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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 39, Issue 5 - Oct 2006
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Aug 2006
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Apr 2006
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
Selecting the target year
Petrological Characteristics and Deterioration State of Standing Buddha Statue in the Gwanchoksa Temple, Nonsan, Korea
Yun, Seok-Bong ; Kaug, Yean-Chun ; Park, Sung-Mi ; Yi, Jeong-Eun ; Lee, Chan-Hee ; Choi, Seok-Won ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 629~641
The Standing Buddha Statue in the Gwanchoksa temple consists of medium to coarse grained biotite granodiorite with dark grey color, and it has a week gneissosity along the pegmatite veins. The results of magnetic susceptibility and geochemical patterns of the host rock of Standing Buddha Statue and the basement rock suggest that both values are formed from the co-genetic magma with the same differentiation process. The CIAs of the basement rock and the Standing Buddha Statue are calculated to 51.43 and 50.86, and the WPIs are estimated 4.52 and 8.95, respectively. So the weathering potential from the host rock of Standing Buddha Statue and basement rock prove to be high. The Standing Buddha Statue is terribly damaged with physical weathering from deterioration and exfoliation, and are scattered with secondary pollutant and precipitate. Basement rock is also in danger of ground collapse because of irregularly developed discontinuity system. Most surface of Standing Buddha Statue is seriously discolored into yellowish brown and dark gray, or black precipitates are also formed. Moreover, it is heavily covered with crustose lichen, fungi and algae, or moss are also found. In order to control the influential factors with the complex deterioration of Standing Buddha Statue, it is needed to rearrange a site environments, and conservation scientific management is required to protect it from covering lichens, exfoliations and fractures.
Occurrence and Mineral Chemistry of Pb-Ag-Bi-S System Minerals in the Nakdong As-Bi Deposits, South Korea
Shin, Dong-Bok ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 643~651
The Pb-Ag-Bi-S system minerals such as galena-matildite solid solutions, cosalite and heyrovskyite occur in the Nakdong As-Bi deposits. Galena-matildite solid solutions commonly coexisting with native bismuth fill in microfractures of pyrite grains and form irregular shapes. Cosalite forms composite grains including native bismuth, heyrovskyite and Bi-Te-S system minerals in the matrix of quartz vein. Matildite from the Nakdong deposits has an end member composition,
, and an excess concentration of
compared to the stoichiomeoic value. PbS concentrations in
solid solutions do not exceed 54 mole %. The average chemical composition of cosalite in the study area is
. Pb is slightly depleted compared to the ideal composition, but the concentrations of Ag and Cu reach as much as 1.47 wt.% and 0.27 wt.%, respectively. Heyrovskyite has the chemical formula of
suggesting that there occurs the coupled substitution of
as well as that of
. The genetic condition of Pb-Ag-Bi-S system minerals can be confined to the temperature of
and the pressure below 200 bars.
Occurrence and Genetic Environments of Quartz Veins from the Jukwangri area, Hwawon-myeon, Jeollanamdo, Republic of Korea
Yoo, Bong-Chul ; Lee, Hyun-Koo ; Choi, Dong-Ho ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 653~662
Quartz veins from the Jukwangri area of Hwawon-myeon are epithermal quartz veins that are filling the NW or NE-trending faults within Precambrian metasedimentary rocks. Based on their prolongation and ore grades, No. 1 quartz vein can be traced for about 200 m and varies 0.1 to 3 m in thickness. Mineralization of No. 1 quartz vein can be divided into hypogene and supergene stages. Hypogene stage is associated with hydrothermal alteration minerals(phyllic and argillic zones) such as illite, sericite and sulfides such as pyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite. chalcopyrite, galena, argentian tetrahedrite. Supergene stage is composed of Fe-Mn oxide, Zn-Fe oxide and Pb oxide. Fluid inclusion data indicate that homogenization temperature and salinity of hypogene stage range from 187 to
and ken 0.0 to 6.2 wt.% eq. NaCl, respectively. They suggest that ore forming fluids were progressively cooled and diluted from mixing with meteoric water. Oxygen(
) and hydrogen(
) isotope com-positions indicated that hydrothermal fluids were derived from meteoric and evolved by progressive mixing with meteoric water during mineralization.
