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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Economic and Environmental Geology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental Geology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 40, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 40, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
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The Origin and Evolution of the Mesozoic Ore-forming Fluids in South Korea: Their Genetic Implications
Choi, Seon-Gyu ; Pak, Sang-Joon ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 40, issue 5, 2007, Pages 517~535
Two distinctive Mesozoic hydrothermal systems occurred in South Korea: the Jurassic/Early Cretaceous(ca.
Ma) deep-level ones during the Daebo orogeny and the Late Cretaceous/Tertiary(ca.
Ma) shallow hydrothermal ones during the Bulgugsa event. The Mesozoic hydrothermal system and the metallic mineralization in the Korean Peninsula document a close spatial and temporal relationship with syn- to post-tectonic magmatism. The calculated
values of the ore-forming fluids from the Mesozoic metallic mineral deposits show limited range for the Jurassic ones but variable range for the Late Cretaceous ones. The orogenic mineral deposits were formed at relatively high temperatures and deep-crustal levels. The mineralizing fluids that were responsible for the formation of theses deposits are characterized by the reasonably homogeneous and similar ranges of
values. This implies that the ore-forming fluids were principally derived from spatially associated Jurassic granitoids and related pegmatite. On the contrary, the Late Cretaceous ferroalloy, base-metal and precious-metal deposits in the Taebaeksan, Okcheon and Gyeongsang basins occurred as vein, replacement, breccia-pipe, porphyry-style and skarn deposits. Diverse mineralization styles represent a spatial and temporal distinction between the proximal environment of subvolcanic activity and the distal to transitional condition derived from volcanic environments. The Cu(-Au) or Fe-Mo-W deposits are proximal to a magmatic source, whereas the polymetallic or the precious-metal deposits are more distal to transitional. On the basis of the overall
values of various ore deposits in these areas, it can be briefed that the ore fluids show very extensive oxygen isotope exchange with country rocks, though the
values are relatively homogeneous and similarly restricted.
Geochemical Exploration for a Potential Estimation on the Carlin-type Gold Mineralization in Northern Mt. Taebaek Mining District, Korea
Sung, Kyu-Youl ; Park, Maeng-Eon ; Yun, Seong-Taek ; Moon, Young-Hwan ; Yoo, In-Kol ; Kim, Ryang-Hee ; Shin, Jong-Ki ; Kim, Eui-Jun ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 40, issue 5, 2007, Pages 537~549
The characteristics of the mineralization and geology in the northern Mt. Taebaek mining district are found to be similar with those reported from Nevada district where the Carlin-type gold deposit occurs characteristically as repeated metallic ore deposits in space and time. Though two spots of hs and several spots of Sb anomalies were recognized in the Yeongweol area, they have no relationship with any metalliferous mineralization. On the other hand, two spots of As anomaly in the Jeongseon area have shown to be related with metalliferous ore deposits (mainly Ag-Au), and they are closely associated with Sb anomaly. Some elements of altered limestones in the study such as Au, Ag, As, Sb, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Mo area are closely associated together, and are more enriched in the Jeongseon area than in the Yeongweol area. In particular, Sb and As which may reflect the occurrence of the Carlin-type gold deposit are highly enriched. However, the base metals such af Zn and Pb are highly variable according to samples. The patterns of the enrichment factor for Sb and As, as well as those for Ag and Au, are very similar with those reported from the Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada. These similarities in elemental distribution may imply that hydrothermal ore mineralization in the study areas was possibly originated from a fluid with the characteristics of the Carlin-type gold mineralization found in Nevada, China, and Indonesia. However, the pattern of base metals and Mo are different. This may result from different chemistry and/or mineralogy of host rock in the study areas.
