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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 39, Issue 5 - Oct 2006
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Aug 2006
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Apr 2006
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
Selecting the target year
Phanerozoic Geodynamics of the Korean Peninsula
Min, Kyung-Duck ; Lee, Youn-Soo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 4, 2006, Pages 353~368
The modem kinematic behaviors of the rigid block motions are well developed using synthetic analyses of paleomagnetic, petrologic, paleontologic and geophysical data which have been established in the last a quater of a century. Phanerozoic geodynamic evolution and tectonic episodes of the Korean Peninsula and East Asia region are discussed and summarized here.
Recent Research for the Seismic Activities and Crustal Velocity Structure
Kim, Sung-Kyun ; Jun, Myung-Soon ; Jeon, Jeong-Soo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 4, 2006, Pages 369~384
Korean Peninsula, located on the southeastern part of Eurasian plate, belongs to the intraplate region. The characteristics of intraplate earthquake show the low and rare seismicity and the sparse and irregular distribution of epicenters comparing to interplate earthquake. To evaluate the exact seismic activity in intraplate region, long-term seismic data including historical earthquake data should be archived. Fortunately the long-term historical earthquake records about 2,000 years are available in Korea Peninsula. By the analysis of this historical and instrumental earthquake data, seismic activity was very high in 16-18 centuries and is more active at the Yellow sea area than East sea area. Comparing to the high seismic activity of the north-eastern China in 16-18 centuries, it is inferred that seismic activity in two regions shows close relationship. Also general trend of epicenter distribution shows the SE-NW direction. In Korea Peninsula, the first seismic station was installed at Incheon in 1905 and 5 additional seismic stations were installed till 1943. There was no seismic station from 1945 to 1962, but a World Wide Standardized Seismograph was installed at Seoul in 1963. In 1990, Korean Meteorological Adminstration(KMA) had established centralized modem seismic network in real-time, consisted of 12 stations. After that time, many institutes tried to expand their own seismic networks in Korea Peninsula. Now KMA operates 35 velocity-type seismic stations and 75 accelerometers and Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources operates 32 and 16 stations, respectively. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety and Korea Electric Power Research Institute operate 4 and 13 stations, consisted of velocity-type and accelerometer. In and around the Korean Peninsula, 27 intraplate earthquake mechanisms since 1936 were analyzed to understand the regional stress orientation and tectonics. These earthquakes are largest ones in this century and may represent the characteristics of earthquake in this region. Focal mechanism of these earthquakes show predominant strike-slip faulting with small amount of thrust components. The average P-axis is almost horizontal ENE-WSW. In north-eastern China, strike-slip faulting is dominant and nearly horizontal average P-axis in ENE-WSW is very similar with the Korean Peninsula. On the other hand, in the eastern part of East Sea, thrust faulting is dominant and average P-axis is horizontal with ESE-WNW. This indicate that not only the subducting Pacific Plate in east but also the indenting Indian Plate controls earthquake mechanism in the far east of the Eurasian Plate. Crustal velocity model is very important to determine the hypocenters of the local earthquakes. But the crust model in and around Korean Peninsula is not clear till now, because the sufficient seismic data could not accumulated. To solve this problem, reflection and refraction seismic survey and seismic wave analysis method were simultaneously applied to two long cross-section traversing the southern Korean Peninsula since 2002. This survey should be continuously conducted.
Paleomagnetic Studies in Korea
Suk, Dong-Woo ; Lee, Youn-Soo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 4, 2006, Pages 385~402
Paleomagnetic studies have made remarkable contributions to the understanding of many geological aspects of Korea for the last 40 years, such as the collisional processes of Korean Peninsula, the development of basins in relation with fault systems, the opening and evolution of the East Sea, and the reconstruction of paleogeographic configuration. These contributions have played an important role in the escalation of geology in Korea by elucidating the mechanisms on Processes of fragmentation and amalgamation of the Peninsula, mountain building, igneous activities, metamorphism, and folding and faulting based on the view of plate tectonics. This paper is intended to introduce and summarize the paleomagnetic research papers designed to decipher the tectonic processes of Korea, according to the geologic ages of the studied rocks.