A Study of Gold Deposits and Genesis by Using Color-corescanner
Hyun, Hye-Ja ; Hwang, Duk-Hwan ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 663~674
It is very important that analysis of textures in rock, the moving of hydrothermal solution along the structures, epithermal vein textures, mineralization and composition minerals to confirm the hydrothermal ore deposits and ore genesis. The purpose of this study is to confirm the gold mineralization and ore genesis through the moving of hydrothermal solution along the structure lines and epithermal vein textures by using Color-corescanner techniques. The three drilling hole cores of Sunshin Gold Mine in Haenam area in Jeonnam Province were into a digital image data. Digital image data of gold bearing epithermal vein textures were analyzed detaily by Color-corescanner. There are several epithermal vein textures, namely Comb texture, Cavity texture, Bladed texture, Zonal texture, Brecciated texture and Combined texture. Gold mineralization is dominated in vein type textures, but high grade gold are enbedded in brecciated texture. Ore genesis is epithermal gold deposit. This Color-corescanner techniques can cover the missing part of the examine with the naked eye, and can examine closely the situation of ore deposit development and genesis by detail checking the textures in rock, mineralization and so on.
Geochemical Characteristics of Stream Sediments Based on Bed Rocks in the Cheongpung Area
Park, Young-Seog ; Park, Dae-Woo ; Kim, Jong-Kyun ; Song, Yeung-Sang ; Lee, Jang-Jon ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 675~687
The purpose of this study is to determine the geochemical characteristics of the stream sediments in the Cheongpung area. So that we can understand the natural background and predict the prospects of geochemical disaster, if any. We collected the stream sediments samples by wet sieving along the primary channels and slow dried the collected samples in the laboratory and ground them to pass a 200 mesh using an alumina mortar and pestle for chemical analysis. Miner-alogical characteristics, major, trace and rare earth elements were determined by XRD, XRF, ICP-AES and NAA analysis methods. For geochemical characteristics on the geological group of stream sediments, the studied area was grouped into granitic gneiss area, metatectic gneiss area, Dado tuff area, Yuchi conglomerate area, and Neungju flow area in the Cheongpung area. Contents of major elements for the stream sediments in the Cheongpung area were
. The con-tents of trace and rare earth elements for the stream sediments were
Distribution of Organic and Inorganic Arsenic Species in Groundwater and Surface Water Around the Ulsan Mine
Kim, Youn-Tae ; Woo, Nam-Chil ; Yoon, Hye-On ; Yoon, Cheol-Ho ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 689~697
Distribution and speciation of arsenic in water resources was investigated in the Ulsan mine area. In 62% of uoundwater samples from the mine area, total As concentrations exceeded 0.05 mg/l, the Korean Drinking Water Standard. As(V) was the major type in groundwater with minor As(III). Arsenic species appeared to be in transition stages following redox changes after exposure to the air through the monitoring wells. In areas around the mine, the mine and Cheongog spring appeared to be the sources of arsenic contamination of water resources. The spring showed 0.345 mg/1-As, as much as seven times of the Korean standard. Groundwater and stream samples showed As-concentrations greater than 0.05 mg/l in 30% and 33% samples, respectively, and 60 and 67% of samples exceeded 0.01 mg/l of WHO guideline, respectively. Again, As(V) was a dominant species, however, several samples had As(III) in appreciable levels. In one stream sample, organic species including DMA and AsB were detected in low levels, probably resulted from transformation or related biogeochemical processes.
Study of Solidification by Using Portland and MSG(micro silica grouting) Cements for Metal Mine Tailing Treatment
Jeon, Ji-Hye ; Kim, In-Su ; Lee, Min-Hee ; Jang, Yun-Young ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 699~710
Batch scale experiments to investigate the efficiency of the solidification process for metal mine tailing treatment were performed. Portland and MSG (micro silica pouting) cements were used as solidifier and three kinds of mine tailings (located at Gishi, Daeryang, and Aujeon mine) were mixed with cements to paste solidified matrices. Single axis com-pressible strengths of solidified matrices were measured and their heavy metal extraction ratios were calculated to investigate the solidification efficiency of solidified matrices created in experiments. Solidified matrices (
) were molded from the paste of tailing and cements at various conditions such as different tailing/cement ratio, cement/water ratio, and different cement or tailing types. Compressible strengths of solidified matrices after 7, 14, and 28 day cementation were measured and their strengths ranged from 1 to
, which were higher than Korean limit of compressible strength for the inside wall of the isolated landfill facility (
). Heavy metal extractions from intact tailings and powdered matrices by using the weak acidic solution were performed. As concentration of extraction solution for the powdered solidified matrix (Portland cement + Gishi tailing at 1:1 w.t. ratio) decreased down to 9.7 mg/L, which was one fifth of As extraction concentration for intact Gishi tailings. Pb extraction concentration of the solidified matrix also decreased to lower than one fourth of intact tailing extraction concentration. Heavy metal extraction batch experiments by using various pH conditions of solution were also performed to investigate the solidification efficiency reducing heavy metal extraction rate from the solidified matrix. With pH 1 and 13 of solution, Zn and Pb concentration of solution were over the groundwater tolerance limit, but at pH
of solution, heavy metal concentrations dramatically decreased and were lower than the groundwater tolerance limit. While the solidified matrix was immerged Into very acidic or basic solution (pH 1 and 13), pH of solution changed to
because of the buffering effect of the matrix. It was suggested that the continuous extraction of heavy metals from the solidified matrix is limited even in the extremely high or low pH of contact water. Results of experiments suggested that the solidification process by using Portland and MSG cements has a great possibility to treat heavy metal contaminated mine tailing.