Sampling and Analysis of Soil Pore Water for Predicting the Diffusion and Behavior of Soil Pollutant Using Soil Lysimeter
Ko, Il-Won ; Lee, Se-Yong ; Kim, Kyoung-Woong ; Lee, Jin-Soo ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 40, issue 5, 2007, Pages 551~561
This case study is about the sampling and interpretation of soil pore water in order to understand and to predict the diffusion and behavior of soil pollution. For the measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) in two representative hydrocarbon-contaminated sites, the extraction system of the soil pore water was set up with respect to soil depths and the behavior of contaminants was interpreted. The soil solution extraction system consisted of peristaltic pump, and extraction and sampling compartment, and can measure simultaneously the soil water pressure. The concentration of PAHs with respect to extraction pressure and time decreased due to dilution through soil pore water. Particularly, the concentration of PAHs was more reduced under the unsaturated oxic condition than saturated anoxic condition. Therefore, the soil solution extraction with respect to soil water pressure can interpret the extent of equilibrium between porewater and soil surface.
Application of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for In-situ Detection of Heavy Metals in Soil
Ko, Eun-Joung ; Hamm, Se-Yeong ; Kim, Kyoung-Woong ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 40, issue 5, 2007, Pages 563~574
Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a recently developed analytical technique that is based upon the measurement of emission lines generated by atomic species close to the surface of the sample, thus allowing their chemical detection, identification and quantification. With powerful advantages of LIBS compared to the conventional analytical methodology, this technique can be applied in the detection of heavy metals in the field. LIBS allows the rapid analysis by avoiding laborious chemical steps. LES have already been applied for the determination of element concentration in a wide range of materials in the solid, liquid and gaseous phase with simplicity of the instrument and diversity of the analytical application. These feasibility of rapid multi elemental analysis are appealing proprieties for the in-situ analytical technique in geochemical investigation, exploration and environmental analysis. There remain still some limitations to be solved for LIBS to be applied in soil environment as an in-situ analytical technology. We would like to provide the basic principle related to the plasma formation and laser-induced breakdown of sample materials. In addition, the matrix effect, laser properties and the various factors affecting on the analytical signal of LIBS was dealt with to enhance understanding of LIBS through literature review. Ultimately, it was investigated the feasibility of LIBS application in soil environment monitoring by considering the basic idea to enhance the data quality of LIBS including the calibration method for the various effects on the analytical signal of LIBS.
Study on Geochemical Behavior of Heavy Metals by Indigenous Bacteria in Contaminated Soil and Sediment
Song, Dae-Sung ; Lee, Jong-Un ; Ko, Il-Won ; Kim, Kyoung-Woong ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 40, issue 5, 2007, Pages 575~585
Microbial control of the geochemical behavior of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and As in contaminated subsurface soil and sediment was investigated through activation of indigenous bacteria with lactate under anaerobic condition for 25 days. The results indicated that dissolved Cd, Pb and Zn were microbially removed from solutions, which was likely due to the formation of metal sulfides after reduction of sulfate by indigenous sulfate-reducing bacteria. Soils from the Dukeum mine containing a large amount of sulfate resulted in complete removal of dissolved As after 25 days by microbial activities, while there were gradual increases in dissolved As concentration in soils from the Hwabuk mine and sediments from the Dongducheon industrial area which showed low
concentrations. Addition of appropriate carbon sources and sulfate to contaminated geological media may lead to activation of indigenous bacteria and thus in situ stabilization of the heavy metals; however, potential of As release into solution after the amendment should be preferentially investigated.
Vertical Distribution and Contamination of Trace Metals in Sediments Within Hoidong Reservoir
Lee, Pyeong-Koo ; Kang, Min-Ju ; Youm, Seung-Jun ; Lee, Wook-Jong ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 40, issue 5, 2007, Pages 587~604
In order to investigate the vertical variations and speciations of trace elements, and their correlations in Hoidong reservoir, sediment cores (21-41 cm below surface) and interstitial water samples were collected from five sampling locations. The total average concentrations of trace metals in sediment core samples were
for Ni and
for Cd. The total concentrations of trace metals in core sediments generally decreased toward the center of the Hoidong reservoir. The total concentrations of Mn, Pb and Zn decreased with depth for all the sample locations, while Cu and Fe concentrations increased. The trace metal concentrations of interstitial water sample were in the order of Fe>Mn>Cu>Zn, but Cd, Ni and Pb were not detected. The concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn in the interstitial water samples showed a tendency of increasing toward the bottom of the core, suggesting a possible upward diffusion. This migration of trace metals may lead to their transfer to the sediment-water interface. These trace elements would be subsequently fixed onto amorphous Fe and Mn-oxides and carbonates in the topmost layer of sediment. Based on the
values, the relative mobilities of the studied metals were in the order of Mn>Cu>Zn>Fe. Geochemical partitioning confirmed that surface enrichment by trace metals mainly resulted from a progressive increase of the concentrations in the fractions II and III. Copper, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations of interstitial water were closely correlated with their exchangeable fractions of sediments.