A Review of Magnetic Exploration in Korea
Park, Yeong-Sue ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 4, 2006, Pages 403~416
Magnetic method is rapid, cheap and simple geophysical exploration technique, and has wide range of applications such as resources prospecting, geological structure investigation and even geotechnical and environmental problems. Especially, aeromagnetics gives fundamental and useful geoscientific data fnr not only assessment of potential resources, but also national land planning. Magnetic method, perhaps the oldest geophysical technique, was relatively early introduced into Korea. Documents during Japanese occupation says that magnetic method was used for exploring metallic ore deposits and hot spring, and that a geomagnetic observatory was operated. From mid 1950's, after Korean War, magnetic explorations for natural resources such as metallic ore, uranium, coal, and groundwater were intensively executed for industrialization. Apache aeromagnetic survey project during
and its ground follow-up surveys are typical and important cases in those days. Magnetic survey techniques were rapidly advanced during 1970's and 1980's with improvements of instruments, growth of geophysical manpower, and availability of computers. The national aeromagnetic mapping project by KIGAM in 1981 showed the improved technical capability of those days. Decline of mining industry since mid 1980's moved the exploration objects from traditional resources to new ones such as groundwater and geothermal resources, and applications to investigation of geological structure were revived. Recently appeared applications such as natural hazard assessment, and engineering and environmental studies increased the magnetic method's utility in the realm of exploration.
Data Acquisition Method for Marine Geophysical Survey
Han, Hyun-Chul ; Park, Chan-Hong ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 4, 2006, Pages 417~426
Data acquisition is as important as data processing and interpretation in the field of marine geophysical exploration. Marine geophysicist, however, may not have enough information in this field because data acquisition method has been mainly developed by the commercial companies manufacturing the equipment. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to introduce the general data acquisition method and information to help to construct the systematic and effective survey plan. When a survey plan is set up, the most important thing is to select the seismic equipment based on required penetration depth and resolution, and then construct the survey line intervals. Although a line interval varies from the research purposes, it should be narrower than the expected subsurface structures. Also, if 100% coverage of multibeam data is required, line intervals need to be adjusted based on the equipment characteristics. In case of merging with the preexisting dataset like bathymetry, gravity and magnetic, cross-over errors occurred at the each cross point should be removed to avoid any kinds of misinterpretation.
Electromagnetic Survey in Korea
Cho, Dong-Heng ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 4, 2006, Pages 427~440
Electromagnetic(EM) survey has been in use for over a half century as a standard routine for, mineral exploration in many parts of the world. But EM survey work and serious research effort were initiated in Korea only as late as in early 1980s, largely inspired by four pioneers who did their graduate studies in the U.S.A. in 1970s. Nevertheless domestic achievements in the field of EM survey are remarkable in the last two decades: the field operations and related interpretational skills appear to have reached a global standard, even compared with the most advanced in other countries, virtually in a whole spectrum of the method which includes magneto-tellurics(MT), Controlled Source Audio-frequency Magneto-tellurics(CSAMT), geomagnetic sounding, small loop survey systems, Very Low Frequency(VLF), Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR), time domain surveys, and noise analysis. Besides mineral exploration, EM survey has been applied in Korea to hydrogeology, geotechnical engineering, non-destructive investigation of structures, unexplored ordnance(UXO) investigation, environmental monitoring, and archaeological investigation as well. Now that original contributions of several Korean geophysicists are found even in new frontiers such as high-frequency EM survey, investigation in time-domain EM field for buried metal objects and structures, and also modem data inversion scheme, it is duly hoped that they make some technical breakthrough to unravel still entangled knots of EM survey method in a forseeable future.
On-Land Seismic Survey of Korea
Kwon, Byung-Doo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 4, 2006, Pages 441~450
The on-land seismic survey in Korea was begun in mid-1960s. Kim et al.(1967) of Korea Geological Survey reported on the result of gravity and seismic reflection surveys conducted in the Pohang area for the period of 1963-64 to assess its possibility of oil entrapment. Hyun and Kim (1966) carried out a refraction survey on the tunnel wall. Since then, the KGS geophysicists had conducted seismic surveys on Kyungsang sedimentary basin as a main project for several years. In 1970s, on-land seismic surveys had been conducted for various purposes such as site investigation for the nuclear power plants and industrial complex, exploration for ground water, mineral resources and underground tunnel. The first reflection survey with CMP acquisition was attempted in 1978 by using a digital recording system. But most of on-land seismic surveys had employed the refraction method until 1980s. In 1990s, high resolution reflection and various borehole seismic surveys such as tomography, uphole, downhole, cross-hole methods have been attempted by universities and engineering companies. The applications of on-land seismic surveys have been enlarged for both academic and industrial purposes such as investigation of geologic structure of the fault and tidal flat area, construction of highway, railroad and dam, geothermal energy and mineral resource exploration, environmental assessment for waste disposal sites and archaeological investigations. In 2002, the first crustal seismic survey was carried out on the profile of 294km length across the whole peninsular. It is expected that the advanced technology and experience acquired through offshore seismic surveys, which have been conducted in continental shelf of Korea and foreign oil fields, will stimulate the more active on-land seismic explorations.