Prestack Depth Migration for Gas Hydrate Seismic Data of the East Sea
Jang, Seong-Hyung ; Suh, Sang-Yong ; Go, Gin-Seok ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 711~717
In order to study gas hydrate, potential future energy resources, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources has conducted seismic reflection survey in the East Sea since 1997. one of evidence for presence of gas hydrate in seismic reflection data is a bottom simulating reflector (BSR). The BSR occurs at the interface between overlaying higher velocity, hydrate-bearing sediment and underlying lower velocity, free gas-bearing sediment. That is often characterized by large reflection coefficient and reflection polarity reverse to that of seafloor reflection. In order to apply depth migration to seismic reflection data. we need high performance computers and a parallelizing technique because of huge data volume and computation. Phase shift plus interpolation (PSPI) is a useful method for migration due to less computing time and computational efficiency. PSPI is intrinsically parallelizing characteristic in the frequency domain. We conducted conventional data processing for the gas hydrate data of the Ease Sea and then applied prestack depth migration using message-passing-interface PSPI (MPI_PSPI) that was parallelized by MPI local-area-multi-computer (MPI_LAM). Velocity model was made using the stack velocities after we had picked horizons on the stack image with in-house processing tool, Geobit. We could find the BSRs on the migrated stack section were about at SP 3555-4162 and two way travel time around 2,950 ms in time domain. In depth domain such BSRs appear at 6-17 km distance and 2.1 km depth from the seafloor. Since energy concentrated subsurface was well imaged we have to choose acquisition parameters suited for transmitting seismic energy to target area.
Correlation of Simrad EM950(95kHz) Multibeam Backscatter Strength with Surficial Sediment Properties in the Sand Ridge of the Eastern Yellow Sea
Kong, Gee-Soo ; Kim, Seong-Pil ; Park, Yo-Seop ; Min, Gun-Hong ; Kim, Ji-Uk ; Park, Soo-Chul ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 719~738
Simrad EM950 multibeam data and surficial sediment grab samples were acquired to correlate backscatter strength with surficial sediment properties in the eastern Yellow Sea which tidal sand ridges are dominantly developed. The study area is divided into the western sand ridge zone characterized by well sorted, fine sandy sediment, and the eastern non-sand ridge zone characterized by poorly sorted, medium sand with some gravels and shell fragments. In spite of minor difference in grain size between two zones, the variations of backscatter strength between two zones are distinct. Multibeam backscatter strength of study area shows good correlation with the grain size of surface sediment as well as the carbonate contents. High occurrence of carbonate shell fragments can increase grain size and bottom roughness. The dominance of higher backscatter strength in the eastern non-sand ridge zone may reflect the effects of coarse grain size and high shell fragments contents.