Origin of Organic Matter and Geochemical Variation of Upper Quaternary Sediments from the Ulleung Basin
Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Park, Myong-Ho ; Ryu, Byong-Jae ; Lee, Young-Joo ; Oh, Jae-Ho ; Cheong, Tae-Jin ; Chang, Ho-Wan ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 40, issue 5, 2007, Pages 605~622
Elemental, Rock-Eval pyrolysis and isotopic analysis of the core sediments from the northwestern and eastern Ulleung Basin of the East were carried out to identify their geochemical characteristics, spatial and vertical variation and origin of organic matter in Upper Quaternary sediments from the northwestern and eastern Ulleung Basin of the East Sea. TOC, m and TS did not show spatial variation between the sampling locations whereas they showed systematic vertical variation associated with MIS stages related to the sea-level change of the East Sea. It is suggested that these past changes of sea-level influenced the sedimentary depositional environments and/or diagenesis which resulted the patterns observed in this study. Based on the results of TOC/N, TS/TOC,
analysis, organic matters in the study area appears to be predominantly originated from the marine algae rather than land plant and deposited under normal marine oxic condition during MIS I and MIS III period, and under euxinic/anoxic condition during MIS II period. TOC/N,
have a relatively constant value irrespective of MIS stages, implying that the organic matter source does not change by the sea-level fluctuations. However, the results of Rock-Eval pyrolysis indicates that the organic matter is in immature stage and originated from land-plant (Type III), locating in the immature stage land plant (Type III). Similar differences were reported from other areas such as the Atlantic Ocean, Iberia Abyssal Plain, Mediterranean Sea, suggesting that Rock-Eval method does not exactly reflect the characteristic of immature organic matters. Accordingly, the application of Rock-Eval pyrolysis for delineating the source of immature organic matters should be approached with caution and all other geochemical proxies should be considered altogether at the same time.
Stable Isotope and Biomarker Characteristics of Organic Matter from the Drilling Core Sediments, Jeju Basin
Cheong, Tae-Jin ; Lee, Young-Joo ; Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Oh, Jae-Ho ; Park, Myong-Ho ; Song, Hoon-Young ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 40, issue 5, 2007, Pages 623~633
Stable isotope and biomarker analyses were carried out for the organic sediments from the exploratory wells in the Jeju Basin in order to understand the characteristics of organic matter. Organic matter in Geobuk-1, Okdom-1, JDZ VII-1 and VII-2 well is predominantly originated from land plants rather than marine algae according to carbon
isotopic compositions. In the Geobuk-1, geochemical characteristics such as carbon
, nitrogen (
and TOC contents are obviously changed by the depth 2,400 m, which is likely due to the change of origin of organic matter, sedimentary process or sedimentary environments. Analysis of the saturated fraction of the bitumen suggests the contribution of migrated oil to the indigenous bitumen from the samples 2,509, 2,833 and 3,163 m of the JDZ YII-1 and 3,253 m of the Geobuk-1 well. However, this characteristics can be derived from the contribution of the original organic matter. Based on the biomarker analysis, the samples from the Okdom-1 and Geobuk-1 appear to represent sedimentary organic matter of similar composition, that is rotatively immature, and which was probably deposited in the fluvio-deltaic setting with minor offshore marine influence. The samples from JDZ VII-1 appear to have been deposited in a more terrestrially dominated setting.