Rock Mechanics-Major Projects and Research Topics in Korea
Chung, So-Keul ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 4, 2006, Pages 451~471
Major projects and research topics in the field of rock mechanics are analyzed to obtain the following results:
Rock mechanics deals with the behavior of deformation, failure and displacement of the rock and rock mass on the basis of geological basics. Discontinuities in the rock mass are the most important parameters to control the behavior of rock mass around underground openings.
The objective of site investigation and testing is to determine the strength properties of the rock mass and the in situ stress regime. Specimens for laboratory and in situ tests are to be selected in order that the results of the tests give the representative properties oi the rock mass of the site in question.
The result of a numerical model would be better evaluated not quantitatively but qualitatively. The displacement behavior of the rock mass has to be monitored properly for the NATM (New Austrian Tunneling Method) principles.
The stability of rock slope is to be evaluated preferably by back analysis with strength parameters, such as cohesion and friction angle.
Electrical Resistivity Methods in Korea
Kim, Hee-Joon ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 4, 2006, Pages 473~483
Although application of electrical methods in Korea began with observation of self potentials before World War II, the methods were developed slowly by the beginning of 1980's when a major burst of development activity took place. DC resistivity methods are applied in Korea more to geotechnical problems rather than to environmental ones unlike other developed countries. As with every other branch of technology, the evolving speed of the silicon chip and of streaming data to hard disk has revolutionized data collection and noise reduction processing. The last two decades saw major advances in data collection, processing, and interpretation of electrical data. Development of smooth-model two-dimensional (2D) resistivity inversion is one of the most visible changes to geophysical interpretation of the last 40 years and is now routinely applied to apparent resistivity data. The ability to represent resistivities in section rather than pseudosection view has revolutionized interpretation. Although calculation of sensitivities for general electromagnetic problems require numerous forward modelings, DC resistivity methods can enjoy computational efficiencies if sources and receivers occupy the same position, and previously intractable 3D inversion is now becoming available.
Geothermal Research and Development in Korea
Song, Yoon-Ho ; Kim, Hyoung-Chan ; Lee, Sang-Kyu ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 4, 2006, Pages 485~494
This paper summarizes the history of geothermal research in Korea since 1920s and also describes the present status of research on heat flow, origin of thermal waters and geothermal exploitation and utilization. Geothermal research in Korea has been mainly related with hot spring investigation until 1970s. 1t was not until 1980s before heat flow study became continuous by research institute and academia and first nation-scale geothermal gradient map and heat flow map were published in 1996. Also in 1990s, geochemical isotope analysis of Korean hot spring waters and measurements of heat production rate of some granite bodies were made. Attempts to develop and utilize the deep geothermal water has been tried from early 1990s but field scale exploitations for geothermal water was activated in 2000s. Considering recent increase of demands on both deep and shallow geothermal energy utilization, outlook on future goethermal research and development is encouraging.
Geophysical Study Through Infrasound Observation
Che, Il-Young ; Jeon, Jeong-Soo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 4, 2006, Pages 495~505
Atmospheric infrasound is defined as low frequency inaudible sound waves generated from natural phenomena and human activities. One property of long-distance travelling of infrasound makes it possible to detect the wave propagated from remote sound sources and to understand many geophysical phenomena generating it. Recently, advanced global infrasound sensor arrays are being deployed to monitor the clandestine nuclear test and to study geophysical phenomena in the world. In Korea, five seismo-acoustic arrays consisting of co-located seismometer and micro-barometer have been operated to discriminate the artificial explosions from the natural earthquakes in and around the Korean Peninsula. In addition to the discrimination purpose, these ways also record distinct infrasonic signals from natural phenomena on global scale such as large earthquake, bolide event, volcanic explosion, typhoon, and so on. As a new frontier in monitoring the earth, infrasound is being applied to understand various phenomena in and above the earth's surface.
Application of Seismic Tomography to the Region in and Near Southern Korean Peninsula
Kang, Ik-Bum ; Park, Jung-Ho ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 4, 2006, Pages 507~524
3-D seismic tomographic inversion is applied to investigation on velocity structure in and near Korean Peninsula. Firstly, it is applied to the region in southeastern Korean Peninsula. According to the results low-velocity zone seems to be clearly appeared in the so called Gyeongsang sedimentary basin and high-velocity zone is shown at the section of 7.5 km depth it implies the inclusion of plutonic rocks at the sedimentary basin. At the depth about
km existence of low-velocity zone seems to be related with the development of Yangsan fault system. Secondly it is applied to the region not only in Korean Peninsula but also East Sea using data from both Korean Peninsula and Japan Islands. Accorging to the results, subduction zone starting from eastern part of Japan seems to be extended to the region beneath the East Sea.