O System
Chae Soo-Chun ; Jang Young-Nam ; Bae In-Kook ; Yudintsev S.V. ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 2, 2005, Pages 187~196
Structural sites which cations can occupy in garnet structure are centers of the tetrahedron, octahedron, and distorted cube sharing edges with the tetrahedron and octahedron. Among them, the size of cation occuping at tetrahedral site (the center of tetrahedron) is closely related with the size of a unit cell of garnet. Accordingly, garnet containing iron with relative large ionic radii in tetrahedral site can be considered as a promising matrix for the immobilization of the elements with large ionic radii, such as actinides in radioactive wastes. We synthesized several garnets with the batch composition of
, and studied their properties and phase relations under various conditions. Mixed samples were fabricated in a pellet form under a pressure of
and were sintered in the temperature range of
in air and under oxygen atmospheres. Phase identification and chemical analysis of synthesized samples were conducted by XRD and SEM/EDS. In results, garnet was obtained as the main phase at
, an optimum condition in this system, even though some minor phases like perovskite and unknown phase were included. The compositions of garnet and perovskite synthesized from the batch composition of
, respectively. Ca content was exceeded and Ce content was depleted in the 8-coordinated site, comparing to the initial batch composition. This phenomena was closely related to the content of Zr and Fe in the 6-coordinated site.
A Study on the Mine Development of North Korea and the Inter-Korean Mineral Resources Cooperation
Kim You-Dong ; Park Hong-Soo ; Kim Seong-Yong ; Lee Jae-Ho ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 2, 2005, Pages 197~206
North Korea is plentiful in the mineral resources as magnesite, gold, zinc, iron, rare metal, and coal resources compared to South Korea and has 6 industrial zones which are located nearby to the mineralized areas. The industrial zones are provided with a sound infrastructures and accumulation of advanced technology. As a huge mineral and energy consuming country, South Korea imports mineral and coal resources equivalent to almost 8 trillion won annually. Inter-Korean cooperation for development of mineral resources in North Korea will be improved by the practical use of the North Korea's plentiful mineral resources, infiastructures related to development and refinement, and basic geo-technology, which would be considered toward combining with South Korean capital and Russian geo-technologies.