Hydrochemical and Isotopic Characteristics, and Origin of Noble Gas for Low-temperature Hot Spring Waters in the Honam Area
Jeong, Chan-Ho ; Hur, Hyun-Sung ; Nagao, Keisuke ; Kim, Kyu-Han ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 40, issue 5, 2007, Pages 635~649
Geochemical composition, stable isotopes
and noble gases(He, Ne and Ar) of nine hot spring water and three groundwater for five hot springs(Jukam, Hwasun, Dokog, Jirisan, Beunsan) from the Honam area were analyzed to investigate the hydrogeochemical characteristics and the hydrogeochemical evolution of the hot spring waters, and to interpret the source of sulfur, helium and argon dissolved in the hot spring waters. The hot spring waters show low water temperature ranging from 23.0 to
and alkaline characteristics of pH 7.67 to 9.98. Electrical conductivity of hot spring waters is
. Groundwaters in this area were characterized by the acidic to neutral pH range
, the wide electrical conductivity range
. The geochemical compositions of hot spring and groundwaters can be divided into three water types: (1)
water type, (2) Na-Cl water type and (3)
water type. The hot spring water of
water type in early stage have been evolved through
water type into
type in final stage. In particular, Jurim alkaline(pH 9.98) hot spring water plotted at the end point of
type in the Piper diagram is likely to arrive into the final stage in geochemical evolution process. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of the hot spring water samples indicate that the hot spring waters originated from the local meteoric water showing latitude and altitude effects. The
value for sulfate of the hot spring waters varies widely from 0.5 to
. The sulfur source of most hot spring waters in this area is igneous origin. However, The
also indicates the sulfur of JR1 hot water is originated from marine sulfur which might be derived ken ancient seawater sulfates. The
ratios of the hot spring waters range from
, respectively. The hot spring waters are plotted on the mixing line between air and crustal components. It means that the He gas in the hot spring waters was mainly originated from crustal sources. However, the JR1 hot spring water show a little mixing ratio of the helium gas of mantle source. The
ratios of hot spring water are in the range from
, implying the atmospheric argon source.
Acid Drainage and Damage Reduction Strategy in Construction Site: An Introduction
Kim, Jae-Gon ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 40, issue 5, 2007, Pages 651~660
Acid drainage has been recognized as an environmental concern in abandoned mine sites for long time. Recently, the environmental and structural damage by acid drainage is a current issue in construction sites in Korea. Here, the author introduces the type of damages by acid drainage in construction sites and emphasizes the importance of geoscience discipline in solving the problem. Metasedimentary rock of Okcheon group, coal bed of Pyeongan group, Mesozoic volcanic rock. and Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks are the major rock types with a high potential for acid drainage upon excavation in Korea. The acid drainage causes the acidification and heavy metal contamination of soil, surface water and groundwater, the reduction of slope stability, the corrosion of slope structure, the damage on plant growth, the damage on landscape and the deterioration of concrete and asphalt pavement. The countermeasure for acid drainage is the treatment of acid drainage and the prevention of acid drainage. The treatment of acid drainage can be classified into active and passive treatments depending on the degree of natural process in the treatment. Removal of oxidants, reduction of oxidant generation and encapsulation of sulfide are employed for the prevention of acid drainage generation.
Deterioration Diagnosis and Conservation Treatment of the Three-storied Stone Pagoda in the Cheongryongsa Temple, Anseong, Korea
Lee, Sun-Myung ; Lee, Myeong-Seong ; Jo, Young-Hoon ; Lee, Chan-Hee ; Jeon, Seong-Won ; Kim, Ju-Ok ; Kim, Sun-Duk ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 40, issue 5, 2007, Pages 661~673
Rock materials of the three-storied stone pagoda in the Cheongryongsa temple in Korea are mainly composed of gneissose two-mica granite and fine-grained granite. This stone pagoda shows structural instability due to cracks and breaking-out of the stones. The surface properties of the stone is highly degraded by various inorganic pollutants and epilithic biospecies. Therefore, this study carried out comprehensive deterioration diagnosis by non-destructive methods, and some conservation treatments base on the diagnosis were carried out to reduce weathering progress. As the treatments, the biospecies and lichen that covering on the stone surfaces were removed by dry and wet cleaning, and degraded concrete applied to the pagoda for restoration in the past was removed and repaired with epoxy resin. Oxidized iron plates inserted between the rock properties were also substituted titanium stainless steels. After all processes are completed, we sprayed consolidant on the rock surface. Finally, the ground of the stone pagoda was rearranged using small rock aggregates, and the fence was established for control of artificial deterioration by visitors and environmental maintenance.
