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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Dec 2005
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Dec 2005
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Aug 2005
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Jun 2005
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Apr 2005
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Feb 2005
Selecting the target year
Estimation of the Amount of Soil toss and Main Sources of Riverbed Sediments in Each Tributary Basin of the Seomjin River in Sunchang Area, Korea
Kwak Jae-Ho ; Yang Dong-Yoon ; Lee Hyun-Koo ; Kim Ju-Yong ; Lee Seong-Gu ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 607~622
This study was carried out in order to evaluate where the soil loss was mainly occurred, .and to verify how riverbed sediments in the tributaries of the Seomjin River were related to their source rocks distributed in Sunchang area. The study area including the Seomjin River with 4 tributaries of Kyeongcheon, Okgwacheon, Changjeong-cheon and Ipcheon was divided into 10 watershed. The RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) was estimated for all the grids (10 m cells) in the corresponding watershed. The amount of soil loss per unit area was calculated as follows: dry fold (53,140.94 tons/ha/year), orchard (25,063.38 tons/ha/year), paddy field (6,506.7 tons/ha/year) and Idlest (6,074.36 tons/ha/year). The differences of soil loss per unit area appear to be depends on areas described earlier. Soil erosion hazard zones were generally distributed within dry fields. Several thematic maps such as land use maps, topographical maps and soil maps were used as a data to generate the RUSLE factors. The amount of soil loss, computed by using the RUSLE, showed that soil loss mainly occurred at the regions where possible source rocks were distributed along the stream. Based on the this study on soil loss and soil erosion hazard zone together with chondrite-normalized REE patterns that were previously analyzed in same study area, a closed relationship between riverbed sediments and possible source rocks is formed. Especially in the Okgwacheon that are widely distributed by various rocks, chondrite-normalized REE pattern derived from the riverbed sediments, source rock and soil is expected to have a closed relationship with the distribution of soil loss.
Site Characteristics Around the Gongsansung Circular Pond in Gongju Based on the Seismic Methods
Oh, Jin-Yong ; Suh, Man-Cheol ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 623~631
We applied the seismic method to investigate the site characteristics around the Circular Pond (top diameter 7.3 m, bottom diameter 3 m, and depth 4.78 m) at the Ssangsujung Park within the Gongsansung in Gongju. Previous excavations for the cultural assets beneath the Ssangsujung Park disclosed the assumed site of the Palace of the Beakje Dynasty and the Circular Pond containing the Bakje relics. We demonstrated that the seismic prospecting can be applicable to delineate the underground structure around the cultural properties by the three kinds of seismic approaches: walk-away test, conventional refraction method, and equal-distance refraction survey. The last method which is designed by this work ran detect the I-W variations of seismic velocity in the subsurface medium across the Circular Pond on the basis of the difference of the P-wave arrival times between the 1-m-spacing 24 geophones and the corresponding 24 shots parallel with the geophone profile. From the combined results, prominent three-layer velocity structure is observed around the Circular Pond. The bottom layer is interpreted as the basement rock which is exposed near the Ssangsujung whereas the upper layer with relatively lower velocities is interpreted to be the artificial covering. The basement depth beneath the Circular Pond is deeper than the norhern area. The western basement of Circular Pond has the thicker weaker layer compared with the eastern part. Thus, the middle layer could be constructed as the artificial foundation during the Beakje Dynasty. Consequently, the Kong-sansung Circular Pond is possibly built upwardly rather than digging.