Mass Physical Properties in Deep-Sen Sediment from the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, Northeast Equatorial Pacific
Chi, Sang-Bum ; Lee, Hyun-Bok ; Kim, Jong-Uk ; Hyeong, Ki-Seong ; Ko, Young-Tak ; Lee, Kyeong-Yang ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 739~752
Deep-sea surface sediments acquired by multiple corer from 69 stations in the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone of the northeast equatorial Pacific, were examined to understand the correlation of mass physical properties and sedimen-tological processes. The seabed of the middle part (
) of the study area is mainly covered by biogenic siliceous sediment compared with pelagic red clays in the northern part (
). In the southern part (
), water depth is shallower than carbonate compensation depth (CCD). The mass physical properties such as grain size distribution, mean grain size, water content, specific grain density, wet bulk density, void ratio, and porosity of sediments are distinctly different among the three parts of the study area. Surface sediments in northern part are characterized by fine grain size and low water contents possibly due to low primary productivity and high detrital input. Conversely, sediments in the middle part are characterized by coarse grain size and high water contents, which might be caused by high surface productivity and deeper depth than CCD. The sediments show low water contents and high density in the southern part, which can be explained by shallower depth than CCD. Our results suggest that the variations in mass physical properties of sediments are influenced by combined effects including biogenic primary productivity of surface water, water depth, especially with respect to CCD, sedimentation rate, detrital input, and the geochemistry of the bottom water (for example, formation of authigenic clay minerals and dissolution of biogenic grains).
Characteristics of Groundwater Quality in Sasang Industrial Area, Busan Metropolitan City
Hamm, Se-Yeong ; Kim, Kwang-Sung ; Lee, Jeong-Hwan ; Cheong, Jae-Yeol ; Sung, Ig-Hwan ; Jang, Seong ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 753~770
In urban areas, groundwater pollution is heavily affected by urbanization with land use types. This study aims to characterize groundwater quality and contamination in Sasang industrial area of Busan Metropolitan City where metalworking, machinery and footwear factories are located. Busan Metropolitan City is the highest in the utilization of groundwater resources among the metropolitan cities in Korea.
concentrations, and electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and salinity are high in the areas near the Nakdong River. The results are attributed to the influence of salt water which intruded into the coastal sediments during sedimentation. In addition, the dominant chemical type of Ca-Cl indicates the influence of salt water in the geological formations as well as anthropogenic pollution.
ion is interpreted to originate from both water-silicate mineral reactions and the decomposition of cement concretes. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected at 12 sites of total 18 sites. However, tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was detected at f sites and 1.1.1-trichloroethane (TCA) at 3 sites. According to the factor analysis, factor 1 was explained by 49.8%, factor 2 19.8%, and factor 3 11.0% with total 80.6% explanation. pH, TDS, salinity,
were positively highly loaded to factor 1. The chemical components loaded to factor 1 represent the chemical characteristics of both industrial pollution and influence by salt water. Based on the cluster analysis and distribution pattern of chemical components, the concentration of
is high in the riverside area of the Nakdong River composed of coastal sediments that is influenced by salt water. The downstream area of the Hakjang Stream is judged to be affected by both salt water and artificial pollution. The other part of the study area is interpreted by anthropogenic pollution.
Geology in Drainage Field of the Imha Dam and Origins of High Turbid Water in the Imha Lake, Andong
Hwang, Sang-Koo ; Jeong, Gi-Young ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 771~786
Imha lake has a high turbid water which keeps up during a few months, as comparing to other dams. Origins of the high turbid water derive from suspended materials which compose of micro particles of clay and rock-forming minerals. They are the weathered products from surface rocks that relate with particular geology in drainage field of the Imha dim. Accordingly we have fundamentally surveyed the kinds, properties, distribution and structures of general geology, found a few particular geology that source clay materials, and traced the passage that their weathered products enter the dam. We have suggested the basic origins of increase in turbid degree from detecting kinds and behavior of the suspended materials cause high turbid water in the Imha lake.
A Study on Application Methods to Economic Impact Analysis on R&D of Geoscience and Mineral Resources in Input-Output-Outcome Perspective
Ahn, Eun-Young ; Kim, Seong-Yong ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 787~801
Focused in the characteristic of R&D on Geoscience and Mineral Resources as basic research area, we survey on methods of public works' economic impact analysis including cost-benefit analysis and resent technology evaluation methods and suggest apply-methods to conduct economic impact analysis on R&D of geoscience and mineral resources. To conduct economic impact analysis on the basic research area, it need to identification research's out-come not just output. In this perspective, we propose a method, Input-Output-Outcome Roadmapping to identify the outcome of R&D and show the relation of input, output, and outcome of R&D. Furthermore, noticing the different effects of R&D from public works, we directly evaluate the use-value of the academic theory or geological maps through Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) and others developed as evaluation methods on environmental goods. In indirect application methods, it can evaluate the partial of the pubic works' benefit with assuming R&D factors if R&D is a part of public works. If not, we evaluate the R&D's value as reductions of costs or additions of benefit with finding related public works.