Geochemical Studies of the Trace Element of the Basalt in the Kilauea, Hawaii
Park, Byeong-Jun ; Jang, Yun-Deuk ; Kwon, Suk-Bom ; Kim, Jeong-Jin ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 40, issue 5, 2007, Pages 675~689
Kilauea volcano's summit area was formed by continuous ind/or sporadic eruption activities for several hundreds years. In this study, we mainly focused on the trace elements characteristics through systematic sample rocks erupted from 1790 to September of 1982. Under the microscope it can be observed some main minerals such as olivine, clinopyroxene. and plagioclase with minor opaque minerals including Cr-spinel and ilmenite. Zr, V, Y, Ti elements show incompatible activities with MgO while Ni, Cr, Co elements show highly compatible properties. Elements like as Ba, Rb, Th, Sr, Nd are highly incompatible to show positive trends with
. In the REE diagram LREE is more enriched than HREE suggesting typical Oceanic Island Basalt(OIB) type. It can be suggested that Sr have an effect on the fractionation of plagioclase from the kink in the
variation diagram. Y/Ho ratio diagram shows there was no fluids effect in the historical Kilauea volcano but Zr/Hf ratio diagram shows a significant difference between Kilauea lavas and PuuOo lavas. There are distinctive changes of trace element contents showing in particular abrupt changes of temporal variations between 1924 and 1954. Moreover, PuuOo lavas which had been erupted since 1983 follow these decreasing trends of trace element variation. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that these abrupt changes of trace elements trends result from the huge collapse geological event which formed Halemaumau crater in 1924 causing contamination effects of crustal contents into magma chamber and from the changes of parental magma composition injected into Kilauea volcano's summit magma reservoir.
Historical Reviews and Trends on Geochemical Exploration in South Korea
Jin, Myung-Shik ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 40, issue 5, 2007, Pages 691~698
First GC-IRMS in Korea and Its Application Fields
Shin, Woo-Jin ; Lee, Kwang-Sik ; Ko, Kyung-Seok ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 40, issue 5, 2007, Pages 699~703
Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) by isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) interfaced with gas chromatography (GC) is a state of the art analytical technique for stable isotopes in earth sciences, environmental sciences and forensics. Since early 1990s, GC-IRMS has been widely used to investigate the authenticity of food in forensic science and to trace the sources of organic contaminants in environmental science. In Korea, a GC-IRMS was firstly installed at the Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) in early 2005. In this study, we introduce the GC-IRMS of the KBSI shortly to stimulate various isotope-related researches of Korea, and report preliminary CSIA results for BTEX of different manufacturers.
Forensic Geology : New Pioneer in Geological Area
Lee, Ok-Sun ; Kim, Seong-Yong ;
Economic and Environmental Geology, volume 40, issue 5, 2007, Pages 705~711
We should treat carefully the one related to human rights among a large number of decision-making in our daily lives. As it is necessary to obtain physical evidences in the process of criminal investigation for solving a certain crime based on the principle of evidence, it leads to an increase in demand for forensic science and forensic geology. Forensic geology could be regarded as a fusion discipline of geology and forensic investigation and it is principally concerned to the study on the connection of a suspect and a crime scene with soil evidence which could be experimented using geological data and methods. So these results could be used as valuable information in a court. After its academic foundation has been builded since the last 1970s, its research objects have been expanded from soil evidence like rocks, minerals, soils, sediments to sociocultural, political, military and medical objects like ancient relics, mines, corpses. Its role is expanded from the simple finding of a particular location to the examination of archaeological theories and historical facts, the testimony of the cause of environmental pollution and the chronic demonstration of geological distribution of plants and anthropological origination. And these bring this discipline promptly to accept developed geological methodologies and to satisfy various forensic geological needs. Specialized forensic investigation institutes work actively for the R&D activities of forensic geology. In Korea, national institute of scientific investigation works a small part of forensic geological activities in total activities of forensic investigation. In conclusion, we concern to the importance of systematic discussion of building in proper position of forensic geology through its R&D methods, application cases of its performance and etc. based on geological characteristics in our country by a specialized geoscience institute.