A Seismic Study on Muddy Sediment Deposits in the Northern Shelf of the East China Sea
Choi Dong-Lim ; Lee Tae-Hee ; Yoo Hae-Soo ; Lim Dhong-Il ; Huh Sik ; Kim Kwang-Hee ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 633~642
We present the sedimentary sequence and distribution pattern of the late Holocene muddy deposits in the northern East China Sea shelf using the high-resolution 'Chirp' profiles. The seismic sedimentary sequence overlying acoustic basement (basal reflector-B) can be divided into two depositional units (Unit 1 and 2) bounded by erosional bounding surface (mid reflector-M). The lower Unit 1 above basal reflector-H is characterized by the acoustically parallel to subparallel reflections and channel-fill facies. The upper Unit 2, up to 7 m in thickness, shows seismically semi-transparent seismic facies and lenticular body form. On the base of sequence stratigraphic concept, these two sediment units have developed during transgression and highstand period, respectively, since the last sea-level lowstand. The transgressive systems tract (Unit 1) lie directly on the sequence boundary (reflector B) that have farmed during the last glacial maximum. The transgressive systems tract in this study consists mostly of complex of delta, fluvial, and tidal deposits within the incised valley estuary system. The maximum flooding surface (reflector M) corresponding to the top surface of transgressive systems tract is obviously characterized by erosional depression. The highstand systems tract (Unit 2) above maximum flooding surface is made up of the mud patch filled with the erosional depression. The high-stand mud deposits showing a circle shape just like a typhoon symbol locates about 140 km off the south of Cheju Island with water depth of
. Coverage area and total sediment volume of the mud deposits are about
, respectively. The origin of the mud patch is interpreted as a result of accumulating suspended sediments derived from the paleo-Yellow and/or Yangtze Rivers. The circular distribution pattern of the mud patch appears to be largely controlled by the presence of cyclonic eddy in the northern East China Sea.
Marine Geophysical Constraints on the Origin and Evolution of Ulleung Basin and the Seamounts in the East Sea
Kim Jinho ; Park Soo-chul ; Kang Moo-hee ; Kim Kyong-O ; Han Hyun-chul ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 643~656
The East Sea, a marginal sea or back-arc basin, consists of Japan Basin, Yamato Basin, and Ulleung Basin and is surrounded by the Pacific Plate and Philippine Sea Plate. Ulleung Basin locates in the southwestern part of the East Sea and shows the depth of 1,500 m in average and 2,500 m in maximum, connecting to the Japan Basin along 2,000 m contour. The slope of the seafloor is greater in the western side of the basin than in the southern and the eastern side. The crustal thickness of the Ulleung Basin from the OBS tends to get thicker toward the north and the west side and the sediment thickness of the Ulleung Basin is getting thicker toward the southeast side and reaches up to 12 km. The crustal type of the Ulleung Basin was variously suggested as like as a rifted continental crust, an extended continental crust, and an incipient oceanic trust. The origin of the crustal formation and the Ulleung Basin, however, is still controversial. Based on the bathymetry and gravtiy anomaly data for this study, the axis of the Ulleung Basin shows that the basin develops along the axis trending NW-SE direction and reveals a general symmetry of the bathymetry. And also the free-air gravity anomalies show a very similar pattern to the bathymetry of the basin. The sediment thickness is relatively thicker in the southeastern side of the basin than in the northwestern side. Although the crustal age of the Ulleung Basin is supposed to be younger than them of the Japan Basin and the Yamato Basin, the free-air gravity anomalies of the Ulleung Basin ranging -40 to 50 mGals are lower than the other basins, which suggests that the densities of crust and sediment of the Ulleng Basin are lower than the Japan Basin and the Yamato Basin.
About Chromium (VI) Extraction from Fertilizers and Soils
Sager Manfred ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 657~662
Extractions fro fertilizer and soil samples were performed to yield the operationally defined fractions 'soluble' chromate (extractable with
), 'exchangeable' chromate (extractable with phosphate buffer pH 7.2), and these results were compared with the data obtained by extractions with ammonium sulfate, borate buffer pH 7.2, saturated borax pH 9.6, and polyphosphate (Graham's salt). In order to maintain the pH of extractant solution about constant, the concentration of extractant buffer had to be raised to at least 0.5 M. The results strongly depended on the kind of extractant, and the solid: liquid ratio. For most of the samples investigated, the extraction efficiency increased in the order borate-sulfate-nitrate-phosphate. Whereas the recovery of
added to the samples of basic slags prior to the extraction was about complete, the recovery of added
was highly variable. In soil extracts, the color reaction was interfered from co-extracted humics, which react with the chromate in weak acid solution during the time period necessary for color reaction (1 hour). However, this problem can be overcome by standard addition and subtraction of the color of the extractant solution. In soil extract of about pH < 7, organic material reduced chromate during the extraction period also, and standard addition of soluble chromate is recommended to prove recovery and the stability of chromate in the samples. In admixtures of soils and basic slags, results for hexavalent chromium were lower than from the mere basic slags. This effect was more pronounced in phosphate than in nitrate extracts. As a proficiency test, samples low in organic carbon from contaminated sites in Hungary were tested. The results from
extracts satisfactorily matched the results of the Hungarian labs obtained from
Prediction of the Gold-silver Deposits from Geochemical Maps - Applications to the Bayesian Geostatistics and Decision Tree Techniques
Hwang, Sang-Gi ; Lee, Pyeong-Koo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 663~673
This study investigates the relationship between the geochemical maps and the gold-silver deposit locations. Geochemical maps of 21 elements, which are published by KIGAM, locations of gold-silver deposits, and 1:1,000,000 scale geological map of Korea are utilized far this investigation. Pixel size of the basic geochemical maps is 250m and these data are resampled in 1km spacing for the statistical analyses. Relationship between the mine location and the geochemical data are investigated using bayesian statistics and decision tree algorithms. For the bayesian statistics, each geochemical maps are reclassified by percentile divisions which divides the data by 5, 25, 50, 75, 95, and
data groups. Number of mine locations in these divisions are counted and the probabilities are calculated. Posterior probabilities of each pixel are calculated using the probability of 21 geochemical maps and the geological map. A prediction map of the mining locations is made by plotting the posterior probability. The input parameters for the decision tree construction are 21 geochemical elements and lithology, and the output parameters are 5 types of mines (Ag/Au, Cu, Fe, Pb/Zn, W) and absence of the mine. The locations for the absence of the mine are selected by resampling the overall area by 1 km spacing and eliminating my resampled points, which is in 750m distance from mine locations. A prediction map of each mine area is produced by applying the decision tree to every pixels. The prediction by Bayesian method is slightly better than the decision tree. However both prediction maps show reasonable match with the input mine locations. We interpret that such match indicate the rules produced by both methods are reasonable and therefore the geochemical data has strong relations with the mine locations. This implies that the geochemical rules could be used as background values oi mine locations, therefore could be used for evaluation of mine contamination. Bayesian statistics indicated that the probability of Au/Ag deposit increases as CaO, Cu, MgO, MnO, Pb and Li increases, and Zr decreases.
Deterioration Assessment for Conservation Sciences of the Five Storied Stone Pagoda in the Jeongrimsaji Temple Site, Buyeo, Korea
Kim, Yeong-Taek ; Lee, Chan-Hee ; Lee, Myeong-Seong ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 675~687
The rocks of the five storied stone pagoda in the Jeongrimsaji temple site are 149 materials in total with porphyritic biotite granodiorite. They include pegmatite veinlet, basic xenolith and evenly developed plagioclase porphyry. This stone pagoda has comparably small fracture and cracks which are farmed in the times of rock properties, but surface exfoliation and granular decomposition are in process actively since the rocks are generally weakened from the influence of air contaminants and acid rain. Structural instability of constituting rocks in the 4th roof materials are observed to occur from distortion and tilt. Such instability is judged to threat stability of the upper part of the stone pagoda. Also, chemical weathering is operating even more as the contaminants, ferro-manganese hydroxides eluted from water-rock interaction on the rock surface. Most of the rock surface is covered with yellowish brown, dark black and light gray contaminants, and especially occur in the lower part of the roof rocks on each floor. The roof underpinning rocks are severe in surface pigmentation from manganese hydroxides and light gray contaminants. The surface of rocks lives bacteria. algae, lichen, or moss and diverse productions in colors of light gray, dark Bray and dark green. Grayish white crustose lichen grows thick on the surface with darkly discolored by fungi and algae in the first stage on basement rocks, and weeds grows wild on the upper part of each roof rocks. This stone pagoda must closely observe the movements of the upper part rock materials through minute safety diagnosis and long term monitoring for structural stability. Especially since the surface discoloration of rocks and pigmentation of secondary contaminants are severe, establishment of general restoration and scientific conservation treatment are necessary through more detailed study for this stone pagoda.
Characteristics of Sediment Compositions and Cs Adsorption on Marine Sediment near Wuljin Nuclear Powerplant
Kim Yeongkyoo ; Kim Kyung-Mi ; Jung Hee-Jin ; Kang Hee-Dong ; Kim Wan ; Doh Si-Hong ; Kim Do-Sung ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 689~697
activity, total organic carbon (TOC), and particle size of marine sediments near Wuljin Nuclear Powerplant were analyzed and the relationships among those components were investigated. The particle sizes of sediments were equivalent to sand size and in the range of
. TOC contents and
activities were in the range of
and minimum detectable activity (MDA)
with the average value of
Bq/kg-dry, respectively. The sediments in study area were characterized by large particle size and small TOC contents, and
activity compared with other marine sediments. The main mineral components were quartz and feldspar (albite, microcline, and small amount of orthoclase) with small amount of pyroxene, calcite, hornblende. Minerals with
XRD peak (mainly biotite) and chlorite were also identified. Among those minerals, biotite shows the linear relationship with
content probably due to the frayed edge site (FES) on biotite or small amount of mixed illite. However, TOC content shows most linear relationship with
content because no significant amount of clay minerals, which can adsorb significant amount of Cs, were observed in the study area, indicating that the distribution of
in this study area was more significantly affected by the TOC content than mineral composition.
Chemical Speciation of Heavy Metals in Geologic Environments on the Abandoned Jangpoong Cu Mine Area
Lee In-Gyeong ; Lee Pyeong-Koo ; Choi Sang-Hoon ; Kim Ji-Soo ; So Chil-Sup ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 699~705
In order to identify the speciation of As and trace elements which are contained weathered waste rocks on the abandoned Jangpoong Cu mine area, five fraction sequential extraction was carried out. Concentrations of the extraction solutions which were acquaired each fraction were mesured by ICP-AES. Mineral characters of weathered waste rocks were determinated by XRD. The weathered waste rocks could divide into two types (Type I and type II). Type land type II weathered waste rocks are mainly composed of a quartz and a calcite, respectively. The most dominant speciation of As, Co and Fe is residual phase. Most of the speciation of Cd, Mn and Zn is residual phase for type I and Fe-Mn oxide phase for type II. In case of Cu, residual phase is predominant in type I and sulfide is predominet in type II. The most dominant speciation of Pb for type I and type II is associated with the residual phase and Fe-Mn oxide phase, respectively. At pH 4-7 range, the order of relative mobility considers Zn>Cu>Cd>Pb>Co>AS in type I, and Cd>Cu>Zn>Pb>As>Co in type II.
The Characteristics of Organic Matter in the Quaternary Sediments from ODP Leg 127 Site 794A, East Sea
Lee Sang Il ; Lee Young-Joo ; Kim Ji Hoon ; Oh Jae Ho ; Yun HyeSu ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 707~716
Organic geochemical analyses including Rock-Eval pyrolysis, elemental analysis and stable carbon isotope analysis were performed to evaluate the characteristics of organic matter in the ODP Leg 127 Site 794A sediments and to understand paleoceanographic changes. Based on the TOC contents, C/N ratio, HI vs. OI,
and C/S ratio, results imply that dark layers containing a large amount of terrigenous organic matter were deposited under the suboxic/anoxic conditions, whereas the light layers containing largely marine organic matter were deposited under the oxic conditions. These results indicate that increasing surface-productivity by the input of a large amount of terrigenous organic matter from adjacent continent led to the deposition of dark layers during the interglacial highstands, whereas marine primary production and dilution caused by Kosa from the China desert area led to the deposition of light layers with the decreased to terrigenous organic matter during the glacial lowstands.
A Study on An Integrated GEO/TES with Geothermal Heat Exchanger and Thermal Ice Storage
Lohrenz ED. ; Hahn Jeongsang ; Han Hyuk Sang ; Hahn Chan ; Kim Hyoung Soo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 717~729
Peak cooling load of large buildings is generally greater than their peak heating load. Internal and solar heat gains are used fur selection of adquate equipment in large building in cold winter climate like Canada and even Korea. The cost of geothermal heat exchanger to meet the cooling loads can increase the initial cost of ground source heat pump system to the extend less costly conventional system often chosen. Thermal ice storage system has been used for many years in Korea to reduce chiller capacity and shift Peak electrical time and demand. A distribution system designed to take advantage of heat extracted from the ice, and use of geothermal loop (geothermal heat exchanger) to heat as an alternate heat source and sink is well known to provide many benifits. The use of thermal energy storage (TES) reduces the heat pump capacity and peak cooling load needed in large building by as much as 40 to
with less mechanical equipment and less space for mechanical room. Additionally TES can reduce the size and cost of the geothermal loop by 1/3 to 1/4 compared to ground coupled heat pump system that is designed to meet the peak heating and cooling load and also can eliminate difficuties of geothermal loop installation such as space requirements and thermal conditions of soil and rock at the urban area.